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UNITED STATES COMMISSION OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 



P^RT VII. 



REPORT 



OF 



THE COMMISSIONER 



FOR 



18 7 9 



A.— INQUIRY INTO THE DECREASE OF FOOD-FISHES. 

B.— THE PROPAGATION OF FOOD-FISHES IN THE 

WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Clemson Colics* Ktr 
Government PubUcai I 

WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1882. 



LETTER 

FROM THE 

COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES, 

TRANSMITTING 

Sis report for the year 1879. 

March 15, 1880. — Ordered to lie on the table and be printed. 



United States Commission, Fish and Fisheries, 

Washington, February 24, 1880. 

Gentlemen : In compliance with the order of Congress I have the 

honor to transmit herewith my report for the year 1879, as United 

States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, embracing, first, the result 

of inquiries into the condition of the fisheries of the sea-coast and 

lakes of the United States ; and, second, the history of the measures 

taken for the introduction of useful food-fishes into its waters. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

SPENCER F. BAIED, 

Commissioner. 
Hon. Wm. A. Wheeler, 

President of the United States Senate, and 

Hon. S. J. Randall, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

(iii) 



CONTENTS. 



L— BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER. 

A.— GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

Page. 

1. Introductory remarks xi 

Scope of present report xi 

Enlargement of scale of work in 1879 xi 

Increase in amount of appropriations : xi 

Personnel of service kept clown xi 

Noteworthy features of the year's work xi 

Distribution of carp commenced xi 

Special fish-hatching steamer begun xi 

Visit of President and Cabinet to the Havre de Grace station xi 

Death and biographical notice of J. W. Milner, first assistant xi 

Division of subjects within the scope of the commission xii 

Condition and improvement of the fisheries xii 

Multiplication of fish by artificial propagation or otherwise xii 

Assistance in carrying on the work xii 

Appointment of T. B. Ferguson xii 

Superintendence of stations xii, xiii 

2. SrEciAL objects of the United States Fish Commission xiii 

Reference for details to report for 1878 xiii 

3. Assistance rendered to the Commission xiii 

By the government in general xiii 

General requirement xiii 

By the Secretary of the Xavy xiii 

Detail of steamer Speedwell :... xiii 

Supply of steam launches xiii 

Repairs of vessels and furnishing supplies xiii 

By the«Secretary of the Treasury xiii 

Towing of vessels by revenue cutters xiii 

By the Light-House Board „ xiii 

Temperature observations xiii 

By the United States Coast Survey xiii 

Issue of charts and loan of deep-sea thermometers xiii 

By the Secretary of War xiii 

Dredging of bar, Spesutie Island xiii 

By the Engineer Bureau xiv 

Loan by General "Warren of schooner Surveyor xiv 

By the Chief Signal Office xiv 

Loan of telephone apparatus for station at Havre de Grace xiv 

Continuance of record of water temperatures xiv 

Ey the Commander of the Department of the West xiv 

Detail of military guard at McCloud River station xiv 

Statement by Mr. Stone of its importance xiv 

By the railroads xiv 

Circular instructions to conductors and agents xiv 

Loan of cars xiv 

By steamship companies xiv 

By telegraph companies xiv 

4. Services rendered by the Commission x.v 

Distribution offish and eggs in general preliminary xv 

Distribution to other countries xv 

Acknowledgment of F rench authorities xv 

Application for aid by Permanent Exhibition Company of Philadelphia xv 

V 



VI CONTENTS. 

B.— INQUIRY INTO THE HISTORY AND STATISTICS OF FOOD-FISHES. 

Page. 

5. Field operations during the season of 1879 xv 

Co-operation of the Navy Department in previous years xv 

Co-operation in 1879 xv 

Detail of Speedwell xv 

Officers assigned xv 

Provincetowu, the station xv 

Headquarters xvi 

Associates and assistants xvi 

Work of Prof.. H. E.Webster xvi 

Pange of Speedwell's labors xvi 

Visitors during the season xvii 

Specimens collected xvii 

Work of fishery census xvii 

Close of work for season xvii 

Transfer of Captain Tanner xvii 

Establishment of signal station at Provincetown xvii 

Important discoveries of new food-fishes xviii 

Pole-flounder in 1877-78 xviii 

Tile-fish in 1879 xviii 

6. The steamer Fish-Hawk xviii 

Importance of improving floating fish-hatching station . xviii 

Contract for the vessel xix 

Keference to report of 1880 for details .'. xix 

7. Abstract of researches conducted under direction of the Commission xix 

Professor Atwater on chemical and physiological properties of fish xix 

Dr. Kidder on temperature of fishes xix 

Professor Gam gee on cooling apparatus xix 

Collection of casts of fishes and cetaceans xx 

8. Statistics of the fisheries (exclusive of the census) xx 

Permanent station at Gloucester - xx 

Established at Fort Point wharf xxi 

Kind of work accomplished xxi 

Persons employed xxi 

Belief map of fishing-grounds xxi 

Prepared under direction of Coast-Survey xxi 

Work of Captain Linnell xxi 

9. Legislation in regard to the fisheries » xxii 

Actual jurisdiction over the seacoast waters xxii 

Legislation of Maine in regard to Menhaden xxii 

Concurrent disappearance of the fish xxii 

C— CO-OPERATION WITH THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE CENSUS. 

10. Preliminary arrangements xxiii 

General superintendence and commencement xxiii 

11. Plan of investigation xxiii 

1. Natural history of marine products xxiii 

2. The fishing-grounds xxiii 

3. The fisheries and fishing-towns xxiv 

4. Apparatus and methods of capture xxiv 

5. Products of tho fisheries xxiv 

0. Preparation, care, and manufacture of fishery-products xxiv 

7. Economy of the fisheries xxiv 

8. Protection and culture xxiv 

12. Details of progress xxv 

Assignment for field-work xxv 

Time already occupied by each division , xxvi 

Office routine ' xxvi 

Special researches xxvi 

Mr. Earll and Captain Collins in Maine xxvi 

Parties in Massachusetts xxvi 

Mr. Stearns in the Gulf of Mexico xxvi 



CONTIN VII 

12. Details of progress— Coni toned. 

adder on tho halibut Bab ii. s xxwi 

Mr. Osburn on the (J rand lt.ink li>lu iv xxv.i 

Mr. Uurdy, lift on Ghmoeatet maek. n 

IX— THE PBOPAGAT10M OF FOOD-FIS1 

IHDEDOI Lfffl 

Thr Quiniiut, or California Mnlmon - 

ad Hirer station 

• rnetioa of barrier 

■y of female Bah at finfl 

Influence of oan nerk o an the supply . ..ix\ ::i 

Improved d I tin- Indian* 

I xxviii 

To i i 

To foreign ooontriee 



LUlgeUlOIlt «•' .11 

uitrics xxix 

!<><;, nnuny 

!1m11:hi.I xi. x 

•>tlemanne 

Supplementary hatohlnf of eg^ for California 

Th< Itniiibo>v, or California 'I.iiiiiimiii Ikiim m 

XXX 

Reason- i'.»: d xxx 

N.itur- "i < onatruction ... m 

[te culture in Japan ; aiatory and reaolta xui 

I In- liliintie Nji I in on > IMM talar) \x\i 

tottoa 

-ipt ion of work after an intermission 

;. of li.it. hin- worka .. xxxi 

OB Of .salmon to name .station xxxli 

On Lake (hit alio xxxii 

< >:i !'■ Xxxii 

iiniiiiia Btrec ... xxxii 

Thr M( hoodir Nnlinon (fl ' ilmo talar, tar. ttbago) xxxii 

Graa an station 

Enlargement of Bwflltlao in 1879 xxx;i 

xxxiii 

•ution xxxiii 

lementary stations for hatching v xxx.ii 

In tho Southern Mates . .xxx:ii 

Thr Shad (Alosa tapxdutima) 

yield xxxiii 

The Albemarle Sound station xxx.ii 

of opt-rat ions xxxiii 

I >ispatch of Lookout xxxiii 

Her equipment . ." xxx i v 

Work on wharf at Avoca xxxiv 

Production of eggs and fish xxxiv 

1 'istribution xxxiv 

The Havre de Grace station xxxv 

Improved machinery xxxv 

Commencement of active work xxxv 

Four substations established xxxv 

Beantta of the season xxxv 

The Potomac River station xxxv 

The Carp (Cyprinus earpio) xxxv 

The Monument Lot station xxxvi 

Improvement of ponds xxxvi 

Telephone connection xxxvi 

Subdivision of largest pond xxxvi 

Use of ponds for skating « xxxvi 



VIII CONTENTS. 

13. Work accomplished in 1379— Continued. 

The Carp— Continued. Paga. 

Production offish xxxvi 

The Arsenal station xxxvii 

The Druid Hill Park station .• xxxvii 

Distribution xxxvii 

Acquisition of a fresh supply from Europe xxxvii 

The Cod-fish (Gadus morrhua) xxxvii 

The Gloucester station xxxvii 

Experiments in transporting young cod xxxvii 

Examination of Wood's Holl as a prospective station xxxviii 

The Striped Bass (Roccus Uneatus) xxxviii 

The experiment at Acova xxxviii 

Disposition of the young xxxviii 

Transfer of living fish xxxviii 

To California, by L. Stone, at request of State commissioner. xxxviii 

Kinds of fish taken ; disposition made of them xxxviii 

Carp, from Europe xxxiii 

Tables of the distribution of fish xxxiii 

Shad xxxix 

California salmon xxxix 

Penobscot salmon xxxix 

Schoodic salmon xxxix 

Carp, too few to tabulate xxxix 

I. Chronological .record of shad distribution* xl-xl v 

It. Geographical record of shad distribution xlvi-li 



II.— APPENDIX TO BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER. 

APPENDIX A.— NATURAL HISTORY. 

I, W. O. Farlow. The marine Algm of New England. By Prof . W. G. Farlow 1 

II. A. E. Verrill. Report on the Cephalopods of the northeastern coast of America. 

By A. E. Verrill 211 

I. The gigantic squids (Architeuthis) and their allies, with observations on similar large 

species from foreign localities 211 

II. Monographic revision of the Cephalopods of the Atlantic coast, from Cape Hattera3 

to Newfoundland 233 

HT. Otto Hermes. The propagation of the eel. By Dr. Otto Hermes 457 

IV. JL. Jacoby, The eel question. By Dr. Jacoby 463 

I. History of the eel question. — Antiquity (Aristotle). — Mediaeval and modern fables re- 
garding the eel. — History of the discovery of the female eel. — Description of its 

ovaria 463 

EC. History of the eel question (continued). — Discovery of the male eel. — Description of 
the male organs. — Outward distinctions between male and female eels. — The eel 

question in Germany in 1877 46Q» 

III. The eel question (concluded). — Journey of the author to Comacchio and results of his 
investigations. — Comparative statement of all the doubtful questions and different 
opinions regarding them 476 

V. K.. Fflobius . The food of marine animals. By Prof. K. Mobius 433 



APPENDIX B.— THE SEA FISHERIES 

VI. W. Finn. The Iceland herring fisheries. By W, Finn 493 

VII. Axel Ljungmaii. Contribution toward solving the question of the secular 
periodicity of the great herring fisheries. By Axel Ljungman 497 

VIII. Axel r/junsiuan. Contributions toward a more correct knowledge of the 
herring's mode of life. By Axel Ljungman 505 

IX. A. CJ. ICruuse. The fisheries on the west coast of South America. By A. G. 
Kruuse 515 



CONTENTS. IX 

APPENDIX C— DEEP-SEA RESEARCH. 

Page. 
X. Popular extracts from the investigations of the Commission for the scientific ex- 
amination of the German seas 523 

A. The physical condition of the Baltic and the North Sea. G. Karster 525 

B. Scientific investigations npon the fishes profitable to the fisheries. K. Mobius 534 

C. The spawning process of salt- water fish and its importance to fishermen. V. Hensen. 548 
XL Sanderson Smith and Richard Rathbun. Lists of the dredging stations of 

the United States Fish Commission from 1871 to 1879, inclusive, with temperature 
and other observations. Arranged for publication by Sanderson Smith and Richard 

Rathbun 559 

XII. Z. Ii. Tanner. Report of operations of the United States Steamer Speedwell 
in 1S79, while in the service of the United States Fish Commission. By Lieut. Z. L. 
Tanner, U. S. N"., commanding 603 



APPENDIX D.— PROPAGATION OF FOOD FISHES.— GENERAL CONSIDER A. 

TIONS. 

Xni. C. Tolke. The pollution of public waters by refuse from factories. By C. 

TSlke 619 

XIV. Is saw-dust injurious to the fisheries? (From report of A. Landmark) 625 

XV. G. F. fteisenbiehler. The thick or thin fertilization of eggs. By G. F. Reisen- 
bichler 633 

XVI. Livingston Stone. Report on overland trip to California with living fishes, 

1379 637 

XVII. Sckizawa Akckio. Memorandum on fish-culture in Japan, with a notice of 
experiments in breeding the California trout. By Sekizawa Akekio 645 

XVIH. Von dem Borne. On pond-fisheries. By Von deni Borne 649 

XIX. E in il von ITIarenzcller. The piscicultural establishment of Mr. August 
Fruwirth in Freiland, near St. Polten, Lower Austria. By Dr. Emil von Maren- 
zeller 651 



APPENDIX E.— PROPAGATION OF FOOD FISHES.— SPECIAL APPLICATIONS. 

XX. Ii. W. IUason. Report of operations on the Kavesink River, Xew Jersey, in 

1879, IN COLLECTING LIVING STRIPED BASS FOR TRANSPORTATION TO CALIFORNIA. By H. W. 

Mason 663 

XXI. O. Einsch. Report on the transportation of a collection of living carp from 
Germany. By Dr. 0. Finsch 667 

XXII. Eckardt-JLicbbinchcn. Report on the propagation and growth of carp. By 

Mr. Eckardt-Liibbinchen 671 

XXIII. Haack. Raising salmonoids in inclosed waters. By Director Haack 675 

XXIV. Haack. Treatment of young salmonoids and coregoni from the time they 
leave the egg till they are fully developed and can be placed in open waters. 

By Director Haack 687 

XXV. Livingston Stone. Report of operations at the United States salmon-breed- 
ing STATION ON THE McCLOUD RlVER, CALIFORNIA, DURING THE SEASON OF 1879 695 

XXVI. C. JF. Botteniannc. California salmon in the Netherlands. By C. J. Botte- 
manne 709 

XXVII. Ei vingston Stone. Report of operations at the United States trout ponds, 
McCloud River, California, during the season of 1879. By Livingston Stone 715 

XXVIII. Charles ii, Atkins. Report on the propagation of Penobscot salmon in 
1879-80. By Charles G. Atkins 721 

XXIX. Charles G. Atkins. Report on the propagation of Schoodic salmon in 1879-SO. 

By Charles G. Atkins 733 

XXX. If . JRnbclius. Crawfish culture in Europe.. ByH. Rubelius 767 

XXXI. Emil von ITIarenzeller. The raising of SPONGES FROM CUTTINGS. By Dr. Emil 

von Marenzeller 771 



X CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX F.— MISCELLANEOUS. 

Page. 

XXXII. C. W. Smiley. Descriptive list of the publication's of the United States 
Fish Commission, from its organization in 1871 to December 33, 1879 781 

XXXIII. List of collections made by the fishing- vessels of Gloucester and other Xew 
England seaports for the United States Fish Commission from 1877 to 1880 7£7 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER. 



A.— GENERAL CONSIDEBATIONS. 

1.— INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

The present report is intended to furnish an account, in compliance 
with law, of the operations of the United States Fish Commission dur- 
ing the year 1879, and for some of the branches of the work during the 
early portion of 1880. This continuation applies especially to the prop- 
agation of the eastern salmon, the land-locked salmon, the whitefish, and 
the cod. 

The continued increase in the extent of the field of labor, referred to 
in previous reports, manifested itself also in 1879, as new subjects of 
inquiry presented themselves and increased the demands for service in 
the propagation and distribution of food-fishes. The appreciation of 
the work by Congress is shown by the increase in the amount of the 
appropriations, all of which, it is hoped, have been expended with due 
economy and consideration. 

The machinery of the Commission, and especially its personnel, con- 
tinues to be very limited, so that as much of the appropriation as prac- 
ticable is used for the direct objects of the Commission. 

The most noted features in the history of the Commission for the year 
are : First, the commencement of the distribution of young carp to 
various points in the United States ; and, secondly, the authorization 
by Congress of the construction of a special steam-vessel to serve as a 
floating station for the hatching of shad and other useful food-fishes. 
More particular allusion to this will be made under the appropriate 
heading. 

A pleasant experience of the year was the visit of The President and 
Cabinet to the Havre de Grace shad-hatching station on the 7th of 
June. 

It is with very great regret that I chronicle the death, on the 6th of 
January, 1880, of Mr. James W. Milner, who has been connected with 
the Fish Commission as its principal assistant almost since its first in- 
ception in 1871. In that year he was detailed to make an investigation 
of the fisheries of the lake region, the results of which were published 
in the annual reports of the Commission. From that time he had par- 
ticular charge of the field work connected with the propagation of the 
shad, and their transfer, and that of other species, to various parts of 

(xi) 



XII REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

the United States. An earnest, patient, and able investigator, he very 
soon made himself familiar with the history of fish culture in general 
and the application of the various forms of fish-hatching apparatus to 
the needs of the Commission. Some very important modifications of 
machinery were due to his ingenuity, and, had he lived, it is safe 
to assume that he would have made a very distinguished record in his 
favorite science. 

Mr. Milner's illness, in his own opinion, was first caused by exposure 
while superintending the work of hatching shad at Avoca, N. C, in the 
spring of 1878, and afterwards on the Susquehanna. He returned to 
Washington, where he remained several months during the summer, 
and then went back for a time to his residence in Waukegan, 111. 

After it had been determined to commence the work of hatching cod- 
fish at Gloucester in the winter of 1878-1879, Mr. Milner came to that 
station just prior to the breaking up of the summer party, and super- 
intended the beginning of the work. Continuing to grow worse, he was 
ordered by his physician to Washington; and after remaining there for 
a few months he went to Florida where he staid during the winter and 
the early spring. Here he was able to spend a good deal of time in the 
open air, and to make a number of collections for the National Museum. 
Returning to Waukegan somewhat too soon, he took fresh cold, and, 
after a time, was directed to spend the summer in the high mountain 
region of Colorado. Not much benefit resulted from this experiment, 
and in the autumn of 1879 he again returned to Waukegan, and lingered 
there for several months until his death on the date mentioned. 

As explained in previous reports, the work of the Commission falls 
naturally under two distinct heads: First, the investigation into the 
condition of the fisheries of the United States; their statistics: manner 
of prosecution : and how the service can be improved further, in the 
methods of capture, preparation, and preservation, or the increase in 
abundance. Secondly, the actual increase of the supply by artificial 
propagation and transfer to new localities or their multiplication in 
those in which an original abundance had become greatly reduced. 

The first division of the work, as heretofore, has been, for the most 
part, conducted by Mr. G. Brown Goode, assisted by Dr. T. H. Bean. 

The collection and determination of the marine invertebrates has 
been in charge of Prof. A. E. Verrill, with assistants to be mentioned 
hereafter. 

In the illness and necessary absence of Mr. Milner I was very fortu- 
nate in being able to secure the co-operation of Mr. T. B. Ferguson, the 
Maryland commissioner of fisheries, of whose services, both to the cause 
of fish culture in general and the United States Fish Commission in 
particular, I have repeatedly made mention. 

Of the several permanent stations of the Commission, the carp ponds 
have been as before under the charge of Mr. B. Hessel; the California 
salmon hatchery, under that of Mr. Livingston Stone; and those of the 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XIII 

Penobscot salmon, and the land-locked salmon, under that of Mr. Charles 
G. Atkins. 

Fuller details will be furnished hereafter in regard to the various 
branches of operation. 

2. — SPECIAL OBJECTS OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 

In the report for 1878 I have given in considerable detail, not neces- 
sary to be repeated here, a sketch of the objects of the Commission, 
Of course as the old problems are solved new points of inquiry arise to 
take their places, and in the wide range of subjects covered by the 
field of the Commission a vast deal remains to be done before its objects 
can be considered as properly accomplished. 

Before proceeding to give special details connected with the different 
operations of the Commission, it gives me pleasure to acknowledge the 
services that have been rendered both by the Government and by pri- 
vate parties. The law in the statute book requiring the executive de- 
partments of the government to render the Commission all necessary 
and practical aid has, as heretofore, been faithfully carried out by them, 
as follows : 

3. — ASSISTANCE RENDERED TO THE COMMISSION. 

As in previous years, the work of the United States Fish Commission 
has been very greatly facilitated by the co- operation of various bodies, 
public and private. 

The Navy Department — The most important aid was rendered by the 
Secretary of the Navy, in the detail of the United States steamer Speed- 
well, under Lieutenant Tanner, with a full crew, for a three months 7 
service, as referred to under the head of deep-sea research. Also, by 
the loan of a steam launch for service on the Susquehanna River. 

Treasury Department. — The Bureau of Revenue Marine, of the Treas- 
ury Department, instructed Captain Fengar, of the cutter Ewing, sta- 
tioned at Baltimore, to transport three scows of the Commission from 
Havre de Grace to Crisfield, Md., and from Crisfield to Baltimore. 

The Light-House Board has continued its co-operation in requiring 
the keepers of light-houses and light-ships to make and render monthly 
a record of the temperature of the water. 

The United States Coast Survey, under Captain Patterson, supplied 
a large number of charts for the use of the Commission; and also lent 
a number of Casella-Miller thermometers, while awaiting a supply from 
London. 

The War Department. — The Secretary of War authorized the expendi- 
ture by the Engineer Bureau of an available portion of the river and 
harbor appropriation for dredging a channel through the bar at Spesutie 
Island, below Havre de Grace, to allow the passage of launches at low 
water to the fish-hatching barges near the island. 



XIV REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

General Warren, of the Engineer Bureau, allowed the use of the 
schooner belonging to his office, during a period of several months in 
the summer, when not required by him, the Commission, of course, pay- 
ing the running expenses. 

The Signal Office lent the wire and cable together with the instruments 
necessary to effect telegraphic communication between Havre de Grace 
and the barges of the Commission at the Head of Chesapeake Bay. Gen- 
eral Meyer also directed his observers to take special note of water tem- 
peratures at all the stations along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, sup- 
plying thermometers to the observers already referred to, on the light- 
ships and at the light-houses. The blank was furnished by the Com- 
mission. 

A detail of a military guard at the salmon-hatching station on the 
McCloud Eiver by General McDowell was of great importance in pro- 
tecting the property of the government against a crowd of lawless Indians 
and whites. An illustration of the value of this service is shown in the 
accompanying letter from Mr. Stone, in charge of the station.* 

The Railroads. — All the railroads of the country to which application 
was made for the favor furnished circulars to agents and baggage-mas- 
ters, instructing them to facilitate in every possible way the operations 
of the Commission, especially by acceptiug government orders for trans- 
portation and authorizing the carrying in baggage cars, without any 
charge, the cans containing young fish. 

A list of the routes referred to will be found in the appendix. 

The Pennsylvania Bailroad Company in addition furnished a car, free 
of charge, for the transportation of all the eggs of California salmon 
from Chicago to Washington. The Philadelphia, Wilmington and Balti- 
more Railroad also rendered a similar favor in connection with the move- 
ment of young shad to various parts of the country. 

Ocean Steamers. — The offer of free transportation of messengers and 
fish was made by the North German Lloyds, between Bremen and New 
York, and by the Boyal Mail Steamship Company, between New York 
and Boston and Liverpool. 

Telegraph Companies. — The Western Union Telegraph Company 
granted permission to stretch a telephone wire on its poles between 
Havre de Grace and Aberdeen, beyond which to the hatching station 
barges it was sustained by the flying poles of the Signal Office. 

I 'Extract from a letter written by Mr. Livingston Stone, September 23, 1879, United States Fishery, 
Baird, Shasta County, California.] 

The value of our military guard was well illustrated this week, as follows : Some ill-fa- 
xared fellows had been hanging around here for some time, and one day they appeared 
''vith a horse and wagon. I felt sure that they meant to steal our salmon, and, indeed, 
the next morning, just at day-break, the soldiers caught them in the very act of taking 
the spawning-salmon out of the corral. They undoubtedly meant to take a wagon 
load. They met with pretty rough treatment from the soldiers, as they deserved, and 
the circumstance is worth a great deal to the fishery, from the effect that it will have 
in the community around us, upon both Indians and white men. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XV 

4.— SERVICES RENDERED BY THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 

The extent and character of the distribution of eggs and young fish 
by the Fish Commission during the year will be found detailed in spe- 
cial reports on that subject and in the accompanying tables. 

It may be well to call attention to what has been done in supplying 
eggs and fish to other countries. This has been done partly as an ex- 
periment, partly as a return for favors the transportation received, and 
partly for the purpose of keeping up an international comity, such as 
should prevail between various governments. A handsome acknowl- 
edgement was made on the part of the French authorities, in the form 
of a gold medal issued to the Fish Commission for its services in intro- 
ducing the California salmon into France. In reply to an application 
to that effect a full series of the reports of the Commission was presented 
and a large amount of special information furnished. 

At the close of the International Exhibition of 1876 an organization, 
entitled ''The Permanent Exhibition Company," took charge of the 
main building and secured a large portion of the contents for the pur- 
pose of maintaining, with new additions, an interesting exhibition of 
the resources and industries of the world in general. Their plan in- 
cluded illustrations of processes of various kinds, and among them 
those relating to fish culture. Application was made to the Fish Com- 
mission for its assistance in this connection. As, however, the imme- 
diate work of the Commission required all its material and machinery, 
it was thought inexpedient to incur any extra expense in having addi- 
tional apparatus prepared for this purpose. The invitation was, there- 
fore, respectfully declined. 

B.— INQUIRY INTO THE HISTORY AND STATISTICS OF FOOD 

FISHES. 

5.— FIELD OPERATIONS DURING THE SUMMER OF 1879. 

Reference has been made in previous reports, as well as in the com- 
mencement of the present one to the services rendered by the Navy 
Department to the Fish Commission in the prosecution of its inquiries 
into the condition of the fisheries of the Eastern coast of the United 
States, the detailing, first, of the small launch in 1871 ; then of the " Blue 
Light" in 1873, 1874, and 1875, and of the " Speedwell" in 1877 and 1878, 
having been duly acknowledged. The work of the year 1879 has shown 
a similar dependence upon the co-operation of that department in the 
renewal of the detail of the Speedwell. Commander L. A. Beardslee 
having been assigned to other duty, Lieut. Z. L. Tanner, an experienced 
officer of the Navy, was placed by the secretary in command, with Mate 
James A. Smith, as executive officer, William B. Boggs, as engineer, 
John Corwine, as paymaster, and Dr. J. H. Kidder, as surgeon. Dr. 
Kidder acted in a similar capacity to the Commission in 1875. 

Provincetown having been selected as being the center of a region 



XVI REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

hitherto unexplored by the Commission, and as furnishing much oppor 
tunity for investigation the beginning of July was fixed upon for the 
commencement of the work of the summer. 

With my usual corps of assistants, I left Washington on the 10th day 
of July, and arrived at Provincetown on the lGth, establishing head- 
quarters at the hotel of Mr. James G-ifford. The berth of the steamer, 
and the laboratory were at the end of the wharf of Messrs. Bowley & 
Bros., where all necessary conveniences were readily secured. The 
Speedwell made her first trip to Gloucester to bring over portions of the 
Fish Commission equipments, which were stored at that place. 

As in the previous years of the Fish Commission work, Prof. A. E. 
Verrill was in charge of the department of marine invertebrates, assisted 
by Mr. Eichard Eathbun and Mr. S. Smith. Mr. G. B. Goode, assisted 
by Mr. F. W. True and Mr. F. Gardener, jr., supervised the collecting 
of the fishes, and Capt. H. C. Chester was in charge of the actual work 
of the dredge and the trawl. 

The improvised laboratory at the end of Bowley's wharf famished a 
somewhat cramped opportunity for investigation. Much information 
was gained by the careful study of the various forms of animal life 
which were brought in by the steamer. 

Prof. Henry E. Webster, of Union College, Schenectady, N". Y., who 
spent the summer in Provincetown witli his assistant, Mr. N. W. Bene- 
dict, rendered very great service in accompanying and superintending 
the dredging parties during the temporary absence of Professor Verrii], 
his own special research being directed toward the Annelida, or worms. 

The Speedwell was ready for sea and placed in commission at the navy- 
yard, Washington, about noon of July 1. When she had taken on 
board all necessary stores and supplies she left Washington July 9th, 
arriving at Provincetown July 12, and making the trip in a little over 
three days. On the 16th of July she proceeded to Gloucester for the 
purpose of obtaining articles of apparatus which had been left in store 
at that place, returning to Provincetown on July 20. 

The first exploring trip was made on July 21, after which date work 
continued whenever the weather and the operations of the Commission 
would permit. The regular routine embraced a sounding and tempera- 
ture observation both at the surface and at the bottom before lowering 
either the dredge or the trawl. The vessel experienced no casualties 
during her term of service beyond the unexpected parting of anew, 
three and a quarter Italian hemp rope. This accident was followed on 
September 20, by the breaking of a second spare line, bringing the work 
of the season to a close. 

All the most important points within 20 miles of Provincetown were 
thoroughly explored with the exception of the coast-line between 
Chatham and the Cape, which had been left for the last trip, and, for 
reasons already given, was necessarily omitted. This region will, how- 
ever, be the subject of subsequent examination. After one or two trips 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XVII 

had been made for the special purpose of determining certain points 
relative to ocean temperatures, the Speedwell left for Gloucester on Oc- 
tober 1st, there stowing the apparatus and returning to Province town. 
On October 6th the vessel took on board the stores and supplies to be 
carried back to Washington, as also the collections of natural history, a 
portion of which were to be left at New Haven, under Professor Verriirs 
care, the rest being destined for the National Museum. October 12th the 
Speedwell reached the navy -yard, Washington, and closed finally its 
relationships with the Fish Commission. 

The full details of the work of the Speedwell will be found in an ac- 
companying report by Lieutenant Tanner. From this report it will be 
seen that the vessel was in commission 116 days; was detained in port, 
on account of bad weather, for 28 days, and was actually engaged in 
dredging and trawling 24 days. The total number of hauls made with 
dredge and trawl was 148, averaging 6 per day. One hundred and eighty 
soundings were also made. The total distance traveled during the sum- 
mer trip by the steamer was 3,122 miles. 

As usual the commission had a large number of visitors during the 
summer interested in the general operations, or in some special branch 
of its work. Among these may be mentioned Prof. Asa Gray, of Cam- 
bridge, Dr. Thomas Brewer, of Boston, Mr. Isaac Hinckley, of Philadel- 
phia, Mr. John Foord, editor of the New York Times, Mr. Charles Aldrich, 
of Iowa, Mr. May, Fish Commissioner for Nebraska, and others. 

A great many specimens were gathered in the course of the summer's 
work, embracing numerous duplicates desired for distribution among 
the various educational establishments and museums of the country. 

Reference is made in another part of this report to the work con- 
nected with the investigation of the American fisheries, undertaken in 
behalf of the census of 1880. 

Mr. G. B. Goode, who was in special charge of this department, also 
had his headquarters at Provincetown with a sufficient corps to carry 
on his work, and was there enabled to obtain much of the statistical and 
other information required for the completion of his plan. The general 
results of the sea-coast work of the summer of 1879, in connection with 
the statistics of the fisheries, will be embodied in the fishery reports of 
the census of 1880, and therefore, need not be repeated here. 

After his return to Washington Lieutenant Tanner was transferred by 
the Secretary of the Navy to the supervision of the construction of the 
Fish Commission steamer Fish Hawk, of which mention is made else- 
where. 

In the report for 1878 mention was made of the fact that at the sug- 
gestion of the Commission a display station of the Signal Office estab- 
lishment was put into operation at Gloucester. Finding no such sta- 
tion at Provincetown, and being well satisfied of its importance, I made 
application to General Myer for a similar service, which was granted. 
S. Mis. 59 ii 



XVIII REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

The station was established there during the summer, and has been con- 
tinued in operation ever since. 

In previous reports mention has been made of the discovery in great 
abundance off the eastern coast of New England of the pole-flounder, Glyp- 
tocephalus cynoglossus, a member of the flat-fish family, of large size. This 
fish, entirely unknown on the American coast until its discovery by the 
Commission in 1877, has proved to be one of the most abundant of its 
kind, and promises to be a very important addition to the food resources 
of the country whenever the beam-trawl shall become generally used by 
the fishermen. This fish was taken in great quantities during the sum- 
mer of 1879, and a large extension of its supposed range was estab- 
lished. 

A second species of fish, also promising to be of great value as a food- 
fish, was brought to light during the summer of 1879 ; specimens were first 
obtained about eighty miles south of Roman's Land by Captain Kirby, 
of Gloucester, to be known as the tile-fish or Lopholatilus chamccleon- 
ticeps, constituting a genus and species entirely new to science. It is 
believed that the taking of this fish indicates the existence in the region 
of capture of an important resort of food-fishes in general. This point it 
is proposed to investigate at some future time. 

6. — THE STEAMER FISH-HAWK. 

The experience of the Commission has for several years past shown 
the efficiency and economy of floating stations for the hatching of shad, 
by means of which, after the work at one locality is exhausted, another 
can be taken up with the least possible delay. Heretofore the work has 
been done on floating barges, which have been towed from their winter 
stations in Washington, Baltimore, or Havre de Grace, to Albemarle 
Sound, and thence back again, stopping at one or more stations in the 
course of the season to prosecute their work. Towing has, however, 
proved to be a matter of great expense, and, in most cases, of peril also, 
flat-bottomed boats being unfitted for the dangerous navigation of the 
Chesapeake Bay, where, by a curious fatality, violent storms have gen- 
erally prevailed whenever such transfer was to be made. The towing 
has been done by vessels of the revenue marine, through the courtesy 
of the Secretary of the Treasury and the superintendent of the bureau; 
but on more than one occasion the barges have been in imminent danger 
of foundering with their crews and contents. 

The advantage, therefore, of having a floating hatchery on a well- 
constructed steamer, as being more suitable for transfer from point to 
point, has been urged strongly before the Commission; and, after 
various plans were considered, the designs of Mr. Copeland, of the 
Light-House Board, were fixed upon, and the appropriation of Congress 
of $15,000 for a steamer was made use of. As the law directed, the 
steamer was to be built under the supervision of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, and that officer placed it in charge of the Light-House Board. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XIX 

From among many bids for the building of the same, that of Messrs. 
Pusey & Jones, of Wilmington, for $44,000, was accepted and the vessel, 
to be known as the Fish-Hawk, put under contract. 

After the close of the cruise of the Speedwell in the autumn of the 
year, Captain Tanner was detached and placed in charge of the Fish- 
Hawk, visiting it at short intervals to inspect the progress of the work. 
In the course of the year considerable advance in its construction was 
made, and it is hoped that the vessel will be available for use in the 
spring of 1880. A detailed account of this vessel will probably appear 
in the next report of the Commissioner. 

7. — ABSTRACT OF RESEARCHES PROSECUTED UNDER DIRECTION OF 

THE COMMISSION. 

Among the collateral subjects of attention by the Fish Commission 
has been an investigation into the chemical composition of fish under 
the varying circumstances of age, sex, and the condition of the repro- 
ductive apparatus. This has a very important bearing both upon the 
availability of fish for food and also as furnishing material for the making 
of oils and fertilizers. A large number of analyses have been made by 
Professor Atwater which already supply the means of important deduc- 
tions, especially as to the comparative nutritive power of the same quan- 
tity of flesh in different species. 

A fuller statement of the general results of this inquiry will be found 
in the next report of the United States Fish Commission. 

Among the more important researches made at Provincetown during 
the summer was that by Dr. Kidder, U. S. N., surgeon of the party, in 
regard to the temperature of fishes. For a long time it had been sup- 
posed that the temperature of fishes was always the same as that of the 
water in which they happened to be placed, but the experiments of Dr. 
John Davy indicated that, in some cases at least, especially where 
mackerel and tunny were the species in question, the actual temperature 
of the fish was a few degrees higher than that of the water. Dr. Kidder 
utilized such opportunities as were presented to him in determining this 
question and obtained some exceedingly interesting results, which have 
been published by the Fish Commission. 

Among the special problems connected with the interests of the fish- 
eries are economical methods for the production of cold, to be used in 
the preservation of fish for a certain length of time, either directly by 
reducing the temperature of the storage space, or indirectly by making 
ice to be employed for a similar purpose. In ordinary seasons, after an 
abundant ice crop, the ruling prices of $1 to $3 a ton is by no ineaus 
exorbitant; when, however, as is not infrequently the case, the cost is 
from $10 upwards, the tax becomes very serious. 

Among those who have devoted themselves to the solution of this 
question is Professor Gamgee, and to his pen am I indebted for an able 
article published in the last United States Fish Commission report. 



XX REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Professor Gamgee has kindly offered to continue his investigations on 
this subject, with a special view of determining the feasibility of con- 
structing a compact machine, which may be of service in bringing fresh 
to land, the specimens taken on board the Fish-Hawk. His article on 
the subject I hope to publish in a future report. 

One object to which the Fish Commission has devoted much atten- 
tion has been the bringing together of as complete a series as possible 
of all the various marine animals of North America, including in this 
group the seals and cetaceans. Among the least known forms are the 
larger varieties of porpoise, grampus, and whales, the opportunities for 
examining the latter being exceedingly scanty. Little can be seen of a 
whale in the water, whether dead or alive, and when stranded the flac- 
ciclity of the body distorts its shape to such an extent as to cause the 
fish to lose its natural appearance; nearly all the sketches of whales 
have been made from several different presentations of the animal ; and, 
therefore, although fairly accurate, are not absolutely precise. Some of 
these sketches have been used for a basis of reconstruction or models of 
small size for the National Museum. Information having been re- 
ceived by telegram on the 12th of April, from Provincetown, of the 
stranding of a whale in good condition in Provincetown Bay, I dis- 
patched Mr. Joseph Palmer, the modeler of the National Museum, to 
see whether he could not obtain a mold in plaster of the animal from 
which a cast might be made. He accordingly proceeded to Cape Cod, 
obtaining in Boston a sufficient amount of plaster in barrels for his pur- 
pose. On arriving at Provincetown, by the help of Mr. Small and other 
citizens, he Avas enabled to take a mold of the animal (a humpback^ 
about 30 feet long) in sections, which he brought back with him to 
Washington, and which has been stored in the armory building, to be 
used in the construction of a papier mache reproduction at the proper 
time. 

The preparation of a series of casts in plaster and papier mache of 
the larger fishes, begun several years ago, has been continued by Mr. 
Palmer and his assistant; the painting, as before, having been executed 
by Mr. A. Zeno Shindler and Mr. John H. Eichard. 

8. — STATISTICS OF THE FISHERIES, EXCLUSIVE OF THOSE TAKEN IN 
CONNECTION WITH THE CENSUS. 

In the summer of 1878, when the Fish Commission had its headquar- 
ters at Gloucester, an arrangement was made with Mr. George J. Marsh, 
in behalf of Mrs. Rogers, for the rental of a wharf and the necessary 
buildings at Fort Point for the service of the Fish Commission. These 
served as its headquarters during the season of 1878, and as the station 
for the codfish hatching during the winter of 1878-79. A satisfactory 
arrangement was made with Mr. Marsh for continuing the lease of the 
premises for 1879, the necessity for such a station being quite urgent 
both as the central point from which the statistics of the Gloucester 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XXI 

trade could be collected, and as a place of storage for a large amount 
of Fish Commission property. The station was in charge of Dr. T. H. 
Bean during the. summer of 1879, and of Mr. A. Howard Clark since 
September, 1879, and to these gentlemen the Commission is indebted 
for a large amount of valuable information. They have also utilized 
the opportunity of constant association with the fishing vessels by in- 
ducing their captains to preserve and present any curious specimens of 
marine animals taken on the fishing banks. It is well known that not 
only are strange fishes frequently taken on the trawls, but starfishes, cor- 
als, &c, attach themselves to, or become entangled in, the lines and are 
hauled on board. Inquiries on board of vessels, as they came in from 
a trip, have resulted in the obtaining of most important additions to the 
North American fauna, hundreds of species having thus been procured 
that would otherwise have been entirely unobtainable. 

A special catalogue of the donations derived from this source will be 
found in the present report. 

The actual supervision of the wharf and building has been exercised 
by Capt. S. J. Martin, of Gloucester, who has remained on duty day 
and night, and who has also rendered essential service in collecting 
specimens and information for the Commission. 

For the better appreciation of the relationships of the different fish- 
ing grounds off the eastern coast of North America, Professor Hilgard 
kindly consented to superintend the p reparation by Mr. Linden kohl of 
a relief map of the region between Sandy Hook, N. Y., and the eastern 
edge of the Grand Bank of Newfoundland, and from the coast of Maine 
and of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to south of Nantucket Shoals. Con- 
tour lines were traced for the different depths, and the outlines cut out 
in cards of different colors, superimposed the one upon the other. By 
using cards of different thicknesses the proportional gradations in depth 
at each point were indicated in twenty-five-fathom stages up to a hun- 
dred and fifty, and by those of fifty fathoms for greater depths. This 
map has proved to be an object of extreme interest as illustrating much 
more clearly than has heretofore been possible the localities where the 
different kinds of fish were obtained, and showing why certain places 
were especially favorable fishing grounds in certain seasons. 

Keferencehas been made in previous reports to an arrangement with 
Mr. Liunell, of Boston, for obtaining the statistics of the shore fisheries 
of Massachusetts, having their center of operations in Boston. The dock 
of which he is the wharfinger is a place of resort for nearly all the cod, 
haddock, herring, and other fishermen who sell their cargoes in that 
city; and as the charge for wharfage is in proportion to the character 
and number of fish, it becomes an easy matter to estimate with great 
precision. The fish not included under this arrangement are but a small 
percentage, and their numbers can be easily averaged. 

The arrangement with Mr. Linnell was continued during the year, 
and his figures have been used in compounding the statistics for the 
census report of 1880. 



XXII REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 
9. — LEGISLATION IN REGARD TO FISHERIES. 

As might naturally be expected, the real or supposed encroachments 
of the different classes of fishermen upon each other or the community 
at large has invoked the effort to secure legislation, both on the part of 
the United States Government and of individual States, to put a stop 
to the same. A yet undecided question is as to the actual jurisdiction 
over the waters, so far as the fisheries are concerned. It would naturally 
be supposed that the United States would have control at least as far 
as the three-mile limit of the ocean, beyond which the fisheries are 
common to the world at large. If this point be conceded, then comes 
the inquiry, How far can jurisdiction be exercised over the fisheries in 
the bays and navigable rivers'? This question has never been settled. 

It is well known that for many years past the menhaden fishery has 
been conducted during the summer and autumn with the greatest vigor 
along the coast of Maine, a large number of steamers as well as sailing 
vessels being employed in the capture of the fish, which are then taken 
to factories for conversion into oil and material for fertilizers. The ex- 
tent to which this has been done has, in the opinion of many, greatly 
tended to drive the fish from the estuaries of the bays and rivers, and 
thus prevent their utilization by the hand-line fishermen and the resi- 
dent population generally. Most of the fish are now taken several miles 
out to sea by the vessels just referred to. In order, therefore, to remedy 
this evil, a law was passed by the State of Maine prohibiting the use 
of purse seines within three miles of her shore. This action very natur- 
ally excited the antagonism of the menhaden fishermen, and an appeal 
was made to me for counsel and advice in the matter. While not 
able at present to say whether the complaints of the people of Maine 
against the menhaden fishermen are well founded or not, I could only 
suggest that the opportunity was a favorable one for having the ques- 
tion decided by transferring it to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. It was accordingly arranged that this should be done by making 
up a special case and letting it take its legal course. By a most curious 
coincidence, however, very few menhaden visited the coast of Maine in 
1879, the falling off being extremely abrupt and very marked. What 
occasioned this change of habit on the part of the fish it is impossible 
to say. It could not have been caused by the excessive pursuit of the 
fish, as the number on the coast in the fall of 1878 was very great, and 
should have furnished an ample supply for the season of 1879. It is 
possible that some variation of ocean temperature or currents affected 
the food of the fish, if not the menhaden themselves, thus causing them 
to seek new feeding grounds. It will be a matter of much interest to 
determine to what extent this abandonment of onGe favorite grounds will 
continue in the future. 

The above case has its parallel in the departure from the coast of the 
United States of the bluefish, about 1763, their absence continuing well 
into the beginning of the next or present century. 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XXIII 

C.— CO-OPDRATION WITH THE SUPEKINTEXDENT OF THE 

CENSUS. 

10.— PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENTS. 

In July, 1879, an arrangement was made with General Francis A. 
Walker, Superintendent of the Tenth Census, by which an investiga- 
tion of the fisheries of the United States was undertaken as the joint 
enterprise of the United States Fish Commission and of the Census 
Bureau. It was decided that this investigation should be as exhaust- 
ive as possible, and that both the United States Fish Commission and 
the Census should participate in it. The preparation of a statistical and 
historical report upon the fisheries, to form one of the series to be pre- 
sented by the Superintendent of the Census as the result of his investi- 
gations, in 1880, has been the main object of the work, but, in connec- 
tion with this, extensive investigation into the methods of the fisheries, 
into the distribution of the fishing grounds, and the natural history of 
useful marine animals have been and are being carried on. 

The direction of this investigation was placed in the hands of Mr. G. 
Brown Goode, who was appointed a special agent of the Census Office, 
and who has been carrying on this work in addition to the performance of 
his duties in connection with the National Museum and the Fish Commis- 
sion. The work was begun on July 1, 1879, has been vigorously pros- 
ecuted since that time, and the final report will probably be presented 
as early as July, 1881. 

11. — PLAN OF INVESTIGATION. 

The plan of the investigation was drawn up before the beginning of 
the work, and has been published in an octavo pamphlet of fifty-four 
pages, entitled " Plan of Inquiry into the History and Present Condi- 
tion of the Fisheries of the United States." Washington : Government 
Printing Office. 1879. 

The scheme of investigation divided the work into the following de- 
partments : 

I. — Natural history of marine products. 

Under this head was to be carried on the study of the useful aquatic 
animals and plants of the country, as well as of seals, whales, turtles, 
fishes, lobsters, crabs, oysters, clams, &c, sponges and marine plants, 
and inorganic products of the sea, with reference to (A) Geographical 
distribution ; (B) Size ; (C) Abundance ; (D) Migration and movements; 
(E) Food and rate of growth; (F) Mode of reproduction, and (G) Eco- 
nomic value and uses. 

II. — The fishing grounds. 

Under this head are studied the geographical distribution of all ani- • 
mals sought by fishermen and the location of the fishing-grounds, while 



XXIV REPORT OF COMMISSIONER 01" FISH AND FISHERIES. 

with reference to the latter are considered : (A) Location ; (B) Topog- 
raphy; (C) Depth of water; (D) Character of bottom; (E) Tempera- 
cure of water; (F) Currents, and (G) Character of invertebrate life, &c. 

in. — The fishermen and fishing toicns. 

Here are considered the coast districts engaged in the fisheries with 
reference to their relation to the fisheries, historically and statistically, 
and the social, vital, and other statistics relating to the fishermen. 

IV. — Apparatus and methods of capture. 

Here are considered all the forms of apparatus used by fishermen, 
boats, nets, traps, harpoons, &c, and the methods employed in the 
various branches of the fishery. Here each special kind of fishery, of 
which there are more than fifty in the United States, is considered sep- 
arately with regard to its methods, its history, and its statistics. 

V. — Products of fisheries. 

Under this head are studied the statistics of the yield of American 
fisheries, past and present. 

VI.— Preparation, care of and manufacture of fishery products. 

Here are considered the methods and the various devices for utilizing 
fish after they are caught, with statistics of capital and men employed, 
&c. : (A) Preservation of live fish; (B) Refrigeration; (C) Sun-drying; 
(D) Smoke-drying; (E) Pickling; (F) Hermetically canning ; (G) Fur 
dressing; (H) Whalebone preparation; (I) Isinglass manufacture; (K) 
Ambergris manufacture; (L) Fish guano manufacture, and (M) Oil ren- 
dering, &c. 

Vii. — Economy of the fisheries. 

Here are studied (A) Financial organization and methods ; (B) Insur- 
ance; (C) Labor and capital; (D) Markets and market prices; (E) 
Lines of traffic, and (F) Exports, imports, and duties. 

Vin. — Protection and culture. 

This includes all kinds of supervision by the government, such as : 
(A) Legislation ; (B) Bounties and licenses; (C) Fishery treaties, and 
(D) Public fish culture. 

The various inquiries provided for in this scheme of investigation 
have been made in three ways : 

(I.) By correspondence with persons in different parts of the country. 

(II.) By a systematic overhauling and compilation of past records, 
not the least among which are the local newspapers. 

(III.) By sending special agents to make personal inquiries in every 
part of the United States where the fisheries are of considerable impor- 
tance. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XXV 

The last-named method has, of course, been by far the most impor- 
tant and the most successful, and it is unfortunate that the length of 
time and the amount of money available have not permitted the employ- 
ment of a larger number of "assistants in this branch of the work, and 
have not allowed them to devote as much attention to working out spe- 
cific questions as has in many cases seemed imperatively necessary. 

12. — DETAILS OF PROGRESS DURINO THE YEAR. 

The fishery industry is of such great importance and is undergoing 
such constant changes that a visit of a few days to any locality, even 
by the most competent expert, has invariably proved unsatisfactory. 
They have been able to collect only the most important facts, leaving 
many subjects of interest untouched. 

The field-work has been assigned to the following special agents : 

I. Coast of Maine, east of Cape Elizabeth. R. E. Earll and Capt. J. 
W. Collins. 

II. Cape Elizabeth to Plymouth (except Cape Ann) and eastern side 
of Buzzard's Bay. W. A. Wilcox. 

III. Cape Ann. A. Howard Clark. 

IV. Cape Cod. F. W. True. 

Y. Provincetown. Capt. N. E. Atwood. 

VI. Ehode Island and Connecticut west to the Connecticut River. 
Ludwig Kumlien. 

VII. Long Island and north shore of Long Island Sound and west to 
Sandy Hook. Fred Mather. 

VIII. New York City. Barnet Phillips. 

IX. Coast of New Jersey. R. E. Earll. 

X. Philadelphia. C. W. Smiley and W. Y. Cox. 
XL Coast of Delaware. Capt. J. W. Collins. 

XII. Baltimore and the oyster industry of Maryland and Virginia. 
R. H. Edmonds. 

XIII. Atlantic coast of Southern States. R. E. Earll. 

XIV. Gulf coast. Silas Stearns. 

XV. Coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. Prof. D. S. Jor- 
dan and Mr. C. H. Gilbert. 

XVI. Paget Sound. James G. Swan. 

XVII. Alaska seal fisheries. H. W. Elliott. 

XVIII. Great Lakes fisheries. Ludwig Kumlein. 

XIX. River fisheries of Maine. C. G. Atkins. 

XX. The shad and alewife fisheries. Marshall McDonald. 

XXI. Oyster fisheries. Ernest Ingersoll. 

XXII. Lobster and crab fisheries. Richard Rathbun. 

XXIII. Turtle and terrapin fisheries. F. W. True. 

XXIV. The seal, sea-elephant, and whale fisheries. A. Howard Clark. 
The different districts and departments of research in the preceding- 
table are numbered serially. 



XXVI EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

The following table shows the intervals of time during which work 
has been carried on in each. (The numbers in the following table cor- 
respond with those in the preceding table.) 

I. August 1 to October 30, 1879. 

II. September 2, 1879, to January 1, 1880. 

III. September, 1879, to January, 1880. 

IV. July to October, 1879. 

V. August, 1879, to January 1, 1880. 
YI. August 16 to January 1, 1880. 
YII. August 1, 1879, to January 1, 1880. 
VIII. January, 1879, to January 1, 1880. 
XIV. August, 1879, to January 1, 1880. 
XVIII. August, 1879, to January 1, 18S0. 

XX. October, 1879, to January 1, 1880. 

XXI. September, 1879, to January 1, 1880. 

In addition to the field assistants already mentioned a staff from the 
beginning have been at work in the office of the division, carrying on 
correspondence, searching past records, and preparing the report for pub- 
lication. Mr. C. W. Smiley, Mr. P. W. True, Mr. James Temple Brown, 
and Mr. George S. Hobbs have been connected with the work from its 
start, and from a later date Mr. J. E. Rockwell, Mr. O. W. Scudder, Mr. 
G. P. Merrill, and others have been thus employed. A number of clerks 
have also been detailed by the Superintendent of the Census, at one time 
as many as eight. A large part of the clerical force under the direction 
of Mr. Smiley, who has in special charge the correspondence and the 
work of compiling statistics from responses to circulars. 

Some of the explorations carried on by the special agents of the Cen- 
sus Office, aud engaged in this work, are deserving of more extended 
notice. The labors of Mr. Earll and Captain Collins on the coast of 
Maine were necessarily confined largely to the gathering of statistics, 
there being but little opportunity for zoological work, such as was car- 
ried on by several others of the party. The natural history of the fishes 
of New England, however, is well kuown, and the number of species of 
fish accessible from the shore is very limited. 

A large amount of material for a very elaborate statistical, descrip- 
tive, and historical report was obtained, and also a very interesting 
series of sketches of fishery implements made by Captain Collins. 

The same method was pursued on the coast of Massachusetts by 
Messrs. Clark, True, Atwood, and Wilcox. In this region considerable 
additions were made to the collection of fishery implements, and de- 
posited by the Fish Commission in the National Museum. 

The exploration of the Gulf of Mexico by Mr. Stearns brought about 
important results statistically, and also greatly increased our knowledge 
of the habits of the food-fishes and the methods of conducting the fish- 
eries. A number of new species were added to the fauna of the United 
States by Mr. Stearns and his party. The circuit of the Gulf of Mexico 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISII AND FISHERIES. XXVII 

from Key West to Galveston was made iu a small sloop, chartered for 
the purpose. 

The work of the other specialists, engaged in the census of the fisher- 
ies, has uniformly been productive of results important to the work of 
the Fish Commission. 

In addition to the explorations already referred to, three special expe- 
ditions were organized for the purpose of studying the methods of the 
vessel fishermen upon the fishing grounds. 

In the summer of 1879, Mr. Newton P. Scudder was sent to study the 
American halibut fisheries in Davis' Straits. He went as a passenger 
on the schooner Bunker Hill, of Gloucester, leaving that port on June 
10, 1879, and returning on September 17 of the same year. His experi- 
ences are detailed in an important essay which will be printed in a sub- 
sequent number of the Fisli Commission reports. 

Mr. II. L. Osborn made a similar study of the Grand Bank codfishery. 
He sailed from Gloucester on the schooner Victor, July 10, and returned 
late in October, ne made extensive natural history collections and pre- 
pared an important report which will also be printed. 

Mr. John P. Gordy spent three weeks upon a Gloucester mackerel 
schooner for the special purpose of studying the mental and moral char- 
acteristics of the fishermen and the methods of the fishery, upon which 
he has submitted a report containing much interesting information. 

O.— THE PROPAGATION OF FOOD FISHES. 
Work accomplished in 1879. 

The Quinnat or California Salmon (Salmo quinnat). 

The McCloud River Station. — The experiences of previous seasons 
had indicated to Mr. Livingston Stone, who continued in charge of the 
McCloud Kiver Station, the importance of detaining the salmon near 
the station by means of an impassable barrier across the river. By the 
construction of a rack across the river he prevented the further ascent 
of the fish, holding them at the fishery, where they could be readily 
captured by his seine when the spawning season commenced. The 
yield of spawning fish, and consequently of eggs, was much increased. 

The obstruction on the river had also another good effect, for by the 
ruck, which prevented their ascent (their instincts preventing their 
going down), they were kept in the pools and were not so emaciated by 

the extended journey which causes them to reach the upper rivers in ;i 
state of exhaustion. Although the salmon of the McCIbud Kiver. which 

had hitherto been penned, suffered much from confinement, tin' ftsh 

which were detained by means of the rack did not seem at all affected. 

As the custom prevails of turning the lish back into the river after 

the eggs had been taken, this device of obstructing the river has no 

doubt been "beneficial in preserving many of the adult fish which would 



XXVIII REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

otherwise have died from the exhaustion consequent upon any further 
ascent of the river. 

Mr. Stone was much disheartened in the early part of the season by 
getting only young male fish (Grilse) until after the middle of August. 
The great number of these young males doubtless resulted from the 
artificially propagated fish which had been turned loose in previous 
years. Larger salmon, however, made their appearance in consider- 
able numbers after tbe first of August, the fishing for the canneries 
having been stopped at that date by the limitation of the fishing season. 
The total production of eggs during the season of 1879 was about 
9,500,000. 

Mr. Stone reports that the Indians seemed much better disposed than 
in previous years. This change of attitude was possibly caused by the 
suppression of tbe revolts by the Army on the frontier. The presence 
of a detail of soldiers furnished by the commander of the department 
was most beneficial, not only on account of the moral effect which their 
presence had on the Indians, but as a restraint on the white marauders. 

In Mr. Stone's report will be found the schedule of the distribution 
made of the 4,150,000 eggs which were taken to the East, the usual num- 
ber of eggs and young iish having been reserved to keep up the stock 
in the McCloud River. 

Besides the eggs distributed as shown in this table, 150,000 were sent 
to the Societe d'Acclimatation, Paris, France ; 100,000 to the Fischerei- 
Yerein, Germany; 150,000 to the Zoological Society of Amsterdam, Hol- 
land; and 100,000 to the Dominion of Canada. 

The eggs for distribution in the Eastern States and for shipment to 
Europe were sent from Eedding in a refrigerator car, obtained from the 
Central Pacific Railroad. Mr. Fred Mather, one of the assistants of the 
Commission, having been instructed to meet the car on its arrival in 
Chicago, for the purpose of overhauling the eggs and re-icing and reship- 
ping in accordance with the schedule of distribution given him, did so 
at G.30 p. m. on the 11th of October. 

The refrigerator was there opened and the eggs for Washington taken 
out, the chambers refilled with ice and placed in one end of an ordinary 
baggage car, and in the other end those for Europe, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New Jersey. The eggs for Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, 
Ohio, and Canada were left in the refrigerator car, and, after having 
been re-iced, were delivered to the United States and American Express 
Companies at three o'clock the following day. 

The baggage car left Chicago at 5.15 on October 12, bound East. On 
the following day it arrived in Pittsburgh, where the eggs for Pennsyl- 
vania were delivered to the Adams Express Company, consigned to Mr. 
S. Weeks, at Corry, Pa. The weather was unusually warm, causing the 
ice to melt very freely and necessitating re-icing at this point. 

On the arrival of the train at Harrisburg the three crates for Europe 
and the half crate for New York; the five crates for New Jersey and the 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XXIX 

two for Marietta, Pa., were transferred to an express car of the train for 
New York, where they arrived at 5.37 the next morning. 

The orates were found on being unpacked to be in excellent condition, 
having sustained a loss of not more than 4 or 5 per cent. 

The half crate, which was sent to Mr. Blackford, the commissioner 
for New York, not having been provided with an ice chamber, was found 
to be a total loss. 

The United States Fish Commission for several years past has been 
sending eggs of the California salmon (8. quinnat) to Germany, Hol- 
land, and France. From some cause or other these attempts to plant 
our salmon in European waters have met with more or less failure, 
owing principally to the agents sent in charge being unable to secure 
the necessary accommodations for the eggs on shipboird ; the parts of 
the vessel assigned to their use having been generally either too warm, 
the supply of ice limited, &c. 

Accordingly when this year (1870) it was decided to make another 
essay at their transfer, it was proposed that the crates of eggs be placed 
in the hands of some officer of the ship taking them, and a bonus given 
him on showing a receipt from the consignees of the delivery of the 
eggs in good condition. 

In pursuance of this plan, Mr. Fred Mather, the agent of the Com- 
mission in New York, was instructed to turn over to the purser of the 
North German Lloyd steamer Mosel, sailing on the 18th October, the 
quota of eggs intended for Germany. The purser accepted the trust, 
and delivered the eggs at Bremerhaven to the agent of the Deutsche 
Fischerei-Verein, Mr. E. Eckardt, who gave a receipt therefor as having 
been received by him in healthy condition. On presentation of this 
receipt to Mr. Mather, the purser received the stipulated honorarium. 

On the 22d October the consignments intended for Holland and 
France were placed on board the steamers Schiedam and Labrador, re- 
spectively, and received by their pursers. Those intended for Holland 
were taken at Eotterdam by the superintendent of fisheries of Holland, 
Mr. C. J. Bottemaune, and those for France were handed at Havre to 
the agent of the Societe d'Acclimatation, Mr. Grisard, both of whom 
gave receipts for the delivery of the eggs to them in perfect condition. 
The douceurs were accordingly paid. 

By this mode of shipment the eggs received the attention they re- 
quired — the emulation of the officers of the respective ships having been 
excited — and were transported at a trifling cost; the expense of a spe- 
cial messenger, which had previously been found necessary, being thus 
avoided. 

These three consignments were, however, all carefully packed by Mr. 
Mather in the apparatus devised by him for the purpose in 1878, and 
which received the unqualified indorsement and approval of the French 
and German experts who had occasion to examine it. 



XXX REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

A report by Mr. 0. J. Bottemanne contains an interesting account ol 
the introduction of these fish into the Netherlands. The shipment of 
eggs of this fish in 1877 was entirely unsuccessful, as only three fish were 
produced out of 100,000 eggs sent. 

The transfer of the eggs the following year was more successful, as a 
loss of only some 26 per cent, was experienced, and we had become so 
much more expert in packing the eggs, that of the shipment made in 
1879 the loss had been reduced to 21 per cent. When we take into con- 
sideration the fact that the eggs were transported by wagon over a rough 
country for about thirty miles before they could be placed in the cars; 
then by rail across the continent to be reshipped for a two weeks jour- 
ney across the Atlantic, and after that compelled to take another rail- 
road journey from Rotterdam to Amsterdam, the success was somewhat 
remarkable. 

Monsieur Bottemanne reports that most of the fish were placed in the 
tributaries of the Meuse, a few only having been retained in the zoolog- 
ical gardens at Amsterdam. 

The importance of maintaining a full supply of breeding fish in the 
Sacramento and McCloud Eivers, for the purpose of obtaining from year 
to year a stock of eggs sufiiciently large to meet all demands, induced 
an arrangement with the California commissioners by which it was 
agreed that about one-fifth of the whole yield, hatched out at the fish- 
ery, should be returned to the water. 

As the hatching out of these eggs necessarily takes place after the 
close of the regular work of the commission in securing them from the 
breeders, it was deemed expedient to accept the offer of the California 
State fish commissioners to defray the actual expense of hatching, 
which has accordingly been paid by them in 1879, as also heretofore. 

The result of their work is seen in an extraordinary increase in the 
number of mature fish returning from the ocean, and in the great exten- 
sion of the industry of salmon canning. 

The Rainbow, or California Mountain Trout (Salmo indent). 

The Crooks Creek Station. — Mr. Stone having beeu instructed to en- 
large the operations of the work on the McCloud Eiver by the propaga- 
tion of the California brook trout, he selected a point some miles above 
on a small tributary of the McCloud River called George Crooks Creek. 

This creek flows into the McCloud River only four miles above the 
salmon-breeding establishment and was selected as being well supplied 
with clear cold water. Many difficulties were encountered in establish- 
ing this station, as only a rough Indian trail led to the site. This neces- 
sitated the " packing " of all the lumber and equipment necessary for 
this station. 

During the season a dwelling and hatching house were built and the 
necessary furniture, &c, transported to the station. 

The trout-hatching house was constructed on the same general plan 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XXXI 

as the salmon-hatching house, with a capacity of 6.000,000 eggs. Hav- 
ing prepared the ponds, which were supplied by a constant and ample 
flow of water, the breeding fish were captured by angling and kept in 
traps constructed of heavy timber poles. The traps were well secured 
against casualty in case of high water. 

This fish is much esteemed and will no doubt be a valuable acquisi- 
tion to the food fishes of the Atlantic States, especially to such waters 
as may be found too warm for the less hardy brook trout native to the 
Atlantic. 

An interesting experiment in connection with the culture of the Sdlmo 
iridea was made in Japan by Mr. Sekizawa Akekio, a most accomplished 
Japanese gentleman, who manifested very great interest in all exhibits 
pertaining to fish culture at the Philadelphia exhibition of 1876. Shortly 
after his return to Japan he established several hatching stations at 
various points. On June 9, 1877, he received a supply of eggs from the 
United States fish ponds on the McCloud Eiver. A large number of 
fish were hatched oat, and, as may be seen from a commuication received 
from him on April 12, 1880, lived (for at any rate) nearly three years, at 
which period of their life they averaged nineteen inches in length. A 
drawing of one of these 3-year old fish accompanying his communication 
furnished a magnificent illustration of the species. At that age both 
males and females were ready to spawn and promised to furnish a large 
number of eggs. 

These results show clearly the ability of this species to sustain itself 
in remote localities, and also illustrate the fact that in less than three 
years they are ready to spawn and may at that age have attained the 
weight of at least five pounds. 

Atlantic Salman (Salmo salar). 

The Penobscot River Station. — The indications of the successful intro- 
duction of this fish into rivers even as far south as the Delaware and 
Susquehanna, and the £reat increase which has already been observed in 
its abundance in the Penobscot Bay, led to the determination that the 
work which had been intermitted at Bucksport should be again pushed 
forward. 

Mr. Atkins was therefore instructed to arrange for a supply of breed- 
ing fish and to extend the operations at Bucksport as far as practicable. 
It having been clearly shown that the salmon could be readily confined 
in fresh-water ponds from June until November without interfering with 
the development of the ovaries, Mr. Atkins selected Dead Brook as a 
good site for the inclosure, and a convenient location for a hatching 
house. 

He secured in good condition 264 salmon at an average cost of $2.16 
each. A heavy rain-fall on the 17th and 18th of August caused a 
freshet in Dead Brook which resulted in a considerable loss of fish, re- 
ducing the number to 59. He commenced to take spawn on the 24th 



XXXII REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

of October, and secured 211,692 eggs by the middle of November. 
These eggs were distributed to the State commissioners of New Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Maryland. 

The reports from these States show that 180,000 were actually plan- 
ted, principally in the tributaries of the Merrimac, Connecticut, Dela- 
ware, Susquehanna, Potomac, and Ohio Eivers. 

The work at this station will be continued on a larger scale hereafter, 
as the increase of salmon in many of the eastern rivers has been very 
marked and the indications point to the successful establishment of this 
fish in the tributaries of the great lakes. 

There is no more interesting fact in connection with the propagation 
of fishes than that of their return to the original spawning ground at 
the expiration of a given time. The young fish also hatched out at any 
point, will in their turn seek the same place for purposes of reproduc- 
tion. Numerous instances of this fact are on record : thus, Mr. Wilmot, 
who, for several years past has been engaged in hatching out salmon at 
Newcastle, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, has presented to the 
United States Fish Commission the stuffed specimen of a female fish, from 
which he had taken eggs for three successive years, as indicated by his 
marks, which were apparent on the skin. At the United States salmon- 
hatching station on the Penobscot, Mr. Charles G. Atkins has been in the 
habit of tagging and numbering the fish which he captures for his pur- 
poses and which are released in Penobscot Bay when he has finished 
operations with them. Of these quite an appreciable number have 
been taken in subsequent years, identified by their labels. A still fur- 
ther instance of this is shown in regard to the California salmon. In 
previous reports I have referred to Mr. R. D. Hume, of Edinburg, Ore- 
gon, in connection with the artificial hatching of salmon by him in 1877 
and 1878. In the former year he marked a hundred fish, letting them 
go, and the next year he is said to have retaken ten of the number. 

Schoodic Salmon (Salmo salar, subs, sebago). 

Grand Lalce Stream Station. — Pains have been taken in previous re- 
ports to call attention to the value of this variety of the salmon family. 

The facilities for procuring and caring for the eggs of this fish at 
Grand Lake Stream until ready for distribution, were much enlarged 
during this year, and although the number of spawning fish captured 
was not greater than in previous years, 1,113,000 eggs were procured, of 
which only 11 T 3 ^ per cent, were lost. 

During their development 240,000 eggs were reserved to keep up the 
supply of fish in Grand Lake Stream and 744,000 were distributed. The 
average length of the fish captured this year exceeds that of any of the 
four preceding years, the longest male fish being twenty-four inches 
and the longest female twenty-two inches. 

Many interesting comparisons of the results obtained during the sev- 
eral years will be found in Mr. Atkins' very interesting report, which is 
appended. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XXXIII 

The first spawn was taken on November 7, and the spawning was 
finished by the 22d of the same month. The eggs had sufficiently de- 
veloped to be shipped by the 6th of January, and were distributed to 
the waters of many States, as shown in Mr. Atkins 7 report. 

Instructions have been given for the enlargement of the facilities, and 
as the fish increase, in consequence of the large deposits of young fish, 
the spawn procured from them can be cared for and properly devel- 
oped. 

Should the operations of the Commission increase in the future as 
they have in the past, arrangement must necessarily be made for the 
establishment of several supplementary stations for hatching the eggs 
of the Salmonidae. At present, the works on the McCloud Eiver for 
the California salmon, those on the Penobscot Eiver for the Eastern 
salmon, and those at Grand Lake Stream for the land-locked salmon 
are the only ones provided by the Commission. From these points the 
eggs are forwarded to the hatcheries of the various States, and the dis- 
tribution and deposit of the fry is effected largely under the auspices 
of the State commissioners. As, however, there are large central districts 
available for the fish, where there are either no State commissioners, 
or such as are without the means for further treatment of the eggs, it 
has been thought advisable to look into the question of localities, espe- 
cially in the Southern and Southwestern States. The difficulty, how- 
ever, is to find an ample supply of water sufficiently cold for the various 
6pecies. The spring water in the South, although palatable to the taste, 
is usually too warm for hatching and preserving the fry of the Eastern 
salmon and trout. As one advantage of the California species of sal- 
mon and trout over their allies in the East consists is their greater 
adaptability to warm water, it is possible that this project may after a 
time be carried out successfully. Among other points which have been 
especially urged as suitable for such establishments is that of Hunts- 
ville, Ala., where a large spring in the town has been offered for the 
purpose. 

• 
Shad (Alosa sapidissima). 

The propagation and distribution of shad were continued in the same 
localities that had been occupied during the previous year, and al- 
though the season was somewhat unpropitious, the aggregate yield of 
young shad was increased from 15,500,000 the previous year to 16,062,000, 
and, the arrangements for the distribution having been much improved, 
a large proportion of these were transferred to outside waters. 

Albemarle Found Station. — Although anxious to continue the work, so 
successfully inaugurated in previous years in Albemarle Sound, it was 
not deemed advisable to transfer the full equipment of hatching appa- 
ratus to this station, as they proved to be somewhat too unwieldy to be 
moved with safety and certainty to such distant points. It was also 
anticipated that the large deposits of shad made in previous years in 
S. Mis. 59 in 



XXXIV REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

the Potomac and Susquehanna Eivers would furnish during the season 
of 1879 a larger supply of spawning fish. It was therefore deemed ad- 
visable to retain the hatching apparatus, which had been remodeled for 
operations in Maryland, where it had hitherto been so successful. It 
was determined to rely entirely upon the steamer Lookout, the services 
of which had been secured for the purpose, and accordingly she was sent 
to the mouth of the Chowan Eiver, in charge of Mr. Jno. L. Saunders, 
where she arrived April 11. The season not being very far advanced 
at this time, the crew were employed in arranging the apparatus until 
the eleventh day of April, when active operations were commenced. 

The equipment of the Lookout, as in previous years, consisted of six 
cones, placed on the deck forward of the pilot-house, which supported 
a distributing tauk to supply them with water. These cones had been 
perfected under the direction of Mr. Fergusou, and proved thoroughly 
efficient. 

The rest of the apparatus used were the plunging buckets, also an 
invention of Mr. Ferguson, the machinery for operating which had been 
much improved. 

On account of the want of space on this small steamer, a hastily con- 
structed pier was run out from the wharf at Avoca, and the use of a 
small steam-engine was secured from Dr. Wm. E. Oapehart, proprietor 
of the fishery, which was furnished with steam from the boilers of the 
Lookout, and provided the motive power to operate the plunging 
buckets. 

From the 11th of April to the 14th of May the Lookout was moored 
to this wharf, her small pump supplying the cones which were used 
simultaneously with the plunging cylinders, a neat arrangement of pul- 
leys having been substituted for the levers which were first used to 
operate the buckets. 

During the period referred to 5,295,000 young shad were produced 
in the apparatus described, operated by the limited force which could 
be accommodated on this small steamer. As this apparatus was some- 
what hastily improvised and much altered in details from that hitherto 
used, the reports from the station were looked forward to with some 
anxiety. 

After some time spent in experimenting, Mr. Saunders reported that 
the machinery did exceedingly well, and that the motion was better 
than ever before. The eggs were kept moving nicely, and the young 
fish came out strong and healthy. He estimated the number of eggs 
hatched to be at least 90 or 95 per cent, of the eggs placed in the cones. 

Of the 5,295,000 first produced, 2,115,000 were turned over to Mr. S. 
G. Worth, the superintendent of fisheries of North Carolina, who has 
always co-operated cordially with the United States Commission, to be 
placed in the waters of the State. A distributing depot was established 
at Franklin, a station on the Seaboard and Eoanoke Eailroad, at the 
head of navigation of the Chowan Eiver, and instructions were given 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XXXV 

to ship 200,000 fish nightly by the two alternating steamers, Chowan 
and Lota. 

These shipments kept the messengers of the United States Commis- 
sion constantly on the road transferring fish to the waters of the South 
and the Southwest, besides furnishing a large number to the North 
Carolina commission to be deposited in local waters. 

The results of the operations at this station were most satisfactory 
when we consider the limited force employed, and hearty acknowledg- 
ments are due to Mr. Saunders and the faithful men under him. 

At the close of the fishing season, on the 14th of May, the Lookout 
was transferred to the head of the Chesapeake Bay, where she was 
utilized in transferring fish to different points in Maryland. 

Havre de Grace Station. — The two machinery barges having been re- 
modeled, and the lever attachment to the Ferguson hatching appar- 
atus having been replaced, under the inventor's direction, by a much 
neater and more compact arrangement of pulleys, the space made avail- 
able by this change was utilized for the accommodation of a large num- 
ber of cones. The barges were transferred early in April to Spesutie 
Narrows, a station which had been occupied during the previous years, 
and a portion of the hatching force placed on them with instructions to 
examine daily the fish taken by the large haul-seines and gill-nets oper- 
ated in that locality. 

The first ripe female shad was secured on the 3d of May. 

The immediate charge of this station was assigned to Mr. F. N. 
Clark, of North ville, Mich., but it was not until the 19th of the month 
that the spawning fish were at all plentiful. From that time until the 
close of the season the operations were attended with great success, 
the number of fish produced at this station, under the charge of Mr. 
Clark, amounting to 9,500,000. 

Mr. Saunders and a portion of the force with him in North Carolina 
were placed on the Machinery Barge No. 2, which was moored about 
three miles to the north of Spesutie Narrows, not far from the town of 
Havre de Grace ; but operations were not fairly co mmenced until the 
30th of May, from which time to the close of the season 1 ,252,000 shad 
were produced, making an aggregate of 16,062,000 at the three stations. 

The disposition made of these fish will be found in the accompanying 
tables, which have been arranged, for easy reference, both geograph- 
ically and chronologically. 

The Potomac River Stations. — The force of the Commission being fully 
occupied in North Carolina and on the Susquehanna, operations on the 
Potomac were deferred until next year, when, it is hoped, a satisfactory 
report of results will be made. 

Carp (Cyprinis carpio). 

In the report of the Commission for 1878 will be found detailed the 
account of its labors connected with the culture of carp up to the end 



XXXVI REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

of that year, and especially of the transfer of a portion of the fish 
(brought over from Germany by Mr. Hessel and deposited first in the 
Druid Hill Park ponds) to the Monument lot, in the city of Washington. 

The fish spawned in Druid Hill Park in 1878, but unfortunately they 
hybridized with some gold-fish that had accidentally got into the ponds, 
so that instead of having any carp of pure breed, there were about 2,000 
crosses; these were destroyed, as being of no special value. 

The work of 1879 was more satisfactory. Six thousand young of 
different breeds were secured, whereof 2,750 were planted in Maryland, 
the remainder being distributed in other States. The number of fish 
given to each applicant was from twelve to sixteen. The demand for 
the carp has been very great, and the calls have increased so rapidly 
as to render it doubtful whether, even with a much larger production, 
all the requirements can be met. 

The Monument Station. — The station on the grounds of the Washing- 
ton Monument for the cultivation of the carp has been maintained with 
great efficiency during the year, under the continued superintendence 
of Mr. Eudolph Hessel. Much labor has been expended in improving 
the walks, banks, and ponds, and in planting ornamental trees and 
shrubs, including the introduction of quite a variety of water plants, as 
pond-lilies, &c. 

In April, a telephonic connection was established with the ponds, 
which proved of very great importance, giving to the superintendent 
and watchmen the means of instantaneous communication with the 
offices of the Commission and with the police headquarters, this latter 
advantage greatly adding to the safety of the property. 

The larger pond, to the west of Executive avenue, which had orig- 
inally been one, was divided into two by constructing causeways from 
the island to the east and west shores. This was done for the purpose of 
enabling the contractors for the White House lot sewer to prosecute 
their work along the northern half of the pond without being interfered 
with by the water; the southern half was accordingly kept filled while 
the northern half was empty. This has been to some extent a source of 
inconvenience to the Commission, but has greatly facilitated the work 
connected with the sewer. 

During the severe winter the surface of the ponds was frozen, and 
the use of the north pond for skating purposes was permitted ; the east 
pond, being filled with fish, was carefully kept undisturbed by means 
of placards forbidding the entrance of skaters upon it; no difficulty 
was experienced in maintaining this regulation. From time to time ap- 
plications were made to have the north pond flooded for the improve- 
ment of the sport. Unfortunately the inlet pipes, being near the bottom 
of the pond, made it impossible to allow a discharge over the surface. 
It may be a question whether, when the supply of water for city pur- 
poses is greater, it may not be expedient to have at hand the means 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XXXVII 

of surfacing the ice, when much cut up, with a fresh coat, for the ben- 
efit of the skating cominuuity. 

The Arsenal Station. — The pond at the arsenal was, as before, in 
charge of Mr. Elliot Jones, chief clerk. The scale carp were planted in 
the pond, and the few young fish obtained were duly distributed. 

It is proposed, with the consent of the military authorities, to extend 
these ponds another year, so as to render them more available for their 
purposes. 

The Druid Rill Parle Station.-— The United States Commission con- 
tinues to be under many obligations to the commissioners of Druid Hill 
Park for the important facilities afforded in the way of propagating carp 
from the parent fish, placed there on their arrival from Germany in 
1877. New ponds were built for the accommodation of the fish, in part 
at the expense of the United States Fish Commission. They, how- 
ever, were not ready until the latter part of the season. Had they been 
prepared earlier, the production would probably have been largely in- 
creased. Distribution of about 3,000 carp was made to the citizens of 
Maryland, that number constituting nearly all the fish found upon draw- 
ing off the single pond, which alone it was considered expedient to lay 
bare. 

Transfer of German Carp by Dr. Finsch. — The importance of securing 
a fresh supply of the best varieties of German carp for distribution 
throughout the country, induced me to attempt a renewal of the stock 
which had been brought over by Mr. Hesse*l. I therefore gladly em- 
braced an offer made by Dr. Otto Finsch, an eminent German natural- 
ist, to bring with him, on an intended visit to the United States, an 
additional lot. He accordingly ordered from Mr. Eckhardt, of Liibbin- 
chen, 100 Mirror carp, a year and a half old, and from six to eight 
inches long. These were received in four coal-oil barrels, each containing 
twenty-five fish. They came over on the "Lessing," of the Hamburg- 
American packet line, leaving Hamburg on April 23, and arriving at 
New York on May 6. The total loss of fish on the passage was 77, leav- 
ing only 23 to be sent to Washington, where they were delivered to Mr. 
Hessel, superintendent of the ponds. 

A detailed account of the circumstances attendant upon this trans- 
fer of carp will be found in an article by Dr. Finsch in the appendix. 

Codfish (Gadu8 morrhua). 

In the report for 1878 a reference was made to the successful hatch- 
ing of codfish at the Gloucester station. For the purpose of determin- 
ing the possibility of transporting cod over long distances, a small num- 
ber of the young fish were forwarded by express from Gloucester to 
Washington, arriving January 26 in excellent condition. These were 
placed on exhibition in the rooms of the Committee on Appropriations 
in both House and Senate, and were also exhibited to the President and 
Cabinet. On the 2d of August I went with Mr. Ferguson from Province- 



XXXVIII REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

town to Wood's Holl for the purpose of examining into the possibilities 
of hatching cod at that point. The indications were strongly in favor 
of the success of such an undertaking. 

Striped Bass or Rock-fish (Eoccus lineatus). 

It has been a great desideratum with the Commission to find a locality 
where the striped bass, or rock-fish, can be obtained for purposes of 
propagation by artificial means. I regret to say that, so far, the suc- 
cess of the Commission in this respect has not been very great. During 
1879, however, the opportunity was offered to make some experiments 
of this kind, which proved to be highly satisfactory. The fishery of 
Dr. W. E. Capehart, at Scotch Hall, Albemarle Sound, the seat of the 
shad-hatching work, furnished on May 6 three large females with ripe 
spawn, the eggs of which, when stripped, filled about twelve one-gallon 
cans. The eggs, when first spawned, were pale green, slightly larger 
than those of a herring, becoming after impregnation somewhat larger 
than the eggs of the shad. They were transparant and almost invisi- 
ble, excepting for an oily globule whereby the presence of the egg could 
be detected. These eggs were placed in vessels used for hatching shad, 
some in cones and others in floating boxes, the period of introduction 
being midnight of May 6. On the morning of May 9 almost all the 
eggs were hatched, showing a much more rapid development than 
that of the shad eggs under similar circumstances. While the eggs 
were thought to be somewhat larger than those of the shad, the embryo 
was considerably smaller 5 although with a disproportionally large sized 
umbilical sac, they escaped readily through the wire-cloth used in the 
propagation of the shad. 

A number of the fish were sent to Washington, and some to Balti- 
more, where the fish were deposited in the hatching-house of Druid 
Hill Park. They proved to be much more hardy than shad, as shown 
by the fact that some of the young were kept in a tin pail for ten days 
without change of water and evinced no signs of suffering. 

Transfer of fish. 

Marine and fresh-water species to California. — Upon application by the 
fish commissioner of California, Mr. Livingston Stone was authorized to 
undertake the transfer, in a car specially arranged for the purpose, of 
a series of fishes and invertebrates, especially of striped bass, eels, black 
bass, and lobsters. The principal difficulty was in regard to the salt- 
water species, for whose benefit it became necessary to carry a large 
quantity of salt water, with which the supply in the reservoirs was from 
time to time renewed. For some weeks before starting Mr. Stone had 
kept about a thousand gallons of water, by the end of which time it had 
become perfectly clear, the dead matter having settled to the bottom. 
It was a matter of some difficulty to procure striped bass of sufficient 
size for the transfer. They were, however, by permission of the New 
Jersey State commissioners, obtained in the Navesink River. The lob- 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XXXIX 

sters were secured from Messrs. Johnson and Young, of Boston ; the eels 
were furnished from Albany by Mr. Seth Green, while the black bass 
were sent from Charleston, N. H. 

Mr. Stone started for the West on June 12, and after various experi- 
ences arrived with comparatively little loss of fish at Sacramento, where 
some of the fresh -water fish were planted. The striped bass were placed 
in the Sacramento Eiver near Martinez, and the lobsters were introduced 
in the water at Oakland wharf. 

The details of this trip will be found in the appendix. 

Transfer of carp from Europe. — The result of this experiment, made 
under direction of Dr. Finsch, will be found under the heading of carp. 

Tables of the distribution of fish. 

In the following tables will be found the record of the distribution of 
shad, arranged, first, by the successive dates of shipment, and, secondly, 
geographically by States. In the report of Mr. Stone is detailed the 
distribution of the California salmon, while in that of Mr. Atkins are 
given the particulars referring to the distribution of the Penobscot and 
Schoodic salmon. The shipments of carp have been so small, compar- 
atively, as scarcely to be entitled to a distinct tabulation. In the next 
annual report I hope to present a minute statement of the entire his- 
tory of the introduction of young fishes into the waters of the United 
States, so far as the agency of the United States Commission is con- 
cerned, and that from the earliest dates. To these I refer for any 
deficiences in the present account. 



XL 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 



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XLVI REFORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

II. — Geographical record of distribution of shad from April 18, 





Place -whence 
taken. 


Number of fish — 


State. 


Introduction of fish. 


Date. 


Originally 
taken. 


Actually 
planted. 


Town or place. 


May 13 
13 


Salmon Creek 

....do 


90, 000 
85, 000 
75, 000 
45, 000 
45, 000 
125, 000 


90, 000 
85, 000 
75, 000 
45, 000 
45, 000 
20, 000 
25, 000 
40, 000 
40, 000 
20, 000 
50, 000 
25, 000 

100, 000 
60, 000 
60, 000 
75, 000 
40, 000 
40, 000 

100, 000 
60, 000 
60, 000 
50, 000 
37, 500 

100, 000 

100, 000 

50,(00 

20, 000 

15, 000 

15, 000 

15, 000 

15. 000 

5,000 

10, 000 

2,000 

3,000 

3,000 

5,000 

5,000 

10, 000 

10,000 

27, 000 

200, 000 

150, 000 

30, 000 

35, 000 

30, 000 

35, 000 

35, 000 

35,000 

300, 000 

60, 000 
80, 000 
150, 000 
115,000 
110, 000 
100, 000 

25, 000 
100, 000 

80, 000 
150, 000 

100, 000 
50, 000 
150, 000 

100, 000 
125, 000 
100, 000 
50, 000 

140, 000 

60, 000 

200, 000 




Near Union Springs 


....do 


13 




....do 






Old Bay Fishery. . 
do 


....do 




13 


....do 




11 


....do 




Railroad crossing 


11 


....do 


....do 


11 


....do 




....do 


do . 


11 


....do 




....do 


Fulton 


May 24 


Spesutie Narrows. 
Old Bay Fishery.. 
do 


20, 000 

50, 000 
25, 000 

100, 000 
60, 000 
60, 000 
75, 000 
40, 000 
40, 000 

100, 000 
60, 000 
60, 000 

200, 000 






....do 


Blackbird Station 


13 


....do 


13 


....do 


....do 


Milford . 


May 2 

2 




Florida 


Railroad crossing 


....do 


....do 


Apr. 28 
May 2 

2 


....do 






....do 


. . do 


Railroad crossing 


....do 


.. do 


3 


....do 


...do .. 




7 


....do 


....do 




7 


....do 


....do 


Conyers „.. 

Railroad crossing 


29 


Spesutie Narrows. 
do 


... do 


30 


do 


27 


....do 




...do 






do 


100, 000 

50, 000 

160, 000 






12 


....do 


....do 






do 




La Cygne 




....do 


do 




....do 




do 


Railroad crossing 

do 




....do 




....do 




....do 




do 






....do 




.-..do 

... do 






....do 








....do 




....do 


Cottonwood Falls 




....do 




....do 




....do 




.... do 


do . 




....do 




...do .. 






....do 




....do 






....do 




....do 


El Dorado 




do 




...do 






....do 




....do 




May 28 


....do 


200, 000 
150, 000 
200, 000 






....do 


. do 




May 8 
8 


Salmon Creek 

....do 


Louisiana 

....do 


Railroad crossing 


8 


....do 




do .. 


...do 


8 


....do 




....do 


do 


8 


....do 




....do 


do 


8 


....do 




....do 




16 


Spesutie Narrows. 
....do 


300, 000 
140, 000 


Maryland 


Spesutie Narrows 

Cordova Station 

do . 


17 


do . 


17 


....do 


....do 


18 


....do 


150, 000 
225, 000 


....do 




19 


...do 


....do 




19 


....do 


...do 




19 


....do 


100, 000 

25, 000 
100, 000 

80, 000 
150, 000 

150, 000 


....do 


Spesutie Narrows 


21 


....do 


do ... 


21 


...do 


...do 


Spesutie Narrows 


24 


....do 


... do . 


24 


....do 


....do 


Spesutie Narrows 


26 


....do 


....do 


26 


...do 


....do 




26 


....do 


150, 000 

100, 000 

125, 000 

100, 000 

50, 000 

200, 000 


...do .. 


Spesutie Narrows 

.. do . 


27 


....do 


....do 


28 


... do 


...do . 


do 


29 


....do 


....do 




29 


....do 


do .. 


Spesutie Narrows 


30 


....do 


....do 


30 


....do 


...do . 




30 


....do 


200, 000 


....do 


Spesutie Narrows 









REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XLVII 
1879, to June 14, 1879, by United States Fish Commission. 



Introduction of fish. 



Stream. 



Pea River 

Conecuh River 

Tombigbee River 

Big "Wills Creek , 

Black "Warrior River — 

Little Red River 

Saline River 

Ouachita River 

Red River 

N anticoke River 

Appoquinimink Creek . . . 

Duck Creek 

Mispillion Creek 

Ocilla River 

Ockolockonee River 

Chattahoochee River — 

Allapahaw River 

Little River 

Ocmulgee River 

Ulcofanhanchee River . . 

Yellow River 

Tugaloo River 

Chattahoochee River — 



Coosa River 

Wabash River 

White River 

Marais- des Cyenes River. 

Blue River 

Republican River 

Solomon River 

Smoky River 

Marais des Cygnes River. 

Neosho River 

Cottonwood River 

do 

Doyle Creek 

Little River 

Cow River 

"Walnut River 

do 

Pawnee River 

Salt River 

do 

Roundaway Creek 

Tensas 

Bayou Macon 

Bceuf 

Clear Lake 

Ouacbita River 

Susquehanna River 



Miles Creek 

Wye Mills Creek . . . 

Wicomico River 

Patuxent River 

do 

Susquehanna River. 



do 

do 

Nanticoke River 

Susquehanna River . 



Pocomoke River 

Saint Michael's River. 
Susquehanna River ... 



do 

do 

Choptank River 

Susquehanna River . 



Chester Hirer 

CorsicaC ree'i 

Susquehanna River . 



Tributary of- 



Choctawhatchee River. 

Escambia River 

Mobile Bay 

Coosa River 

Tombigbee River 

Black River 

Ouachita River 

Black River 

Mississippi River 

Chesapeake Bay 

Delaware Bay 

do 

do . 

Gulf ofMexico 

do 

Appalachicola River. . . 

Suwanee River 

do 

Altamaha River 

Ocmulgee River 

do 

Savannah River 

Appalachicola River . . . 



Alabama River . . . 

Ohio River 

Wabash River 

Osage River 

Kansas River 

do 

do 

do 

Osage River 

Arkansas River. . . 

Neosho River 

do 

do 

Arkansas River. . . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Ohio River 

do 

Mississippi River. 

do 

Tensas River 

Ouachita River . . . 



Black River 

Chesapeake Bay 



do 

Miles Creek 

Chesapeake Bay 

do 

do 

do 



.do 
.do 
-do 
.do 

.do 
.do 
.do 

-do 

.do 
.do 
-do 

-do 
.do 
.do 



Transfer in charge 
of— 



L. Kumlien 

...do ... 

C. W. Schuerman . 

J.F.Ellis 

...do 

W. M. Russ 

...do 

...do 

.. do 

Thos.HughlettJr. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

C. W. Schuermann 

...do 

L. Kumlien 

C. W. Schuermann 

...do 

J. F.Ellis 

C."W. Schuermann 

...do 

H. E. Quinn ... 
...do 



...do 

...do 

Newton Simmons. 

J.F.Ellis 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

Newton Simmons. 

H. E. Quinn 

— do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

United States and 

Maryland. 
Thos.tlughlettjr. 

do 

Levin Campbell. . . 

J.F.Ellis 

....do 

United States and 

Maryland. 

do 

....do 

Thos.Hughlett.jr. 
United States and 

Maryland. 
Levin Campbell . . . 

do 

United States and 

Maryland. 

do 

....do 

Thos.Hughlett,.jr. 
United States and 

Maryland. 
Levin Campbell. .. 

do 

United States and 

Mary Land. 



Remarks. 



One-half of one can of fish died 
while taking it from Gaines- 
ville to the river. 



XLVIII REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

II. — Geographical record of distribution of shad from April 18, 1879, to 



Place whence 
taken. 



Spesntie Narrows 



...do 
...do 
...do 

...do 
...do 
...do 



...do 

...do 

...do 

Old Bay Fishery . 
Spesutie Narrows 

...do 

...do 



.do 
.do 

.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 

do 

.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
do 
.do 
.do 

do 

.do 



....do 
. . . .do 



...do 

Avoca 

.. do 

Spesutie Narrows 

.. do 

...do 

.. do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

.. do 

Scotch Hall Fish- 
ery, Avoca. 

Scotch Hall 



...do 

Avoca 

Scotch Hall . 

Avoca 

Scotch Hall . 

...do 

...do 

Avoca 

...do 

Scotch Hall . 

...do 

...do 



25 Avoca 



Number of fish- 



Originally 
taken. 



150, 000 
200, 000 



400, 000 

40, 000 
200, 000 
300, 000 

400, 000 
300, 000 
2(10, 000 
120, 000 
300, 000 



150, 000 

175, 000 
150, 000 

100, 000 

85, 000 

175, 000 

100, 000 

137, 000 
200, 000 
125, 000 
200, 000 



150, 000 

125, 000 
200, 000 



160, 000 
75, 000 

200, 000 

150, 000 

65, 000 

200, 000 



200, 000 



150, 000 

ioo'ooo 



50, 000 

30, 000 
70, 000 
30, 000 
70, 000 
100, 000 

50, 000 
25, 000 

100, 000 

100, 000 
25, 000 

60, 000 
100, 000 

100, 000 



Actually 
planted. 



150, 000 

100, 000 
100, 000 
400, 000 

40, 000 
200, 000 
300, 000 

400, 000 
300, 000 
200, 000 
120, 000 
150, 000 
125, 000 
150, 000 

175, 000 
150, 000 

100, 000 

85, 000 

175, 000 

100, 000 

137, 000 

200, 000 

125, 000 

50, 000 

25, 000 

25, 000 

50, 000 

50, 000 

150, 000 

105, 000 
140, 000 



160, 000 
75, 000 

200, 000 
150, 000 
25, 000 
50, 000 
50, 000 
50, 000 
50, 000 
50, 000 
75, 000 
75, 000 
75, 000 
75, 000 
100, 000 



50, 000 

30, 000 
70, 000 
30, 000 
70, 000 
100, 000 

50, 000J 

95, 000 

115, 000 j 

60, 000 
100, 000 

100, 000 



State. 



Maryland 



...do 
...do 
...do 



...do 
...do 
...do 

...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 

...do 
...do 

...do 
.. do 
...do 
...do 

...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 

...do 
...do 



...do 
...do 



...do 

Mississippi 
...do ...... 



...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Missouri 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

North Carolina 



...do 



...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 

...do 
..do 

..do 

..do 
...do 

..do 
..do 

...do 



Introduction of fish. 



Town or place. 



Speustie Narrows. 



Middletown .. 

do 

Battery Light 



Havre dc Grace... 
Elkton 

Spesutie Narrows . 



Battery Light 

Port Deposit 

Spesutie Narrows. 
Old Bay Fishery . . 

Princess Anne 

Newtown 

Spesutie Narrows. 



Cockeysville . . 
Battery Light 



Spesutie Narrows . 
Old Bay Fishery . . 

Relay Station 

Spesutie Narrows. 



Old Bay Fishery , 
Point of Bocks . , 

Patuxent 

Federalsburg 

Airey 's Station . . 

Cambridge 

Hillsborough 

Henderson 

Battery Light . . . 



Railroad crossing . 



Little Falls.. 
Port Deposit. 



Havre de Grace 

Jackson 

Meridian 

Ripley 

Railroad crossing 

do 

do 

Franklin 

Piedmont 

Poplar Bluffs 

Gates Springs 

15 miles from Arcadia 
Weldon 



Avoca 



Near Warsaw 

do 

Rocky Mount 

do . 

Near Warsaw 

Scotch Hall Fishery 
Pollocksville 



.do 



Near Milburnie . 
do 



Scotch Hall Fishery 
Near Kirby's Bridge 

(Warsaw). 
Mount Olive 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XLIX 

June 14, 1879, by United States Fisli Commission — Continued. 



Introduction of fish. 


Transfer in charge 
of— 




Stream. 


Tributary of— 


Remarks. 


Susquehanna River 


Chesapeake Bay 


United States and 

Maryland. 
Thos.Hughlett,jr. 






do 






do 


United States and 
Maryland. 




. .do 


do 




Elk Eiver 


do 


Thos.Hughlett.jr. 
United States and 
Maryland. 






do 




do .. 


do 




do 


do 


....do 




...do 


do 


.. do . 




do ■ . 


.. do . 


do 






do 


Thos.Hughlett.jr. 






do 






...do 


United States and 

Maryland. 
Thos.Hughlett,jr. 
United States and 

Maryland. 






do 






do 




.. do 


do 




do 


do 


...do 


Station No. 2. 




.-.do .. 


William Hamlin .. 
United States and 
Maryland. 


50 000 from Station No 2 




do 




do 








do 


J. F. Ellis 




Patuxent River 


do 

do 


W.M. Russ 

Thos.Hughlett.jr. 


50,000 from Station No. 2. 










do .. 


...do 






do 


....do 






do 


... do 






do 


United States and 

Maryland. 
N. Simmons 






do 


Nearly all in one can died. 

60,000 'fish lost before leaving 
Havre de Grace ; balance in 
good condition, turned over 
to Mr. Creveling, of Pa. 








• 
Chesapeake Bay ." 


J. F. Ellis 




United States and 
Maryland. 




do 








Gulf of Mexico 

Chickasawhee River 


J. F. Ellis . . 






C. W. Schuermann 
J. F. Elli3 












do 






...do 


do 








...do 






Mississippi River 

White River... 


L. Kumlien 

...do 








do 


do 


....do 








..do .. 


100,000 from Station No. 2. 






...do 




Atlantic Ocean 

Cape Fear River 


C.J.Huske 

S.G.Worth 

Tom Taylor 


Earliest fish out of egg. 


Albemarle Sound 


do 




Tar River 




J. A. Woodward . . 
. do 




do 








Cape Fear River 


C.J. Husko 

Tom Taylor 






C The 25,000 were 4 days old 






Z when taken up, and were 


do 


do .. 


...do . 


( 40 hours en route. 






W.M. Russ 

... do 


C The 25,000 were 4 days old 


do 


do 


< when taken up, and were 


Albemarle Sound 


Atlantic Ocean 

Cape Fear River 

do 


J. P. Heywood 

C.J.Huske 

J. A. Woodward . . 


( 28 hours en route. 


Goshen Creek 





L REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

II. — Geographical record of distribution of shad from April 18, 1879, to 





Place whence 
taken. 


Number 


of fish- 


State. 


Introduction of fish. 


Date. 


Originally 
taken. 


Actually 
planted. 


Town or place. 


Apr. 25 
29 




100, 000 
75, 000 
150, 000 
100, 000 
100. 000 
150, 000 
240, 000 

15, 000 
215, 000 
210,000 
250, 000 
500, 000 
100, 000 
325, 000 

75, 000 
160, 000 

250, 000 


100, 000 
75, 000 
150, 000 
100, 000 
90, 000 
150, 000 
100, 000 

15, 000 
215, 000 
210,000 
250, 000 
500, 000 
100, 000 


North Carolina 

....do 




do 




29 


do 


do i 




May 2 
2 


do 


....do 


do . 


...do 


....do 




3 


...do 


....do 




6 


...do 


North Carolina 

North Carolina 

....do 




8 


....do 




9 


Salmon Creek 

do 


do 


9 


....do 


do .. 


12 


do 


... do 


. .do 


13 


....do 


North Carolina 

Ohio 






Spesutie Narrows. 




Apr. 30 
May 3 






....do 


75, 000 


....do 




....do 


....do 






Spesutie Narrows . 


100, 000 
75, 000 
25, 000 
50, 000 
20. 000 
15, 000 

100, 000 

100, 000 
90, 000 
85, 000 
50, 000 
50, 000 
50, 000 
50, 000 

120, 000 
25, 000 

100, 000 
• 
75, 000 

150, 000 
75, 000 
95, 000 






2 


...do 




2 


do 




do 




2 


...do 




do . 




13 


Old Bay Fishery. . 
do 


20, 000 

15, 000 

200, 000 


....do 

....do 




13 




May 19 
19 


Spesutie Narrows 






do 


Dallas 


21 


....do 


175, 000 


....do 




21 


....do 


....do 




22 


...do 


200, 000 


....do 




22 


....do 


....do 




22 


...do 




do ... 




22 


do 




...do .. 




2 




120, 000 

25, 000 

100, 000 

75, 000 

150, 000 

75, 000 

95, 000 

225, 000 

100, 000 
250, 000 

225, 000 
200, 000 






3 


..do 


do 


Franklin 

Nottoway Station 

do 


6 


do 


....do 


7 


.do . 


....do .., 


7 


do . 


do 


do 


7 


do 


....do .. 


do 


7 


.. do 


....do 


do 


8 


...do 


....do 




13 


....do 


100, 000 
80, 000 

200, 000 
65, 000 
65, 000 
70, 000 
65, 000 
60, 000 


....do 




14 


...do 


do 




June 3 
9 


Spesutie Narrows. 


"West Virginia 






9 


do 


...do 


Grafton 


9 


do 




...do 




13 


do 


125, 000 


..do . 




13 


...do 


....do 


Railroad crossing 










■IJU'F, 


16, 842, 000 


15, 589, 500 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 
June 14, 1879, by United States Fish Commission— Continued. 



LI 



Introduction offish. 


Transfer in charge 
of— 




Stream. 


Tributary of— 


Remarks. 






W. M. Russ 

J. A. Woodward .. 
.. do 






Chowan River 








do 


do 


...do 








C.J.Huske 

J. A. Woodward . . 

C. J. Huske and 

Tom Taylor. 












Peedee River 

. do 








do 


do 






do 


...do 


W.MRuss 




do 


do 






Albemarle Sound 


H.E.Quinn 
















Charleston Haf bor 


J. A. Woodward . . 


lina nearly a total loss. 










C. W. Schuermann 
...do 


leaving Franklin, 2 more 
died before reaching Wel- 
don, balance died after 
leaving Wilmington, N. C. 




...do 






Mississippi River 


. do 






. do 






Tennessee River 


J.F.Ellis 


Station No. 2. 




do 






Gulf of Mexico .. 


H.E.Quinn 






do 






do 


L. Kumlien 

...do 






do 




do 


...do 


C. W. Schuermann 
...do 










Guadalupe River 




...do 




....do 


. do 








Tom Taylor 

S. G.Worth 

J. A. Woodward & 
G. H. Williams. 

G.H.Williams.... 
, J. A. Woodward . . 

W.M.Russ 

do 
















do 


...do . 




do 


do 




...do 


.. do 




do 


do 










Shipped by steamer from Nor- 
folk for Crisfield. Heavy 
storm caused a delay and 
all fish died. 


do 


do 


Taylor and Wood- 
ward. 
J.F.Ellis 




Chowan River 

Chesapeake Bay 






H.E.Quinn 

L. Kumlien 

. . do . . 


80,000 died before leaving 
Norfolk, Va. 






Tygart'a Valley 


do 




West Fork River 


do 


.. do . 








H.E.Quinn 


25,000 from Station No. 2. 















APPENDIX A. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



I -THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 



By Prof. W. G. Farlow. 



INTBODUCTION. , 

This report is intended, with the exception of the Diatomes, to 
include all the marine species at present known to occur on the 
coast of the United States from New Jersey to Eastport, Me., and 
a few species are mentioned which, although they have not yet been 
found within bur limits, are nevertheless to be expected from the 
fact that they occur on the neighboring coast of the British provinces. 
In preparing the report I have attempted to present, in a compact and 
more or less popular form, a description of the diiferent orders and species 
of sea- weeds, so that persons who frequent the coast of New England, 
and especially those in the service of the Fish Commission, may have 
at hand the means of determining the forms found in our waters. The 
descriptive portion of the report is preceded by a short account of the 
general structure and classification of sea-weeds, which is necessary in 
the present case, because there is no generalty accessible book in the 
English language which gives a good account of the modern views of 
the classification and structure of algae. 

The list of papers relating directly to New England algae is very 
meager. In January, 1817, Prof. J. W. Bailey published in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Arts and Sciences a paper entitled Notes on the Algce of 
the United States. He enumerates 50 species found in New England, 
but some of the number are apparently erroneously credited to our 
coast. Two continuations of the article appeared in May, 1847, and 
July, 1S48, in the former of which 19, and in the latter 17, species new 
to New England are enumerated. In 1847 Mr. S. T. Olney, in 
the Proceedings of the Providence Franklin Society, published a 
paper on Rhode Island Plants, in which he mentions 45 species 
of algae. Most of the species in the papers above mentioned had 
been submitted to Prof. W. H. Harvey, of Dublin. The classic work 
of Harvey, the Nereis Bo reali- Americana, of which the first two parts 
were published in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge in 1852, 
and the third part in 1857, is the only elaborate account ever published 
with regard to the sea- weeds of the United States, and it has always been 
the standard authority on the subject. Since the appearance of Harvey's 
great work comparatively little has been added to our knowledge of the 
seaweeds of New England. In the Ileport of the United States Fish 



Z REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND. FISHERIES. 

Commission for 1870-'72 is a List of the Marine Algce of the South Coast 
of New England, in which 103 species are enumerated; and in the report 
for 1875 is a List of the Marine Algce of the United States, intended as a 
catalogue of the sea- weeds exhibited by the Commission at the Centen- 
nial Exposition, in which additions were made to the New England flora. 
Besides the papers referred to, I would mention Algce Rhodiacew, by S.T. 
Olney, published in 1871; List of Marine Algce Collected near Bastport, 
Me.,, by Prof. D. C. Eaton* ; two papers by the writer in the Proceed- 
ings of the American Academy of Boston t; and List of the Marine Algce 
growing&in Long Island Sound within 20 miles of New Haven, by F. W. 
Hall!. A series of dried specimens has been published conjointly by 
Dr. C. L. Anderson, Prof. D. C. Eaton, and myself, under the title of 
Algce Am.-Borealis. The 130 species already published, in three fasciculi 
of 30 sets each, contain a number of the more interesting New England 
forms. A set has been presented to the Fish Commission, and that, to- 
gether with the large set prepared for the Centennial Exhibition, to be 
deposited hereafter in the National Museum, will place in the hands of 
the members of the Commission sufficient material to render the task of 
determining our species comparatively easy. 

It will be seen that we rely almost wholly on Harvey's Nereis for our 
knowledge of New England algae, and it is surprising that so few species 
have been added to the flora in recent years. Of the species recently 
added, by far the larger number are insignificant in size, the rare Ne- 
mastoma Balrdii being almost the only species which would attract the 
eye by its beauty. Professor Harvey himself spent but a few weeks on 
the New England coast, and we must either suppose that the collectors 
of Harvey's time were more acute than those of the last few years, or 
else that the New England flora is very poor. That the flora is not very 
rich in species, even for a temperate region, is probably true, but it is 
too soon to assume that it is exceptionally poor. 

The number of species which are so large and striking as to attract 
the amateur collector is nowhere large in temperate regions, and the 
so-called richness of a flora is generally dependent upon the number of 
small and insignificant species, which are recognized only by those who 
make a careful microscopic study. One reason for the apparent pov- 
erty of our marine flora is that our collectors have generally been ama- 
teurs, who pass a few weeks upon the shore and gather only the more 
beautiful and striking species. The number of persons who make micro- 
scopic examinations of our algae is, however, increasing, and, as a result, 
numbers of small, but interesting, species have within a short space of 
time been brought to light, and it now seems likely that the New Eng- 
land flora is by no means so poor as was formerly supposed. The sever- 

* Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. ii, part 2, 1873. 

t List of the Marine Algae of the United States, Proc. Am. Acad. Art. and Sci., voL, 
x (n. s. ii), p. 351. On some Algee new to the United States, 1. c, vol. xii (n. s. iv), 
p. 235. 

% Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, vol. vi, No. 21, Sept., 1876. 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 6 

ity of the climate, too, renders it difficult to collect during the winter 
and early spring months, when the species to be found are to a great 
extent different from those which flourish in summer. A rich harvest 
might be expected by an algologist who should pass the winter and 
spring at some exposed point upon the coast. The summer species may 
be said to be tolerably well known, but our knowledge of the winter 
forms is very deficient. 

For the purpose of examining the algae of the coast, I have visited 
Eastport, Portland, Cape Ann, Wood-s Holl, Mass., where I passed two 
summers with the Commission, Newport, Noank, Conn., and Green- 
port, L. I. Uu fortunately, I have not been able to make any excursions 
during the winter months, except to the coast near Boston, at Nahant and 
Marblehead, and my knowledge of the winter species is derived from 
specimens sent by correspondents. 

In this connection I would express my sincere thanks to correspond- 
ents who have aided me by specimens and information, and I would 
acknowledge especially my obligations to Prof. D. C. Eaton, of New 
Haven ; Mr. Horace Averill and Mr. A. E. Young, of Brooklyn ; Mr. 
C. B. Fuller, of Portland ; Mrs. A. L. Davis and Mrs. M. H. Bray, of 
Gloucester; Miss M. A. Booth, Mrs. Corcoran, Mrs. J. T. Lusk, Mrs. 
Beebe, Mr. F. S. Collins, and others, whose names are appended to the 
different species described. I am particularly indebted to the Fish Com- 
mission for their valuable aid in enabling me to dredge and collect in 
various interesting localities in Southern Massachusetts^ at Noank, and 
at Gloucester, and to Mr. Alexander Agassiz for facilities for examining 
the coast at Newport. With the materials at hand I have attempted to 
review critically the species of our coast, and for this purpose it was neces- 
sary to compare them with the algae not only of Great Britain, but of 
the other shores of Europe. I am, above all, indebted to Dr. Edouard 
Bornet, of Paris, who has constantly furnished information, both with 
regard to structure and nomenclature, without which it would have been 
impossible for me to form an accurate judgment concerning American 
species. I would also return my thanks to Prof. J. G. Agardh, of Lund ; 
to Prof. J. E. Areschoug, Dr. W. B. Wittrock, and Dr. F. J. Kjellman, 
of Upsala, through whose kindness I have been able to examine very 
complete sets of Scandinavian and Arctic alga?, which have a special 
bearing on the New England flora ; to Prof. E. Perceval Wright, of Dublin, 
who has obligingly allowed me to examine specimens in the Harveyan 
Herbarium at Trinity College; to M. A. Le Jolis, of Cherbourg, and Prof. 
J. T. Eostafinski, of Cracow, for valuable notes on Laminaricc ; and to 
Mr. F. Hauck, of Trieste, for sets of Adriatic algae. 

If we regard the marine vegetation of the northeastern coast of the 
United States as a whole, we see that, beginning at Eastport, we have a 
strongly marked arctic flora, which is a direct continuation of that of 
Greenland and Newfoundland. As we proceed southward towards Bos- 
ton, although the luxuriance of growth is less, the general appear- 



4 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

ance of tlie flora is still unmistakably arctic, if we except a few shel- 
tered localities. The northern shore of Cape Cod, from its sandy charac- 
ter, is practically destitute of all species of algge, except a few forms which 
are here and there found growing on the eel-grass. As soon as we pass 
to the south of Cape God, however, the flora assumes an entirely different 
aspect. The arctic and Northern European forms have disappeared, ex- 
cept at a few exposed points like Gay Head and Montauk, and, in their 
place, we find a number of species, asDasya elegans, Rliabdonia tenera, 
Chondria tenuissima, Sargassum vulgare, characteristic of warmer seas. 

The Long Island flora, which may be said to extend from Cape Cod to 
New Jersey, has a good deal in common with the northern part of the 
Adriatic. Among the more abundant species are Basya elegans, Poly- 
siphonia variegata, and, if we accept Zanardmi's view, our common 
Chondria Baileyana and Lomentaria Baileyana are identical with C. 
striolata and L. uncinata, all species common near Venice. From New 
Jersey to Charleston, if we except Norfolk and one or two points on the 
North Carolina coast, almost no sea-weeds are known, presumably on 
account of the unfavorable nature of the shore, although, it must be 
confessed, the coast has never been carefully explored. Even with 
regard to the coast of New Jersey we have but little information. A 
number of Floridece, usually growing attached to eel-grass, has been 
reported from Beesley's Point by Samuel Ashmead,* but it is almost 
certain that southward from that point, very little is to be expected. 

It will be seen that Cape Cod is the dividing line between a marked 
northern and a southern flora. In fact, the difference between the florse 
of Massachusetts Bay and Buzzards Bay, which are only a few miles 
apart, is greater than the difference between those of Massachusetts Bay 
and the Bay of Fundy, or between those of Nantucket and Norfolk. 
This difference in the flora corresponds precisely with what is known of 
the fauna. That Cape Cod formed a dividing line was known to Har- 
vey, and subsequent observation has only shown, on the one hand, 
that the flora north of Cape Cod is more decidedly arctic than he sup- 
posed, and that, on the other hand, south of the cape it is more de- 
cidedly that of warm seas. The general fact of the distinctness of 
the two florae is not weakened by the knowledge that we now possess, 
owing to the investigations of the Fish Commission, of the existence in 
a few sheltered localities north of Cape Cod of some of the character- 
istic species of Long Island Sound, and in a few exposed spots south of 
the cape of northern species. Of the more common species found along 
the whole coast of New England, by far the greater part are also com- 
mon in Europe, as Delesseria sinuosa, Corallina officinalis, Hildenbrandtia 
rosea, Polysiphonia violacea, P. fastigiata, P. nigrescens, P. urceolata, 
Bhodymenia palmata, Chondrus crispus, Cystoclonium purpurascens, Ahn- 
feltia plicata, Phyllophora Brodiwi, P. membranifolia, Polyides rotundus, 
Ceramium rubrum, Ptilota elegans, Leathesia tuberiformis, Chordaria Jla- 

* Fid. Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol vi, p. 147, vol. x, p. 8. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 5 

gelllformis, C. divaricata. Desmarestia aculeata, B.viridis, Phyllitis fascia, 
Scytosiphon lomentarlus, the common Fuel and Laminario3 7 not to men- 
tion a large number of Chlorosporew and Cryptophycew. But a very 
few exclusively American species are found throughout our limits. 
Most of the purely American species are either confined to the shore 
south of Cape Cod or else to the shore from Boston northward. In 
fact, a good share of our common sea-weeds could be recognized from 
the figures in the Phycologia Brittanica. 

Let us consider next the characteristic species between Boston and 
Eastport. In studying these we must turn not to works on the algae of 
France, or Great Britain, but rather to those on Scandinavian algae. It is 
especially instructive to examine the Algse Scandiuavicse of Professor 
Areschoug in connection with our own forms. The resemblance is at 
once striking. At Eastport we have a magnificent growth of Lamina- 
riw and Fuel, which predominate over all other forms. The larger spe- 
cies are even found high up on the shore, and we find growing in pools 
Saccorhiza dermatodea, Laminaria longicruris, Agarum Turneri, Bicty- 
osiphon hippuroides, Halosacclon ramentaceum, and Monostroma Blytil; at 
low- water mark Lithothamnion fasclculatum abounds ; and Futhora cris- 
tata, Belesseria sinuosa, B. alata, and Callithamnion Pylaiswi can easily 
be collected without wading. The rocks are covered with crusts of Pe- 
trocelis cruenta, and Balfsia verrucosa, and the luxuriant Fucus evanes- 
cens. With the exception of Agarum Turner i, which is not found in 
Europe, but which occurs in the North Pacific, and C. Pylalscel, which 
is peculiar to America, all the species named are found in the north of 
Norway. Futhora cristata does not appear south of Scotland, where it is 
rare, and Laminaria longicruris is scarcely known south of the northern 
part of Scotland. As we proceed southwards from Eastport to Nahant, 
near Boston, we find that the species named disappear into deeper water, 
and, with the exception of Monostroma Blyttil, are not generally seen ex- 
cept when washed ashore. Blctyosiphon hippuroides has not yet been seen 
south of Eastport, but Saccorhiza dermatodea, known to Harvey only 
from Newfoundland, is now known to occur at Marblehead, near Nahant, 
and Halosacclon is not rare in deep pools at Gloucester, while Monos- 
troma Blyttii, in rather a small form, is found on exposed rocks at Little 
Nahant. Fucus evanescens, which is as abundant as F. veslculosus at 
Eastport, seems to be replaced on the Massachusetts coast by F. fur- 
catus. Calliblepharis ciliata of Harvey's Nereis, found from Cape Ann 
northwards is now known to be the same as Bhodophyllls veprecula, a 
common species on northern coasts. As yet none of the Scandinavian 
species of Phloeospora have been found with us, but it is not unlikely 
that they might be found by a botanist who should collect at Eastport 
in the spring. It is hardly likely that Phloeospora tortilis does not occur 
with us, for it is not uncommon on the Norwegian coast, and was collected 
in Greenland by Dr. Kiimlien, of the Howgate expedition. Polyslpho- 
nia arctica may perhaps also be expected, as well as Chwtopteris plumosa, 



6" REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

a common species of Greenland and Northern Europe. Odontlialia den- 
tata, a common species of Northern Europe, has not yet been found 
within our limits, although it is common at Halifax. 

If north of Boston the principal feature of the marine vegetation is 
the enormous mass of large Fuci and Phceosporece, the Floridece forming 
an insignificant part of the flora, the chief feature of the flora south of 
Cape Cod is the preponderance of Floridece and the comparative insig- 
nificance of the Fuci and Phceosporece. In the case of the sea-weeds of 
Long Island Sound we cannot so directly refer them to species of any 
part of Europe as was possible in the case of the northern flora. Sev- 
eral of the more common and striking species, as I have already said, 
are identical with or closely related to Adriatic forms. We are not, how- 
ever to push the comparison too far. The development of Fuci and 
Laminarice in Long Island Sound, although meager compared with what 
we find north of Boston, is far beyond anything we find in the Adriatic, 
and, on the other hand, we do not have in Long Island Sound the numer- 
ous Corallinece and siphonaceous Chlorosporece, which are common in the 
Adriatic, and which unmistakably indicate a subtropical flora. Grinnellia 
americana, Dasya elegans, Rhabdonia tenera 7 Lomentaria Bailey ana, Sar- 
gassum vulgare, and most of the common species of Long Island Sound, 
are found as far south as the West Indies. 

A consideration of the apparent exceptions to the law of the distribu- 
tion of sea- weeds on our coast is not without interest. In the cold waters 
off Gay Head and Block Island, Futhora cristata, in a depauperate form, 
is sometimes found, and at exposed points we find a decided growth of 
Laminarice, especially the digitate forms. Ftilota serrata, a typical 
northern species, has also been found in a much reduced form at the 
Thimble Islands, near New Haven. 

In the town of Gloucester, near the village of Squam, is a small sheet 
of water called Goose Cove. The narrow entrance to the cove has been 
dammed up, and the water from the ocean enters only for a short time 
at the high tide. In this cove, to my surprise, I found Rhabdonia tenera, 
Gracilaria multipartita, Chondria Baileyana, and a large mass of Poly- 
siphonia JSarveyi and P. Olneyi. In short, the flora was entirely dif- 
ferent from anything I had ever seen before north of Cape Cod, and 
entirely different from that of the adjacent shore, where the flora is en- 
tirely arctic. Furthermore, Squam is on the northern and iimer side 
of Cape Ann, and as there is no connection of Goose Cove with the 
southern side of Cape Ann, and inasmuch as no vessels ever enter the 
cove, it is very difficult to account for the presence of the sea-weeds 
which grow there. The water which is confined by the dam is much 
warmer than that of the surrounding ocean, which would enable the 
species of warm waters to live if they were once introduced, but how 
are we to suppose that the spores were brought into the cove? It is 
hard to believe that they could have been brought by currents, for, as a 
matter of fact, the currents move in the wrong direction to produce such 



THE MARINE ALGJ3 OF NEW ENGLAND. 7 

an effect. Certainly, Rhabdonia tenera is quite unknown in any other spot 
north of -Cape Cod, the nearest locality being the coast near Nantucket, 
and it is very difficult to conceive that spores of that delicate species would 
survive in a very cold current, which not only must carry them outside 
of Cape Cod and across Massachusetts Bay, but also around to the shel- 
tered cove at the point where Cape Ann joins the mainland at the 
north. If we compare the exceptional case of Goose Cove in the north 
with Gay Head and Montauk in the south, it seems to be the rule that 
wherever the water is cold enough, we meet arctic species, and wherever 
it is warm enough we have Long Island species, regardless of the 
remoteness of localities where the species naturally abound, and, as far 
as we know, of the absence of currents -to transport the spores. 

Our marine flora is marked by the complete absence of any members 
of the order Dictyotacece. Haliseris polypodioides has been found on the 
coast of North Carolina and, at Charleston, Padina pavonia begins to 
become common, but north of Norfolk not a single species of the order 
is known, the northern species referred by Harvey in the Nereis to the 
Dictyotacece being now known to belong to another order. Nor does 
any species of Tilopteris or Cutleria occur in New England. The ab- 
sence of some of the common European genera of Floridece is also wor- 
thy of notice. The genus Nitophyllum is entirely wanting north of 
North Carolina, and, although a species is said to have been collec- 
ted off Cape Fear, and although JSf. ocellatum is occasionally found 
at Key West, this genus, which forms one of the more striking fea- 
tures of the European flora, may be said to be practically almost un- 
known anywhere on our Atlantic coast. Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, 
which occurs as far north as Norway, although rare, may perhaps be 
found with us. No species of Schizymenia or the related genera is found 
with us although the western coast is perhaps too rich in species of 
this perplexing group. Plocamium coccineum, one of the commonest red 
sea- weeds not only of Europe but of our west coast, is known with us 
in only one doubtful case. Gelidium corneum, which is abundant in al- 
most all parts of the world, is only occasionally iound in New England, 
and then only in the reduced form, separated by some as a distinct species, 
under the name of G. crinale. It may here be remarked that it is often 
a difficult matter to determine whether some of the more beautiful sea- 
weeds of Europe really occur with us or not. Our amateur collectors 
have frequently exchanged with European collectors, and one not un- 
frequently sees specimens of Plocamium coccineum, CallophyUls laciniata 
and other European species prized for their beauty, which are said 
to have been collected on our own coast. But inasmuch as no careful 
collector has found the species in question, I have considered it too unsafe 
to accept the statements of amateurs who, to my knowledge, have re- 
ceived specimens from Europe, and who, in general, are not accurate as- 
to dates and localities. The preceding remark will not, however, apply 
to the species of Fucus and the coarser sea- weeds. Fucus serratus, very 



8 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

common in Europe, is very rare with us, having been found in but one 
locality in the United States and one in Nova Scotia. Fucus canalicu- 
lars, Rimantlialia lorea, and the common European Gystoseirce are 
quite wanting. The nearly ubiquitous Codium tomentosum is a species 
which has not yet been found on our northern coast. On the other 
hand some species, as Spyridia filamentosa and Ghordaria divaricate are 
more abundant in New England than in Europe, and the same is prob- 
ably true of Eutliora cristata and Ptilota serrata, if we except perhaps 
the arctic zone. 

It is evident that a great deal remains to be done before we can say that 
we have as accurate a knowledge of our marine flora as we have of that of 
most European countries. Hereafter any advance in the knowledge of our 
marine algae must be made by a careful microscopic study on the shore. 
Probably all the large and striking species are now known, or if any re- 
main to be discovered their discovery will be by mere chance, and not by 
any systematic search. What is especially needed is information about our 
winter and spring forms, and this can be best obtained by persons who 
either live on the shore or spend several months there, so as to be able to 
take advantage of the comparatively few days for collecting, which oc- 
cur in our severe winters. The habits and structure of our Laminarice 
need careful examination, microscopic as well as in the gross. The 
whole order of the Phwosporem, in fact, which abound in spring, should 
be studied, especially the genus Fctocarpus and its allies. Our Cladophorce 
are in great confusion, and in the present paper I have been able to 
contribute but little towards their proper arrangement. Several years 
of study are necessary for the purpose, and, in fact, the task cannot well 
be accomplished until the European species are better known. Our 
Ulvece are not in much better condition. The TJlvce proper, thanks to 
the elaborate account of the genus given in Le Jolis's Liste des Algues 
Marines de Cherbourg, can be tolerably well made out ; but the deter- 
mination of some of the species of Monostroma is merely approximate. 
The Gryptophycew, which inhabit the shores and brackish localities, are 
very numerous, and a large number of forms probably remain to be dis- 
covered. A study of the last-named order is, moreover, not without a 
practical bearing, as is shown in another part of the report, by the fact 
that the cause of the so-called red fish is due to the growth of an alga of 
this order. It is probable that we have with us nearly all the European 
species of this order, and an excellent guide for our students, is the ad- 
mirable paper by Warming on the Bacteria of the Danish. Coast.* 

Another group requiring study is the Squamariece, a small order con- 
sisting of species, which form crusts on stones and shells, often in deep 
water. As a rule comparatively little in the way of sea- weeds is found 
by dredging ; but an examination of shelly and gravelly bottoms for 
Squamariw is to be desired. Dredging is most successful between 10 

* Om nogle ved Danmarks Kyster levende Bakterier, in Videns. Med. Natur. Foren., 
Copenhagen, 1875. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 9 

and 30 fathoms, and at a greater depth than 50 fathoms almost nothing 
is found, ffhe oyster-beds of the coast should be carefully searched for 
Cutleriece and other sea- weeds found in similar localities in Europe. Fi- 
nally, a thorough exploration of the tidal rivers and sheltered coves of 
the eastern coast of New England is much to be desired, in order that 
we may know to what extent the southern forms extend northward 
when they find sufficiently warm water and a suitable place of growth. 

From an economical point of view, but little need be said with regard 
to our sea-weeds as an article of food. Chondrus crispus, the Irish moss, 
as it is called in this country, is the only species of any commercial value. 
It is collected in considerable quantities at several localities, but espe- 
cially at Hingham, Mass. It is used for making sea- moss farine, and is 
also employed to some extent by brewers for clarifying beer. As yet the 
use of Porphyra vulgaris, the laver, one of the common species for making 
soups, has not been introduced. The Chinese employed in the shoe fac- 
tories at North Adams, Mass., import the same species from China, not 
apparently knowing that they could obtain an abundance of it in Mas- 
sachusetts. The dulse, Rhodymenia palmata, is sold to some extent in the 
seaport towns, especially in Boston, where it is eaten principally by 
sailors and the Irish population. It is generally imported from the Brit- 
ish provinces, but it could be obtained in abundance anywhere north of 
Boston, or even in some places in Long Island Sound. The great use of our 
sea- weeds is for the purpose of making fertilizers, and immense quanti- 
ties are carted from the beaches and spread over the land near the shore. 
Usage, however, varies at different localities, for at Eastport the larger 
sea- weeds, which are practically the same species that are highly esteemed 
in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, are considered of little value in 
comparison with animal manure. As far as I know, there are no manu- 
factories of iodine or soda salts on our coast, although our species greatly 
resemble those used in Scotland for the purpose. The stem of the 
devil's aprons, Laminarice, are used by surgical-instrument makers in 
the manufacture of sponge-tents. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

W. G. FABLOW. 

Cambridge, January 1, 1880. 



STKUQTUBE AND CLASSIFICATION OF SEA- WEEDS. 

With a very few exceptions, all the plants of our coast which may be 
said really to grow in the water belong to the division of the vegetable 
kingdom known as the Cryptogams, or plants having no true flowers or 
seeds. Only two species of flowering plants are commonly found sub- 
merged in salt water, viz, Zostera marina, the salt-water eel-grass, and 
Ruppia maritima. The former is familiar to every one who has ever 
been to the shore, and is sometimes washed ashore in immense quanti- 



10 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

ties. The latter is a common species of brackish bays and coves. If 
we add Zannichellia palustris, a species closely related to Rtcppia, and a 
few species of Potamogeton, which occasionally make their way into 
brackish-water ditches and streams, we have completed the list of flower- 
ing plants which the student of marine vegetation is likely to meet on our 
coast. Excepting the few flowering plants just named, and a lew Characece, 
an order whose place is doubtful but which is now generally placed near 
the mosses, which probably inhabit our brackish waters, our marine 
flora consists wholly of Thallophytes, the lowest division of the Crypto- 
gams, the species of which are supposed to be destitute of any true axis 
and leaves such as are found in the higher plants. The Thallophytes have 
been divided iuto three classes, Algw, Fungi, and Lichens. This classifi- 
cation, as we shall see, is based on physiological rather than on morpho- 
logical grounds, and is very far from being satisfactory; but, although 
new classifications have been proposed, which, in time, will almost cer- 
tainly supersede the old, at present it is impossible to ignore the old 
divisions, which may be said rather to be convenient than to be based 
on accurate knowledge of structure and development. 

Of the three old groups, the Algce may be described as Thallophytes 
which grow submerged in water or in wet places, which contain chloro- 
phyl, or leaf-green, and which are able to transform inorganic into or- 
ganic material, or, in other words, to support themselves from the inor- 
ganic matter about them. The Fungi do not grow submerged, do not 
contain chlorophyl, and are unable to change inorganic into organic 
matter, and hence must live as parasites upon bodies which contain organ- 
ized matter. The Lichens were supposed by the older writers to be distinct 
from alga3 and fungi, and characterized by having in their interior certain 
green bodies known as goniclia. It is to the first of the three divisions 
named, the algse, that, with very few exceptions, all the strictly marine 
plants belong. How unscientific the division into algce, fungi, and lichens 
is may be seen by the fact that on our coast there is one species of fuugus 
which grows submerged in salt water, an undescribed species of Sphasria, 
which is parasitic on the stems of the large devil's apron, Laminaria 
longicruris. A few species of lichens grow between tide-marks, and sev- 
eral in places exposed to the spray. Verrucaria mucosa T. Fr. is abun- 
dant on our northern coast, and might be mistaken by a collector for 
Isactis plana. Verrucaria maura T. Fr., and one or two other Verru- 
carice, are rather common near high-tide mark, but are not generally sub- 
merged. Practically speaking, then, when we speak of our sea- weeds 
we refer merely to the alga3, which constitute ninety-nine one-hundredths 
of the flora. 

Harvey, in his Nereis, divided algae into three classes, Melanospermem, 
Bhodospermew, and Chlorospermew. These three classes are distin guished 
by their color, the first being olive-brown, the second red or purple, 
the third green. This classification, which answered tolerably well for 
distinguishing the species at sight rests, upon what modern researches 



THE MARINE ALG^S OF NEW ENGLAND. 11 

have shown to he erroneous views with regard to the structure and de- 
velopment of the different species, and Harvey's three classes no longer 
serve as ft basis for classification. The Melanospermcce and Chloro- 
spermcce are entirely rearranged, aud although the Rhodospermece are still 
considered to form a natural group, the older name, Floridece, employed 
by Agardh, is used to designate them. The basis of classification is the 
structure of the fruit and the organs of fructification, in the knowledge of 
which a great advance has been made during the last twenty years. 

Cryptophyce^]. — The lowest of all the algce are those which belong to 
the order Cryptophycece, in which, as yet, the only reproduction known is 
by means of non-sexual spores and hormogonia. Most of the species of 
the order are bluish green, but some are purplish, brown, or even pink. 
The bluish-green coloring matter is due to the presence of phycochrome, 
which is a mixture of chlorophyl and phycocyanin. The last is extracted 
by water when the algse containing it are bruised, the chlorophyl being 
soluble in alcohol. The species of Cryptophycece consist of cells which are 
usually roundish, or disk-shaped, and which are generally held together 
by a mass of gelatinous substance which surrounds them. The order 
is divided into two suborders, according to the arrangement of the cells 
in relation to the jelly. The first suborder, the Chroococcacece, includes 
all the species in which the cells are either isolated or arranged in amor- 
phous or more or less spherical masses. Some of the species of this 
suborder are very small, and in some of the modern classifications are 
placed with the Bacteria, in the order Protophytes. The mode of growth 
of the Chroococcacece is by division of the cells, first into two, then into 
four, and so on. The masses which they form may be called colonies, 
each cell forming a distinct individual, which is usually capable of living 
apart from its fellows. Spores, which are known in only one species, are 
formed by some of the cells enlarging and taking on a thick cell- wall. 
JSothing like sexual reproduction is seen either in this or the next sub- 
order. 

NosTOCHiNEiE. — In the second suborder of the Cryptophycece, the N~os- 
tochinece, the cells are always attached to one another in the form of fila- 
ments, to which the name of trichomata is given. The trichomata may 
either be free, as in Oscillaria (PI. I, fig. 5), inclosed in a sheath, as in 
Lyngbya (PI. I, fig. 4), or packed in a dense mass of jelly, as in Rivu- 
laria (PI. II, fig. 2). The cells composing the trichomata are usually 
disk-shaped or cylindrical, but are sometimes nearly spherical. 

Besides the ordinary cells, we find in many species a second kind of 
cell, distinguished from the others by its glassy appearance and its yel- 
lowish or brownish rather than bluish-green color. (PI. I, fig. 3, a; 
fig. G, b ; PI. II, figs. 1 and 2, a.) They are called heterocysts, and are 
found sometimes scattered amongst the other cells, and sometimes at the 
end of the trichomata, their position often serving as a generic character. 
The reproduction of the Nostocltinece takes place in two ways, by hormo- 



12 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

gonia and by spores. Both modes, however, are entirely of a non-sexual 
character. In the genera with numerous heterocysts, as tfostoc, the hor- 
mogonia are formed as follows : The cells intermediate between two hete- 
rocysts escape in the form of a small chain, called a hormogonium, and swim 
about with a spiral motion through the water. They at length become 
quiescent and begin to divide both transversely and longitudinally. Of 
the cells thus formed some become heterocysts, and in process of time a new 
Nostoc is formed. In the species destitute of heterocysts, or in which the 
heterocysts are few in number, the hormogonia are formed in a different 
manner. At certain points in the sheath of the trichoma constrictions 
are formed, and the cells between the constriction adhere to one another 
to form a hormogonium. We thus have formed a necklace of hormo- 
gonia, which are capable of moving upwards and downwards in the 
sheath until finally it is ruptured and the hormogonia make their escape. 
When free they are capable of moving about to a slight degree in the 
water, and eventually come to rest, and new heterocysts and trichomata 
are then formed by cell division. 

The so-called spores of the NostocMnece are formed by the enlargement 
of some of the ordinary cells to several times their original length until 
they become ovoid or cylindrical (PI. I, fig. 3, b). They are found in a num- 
ber of genera but in a number of others they have not yet been observed. 
They usually occupy a fixed position with regard to the heterocyst, so that 
they are used as a generic mark. When ripe they have a dense outer 
covering and become at times quite dark colored. They are more resist- 
ant than the ordinary cells and do not usually germinate until after a 
period of rest. In germination, which has only been observed in a few 
instances, the outer wall of the spore bursts open and the contents grow 
out in the form of a filament, in which by transverse division the ordi- 
nary cells are formed. 

The Cryptophycece are algae which flourish only in summer, but which 
can be found to some extent at all seasons. Most of them form slimy 
expansions on mud, wharves, stones, and on dead algae. They are not 
often found submerged at any depth, but are most abundant near high- 
water mark. A few filamentous species attain a length of some inches 
but only one, Lyngbya majuscula, is sufficiently striking to have gained 
a popular name — mermaiWs hair. The species of Oscillaria, Spirulina, 
and Beggiatoa, are capable of oscillating rapidly, but in this respect 
the marine species are not so well marked as the species of fresh water. 
The Beggiatoce which are found on putrefying algae give off the dis- 
agreeable odor of sulphuretted hydrogen often noticed at the sea-shore 
in hot weather. The species of Gryptophycece are very widely diffused, 
and, with two exceptions, our forms are all common in Europe. 

Zoospores. — This order includes not only the greater part of the 
Chlorospermece of Harvey's Nereis, with the exception of the Oscillatoria- 
cece, which belong to the Cryptopliycece, but also the Laminariacew and all 
the Dictyotacece which Harvey attributes to the New England coast. Al- 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 13 

though the species included in this large order differ from one another in 
size and habit to an extent that would certainly forbid their being placed 
together, if we considered merely the character of the frond, yet they re- 
semble one another very closely in their mode of reproduction, which is 
accomplished by means of zoospores. The Zoosporece are divided into four 
suborders, the Ghlorosporece 1 or Chlorozoosporew, as the name is sometimes 
written, the Phceosporece, or Phceozoosporece, the Bryopsidece, and the Bo- 
trydiece. The former are abundant in both fresh and salt water. They 
especially frequent brackish waters and high tide-pools. The mass of the 
vegetation in brackish rivers is formed of species of this order. The species 
are either filamentous or else in the form of green membranes, as in the sea- 
lettuces, Ulvce, which abound in muddy places between tide-marks. The 
contents of any of the cells may be transformed into zoospores, which 
escape from the mother cell usually at daybreak. The zoospores are of 
two kinds, microzoospores and macrozoospores. The latter are produced 
few in number in the mother cell, and when they have escaped into the 
water they are seen to be furnished with four cilia placed at one end, 
and with a dark red spot on one side. After swimming about for a 
short time they come to rest, the cilia disappear, a wall of cellulose is 
formed around the zoospore, which then begins to divide and produce a 
plant like that from which it came. The microzoospores are borne in 
considerable numbers in the mother cell, and when they escape they are 
seen to have only two cilia at one end, and a dark red spot on the side. 
The microzoospores, after swimming about a short time, approach one 
another in pairs, occasionally in threes, which in a short time coalesce 
so as to form a body known as the zygospore, or, to use a term first ap- 
plied by Rostafinski, the isospore, which has four cilia and two dark red 
spots. The zygospore swims about for a short time, then comes to rest, 
takes on a cellulose wall, and begins to divide in the same manner as a 
macrospore. This process of union is called conjugation, and represents 
sexuality in its lowest form, it being impossible to say which of the con- 
jugating bodies is male and which is female. It is only the microzoo- 
spores which come from different mother-cells which conjugate, but it is 
not quite certain whether the cells must belong to different individuals. 
The microzoospores, however, do not always conjugate. More frequently 
they do not, but, after swimming about separately for a short time, lose 
their cilia and begin to grow just like the macrozoospores. If one wishes 
to examine the zoospores, he has only at evening to put a piece of sea- 
lettuce into a vessel of salt water, and at daybreak the zoospores will 
have formed a green cloud -in the water. If the cloud consists of mi- 
crozoospores, it will collect in the vessel on the side nearest the light ; 
if composed of macrozoospores, on the side away from the light. Con- 
jugation was first observed in a marine species (Ulva) by Areschoug, 
but had previously been observed by Pringsheim in a fresh-water spe- 
cies (Pandorina). Since then conjugation of zoospores has been studied 
by several observers. 



14 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Bryopside^e. — In the present paper this suborder includes a single 
species of our coast, Bryopsis plmnosa, which consist of a single cell of 
very large size, which branches in a pinnate fashion. When about to 
reproduce, some of the branches are shut off from the rest of the frond 
by a cell -wall, and the contents are then transformed into zoospores. A 
conjugation has not yet been seen in this species. From its unicellular 
structure one might suppose that Bryopsis should be placed near Vauch- 
eria, but no oospores have yet been observed like those in the last- 
named genus. In the absence of a knowledge of the development of 
the genus, it is retained as a divsion of the Zoosporece, differing from the 
'Chlorosporece in the unicellular character of the frond. 

Botrydie^. — The development of Botrydium granulatum, which was 
fully studied by Eostafinski and Woronin, differs from that of the 
Chlorosporece which we have already described in the fact that there is 
first produced in the small unicellular frond of which this species is 
composed a number of round spores, or more properly zoosporangia, 
which are discharged from the mother cell. There is then formed in 
each zoosporangium a number of zoospores, which escape and conjugate 
with one another. De Bary and Strasburger have described a similar 
process in Acetabularia mediterranean and have applied the name gameten 
to the zoospores which conjugate, and zygote to the body formed by con- 
jugation. Secondary modes of reproduction by means of zoospores with 
a single cilium and so-called root-cells occur in Botrydium granulatum. 
Botrydium (Codiolum) gregarium^ our only marine species, resembles B. 
granulatum, but its development has never been fully studied. 

Pn^osPOREiE. — The Phceosporeee are all marine, with one possible ex- 
ception, and are, when growing, of an olive-brown color. They possess 
only one form of zoospore, which is more or less oval and pointed at one 
end and olive-brown in color, and are furnished with two cilia attached at 
one side and a red spot. The zoospores are not born indefinitely in any 
cell, but are produced only in certain cells or sporangia. Each species is 
supposed to have two kinds of sporangia : one called the unilocular spo- 
rangium, which contains a large number of zoospores, and another, called 
the plurilocular sporangium, which consist of an aggregation of small cells, 
each of which contains a single zoospore. The name of oosporangia 
was originally given by Thuret to the unilocular sporangia because they 
are usually more or less oval in shape, but he afterwards abandoned the 
name because it is more appropriately applied to the spores of the 
Oosporece. The older name of trichosporangia, which was at first applied 
to the plurilocular sporangia, has also been abandoned. Although,- as 
has been said, each species is supposed to have both kinds of sporangia, 
in a large number of species only one kind has as yet been observed. 
Both may occur on the same individual and at the same time, but more 
frequently they are found at different seasons of the year. Although 
found all over the world, the Phceosporeee particularly affect the temperate 
and arctic regions, and they fruit more abundantly, as a rule, in winter 



THE MARINE AlaGM OF NEW ENGLAND. 15 

and spring than at other seasons, if we except a few genera, like Ecto- 
carpus. The conjugation in this suborder was first seen by Areschoug 
in Dictyosiphon, and afterwards by Goebel in Ectocarpus pusillus. The 
zoospores unite in nearly the same way as in the Chlorosporece. Accord- 
ing to Goebel, who studied the zoospores coming from plurilocular 
sporangia, the conjugation occurs between zoospores coming from dif- 
ferent sporangia. The development of the zygospore and the action of 
the zoospores borne in the unilocular sporangia, except in the genus 
Dictyosiphon, are not yet satisfactorily known. Thuret and Bornet have 
seen bodies which they consider to be antheridia in several species of 
Ectocarpus, and Pringsheim at one time considered that he had found 
antheridia in a species of Sphacelaria. It is now admitted that the bodies 
found by Pringsheim belonged to a parasitic species of Chytridium, and 
Thuret and Bornet were unable to ascertain the development of the 
antheridia in Ectocarpus. At any rate, nothing like an oogonium or any 
female organ to be fertilized by the antherozoids has been found in the 
Phceosporece. 

As has already been hinted, the genera of Phmosporew differ from 
one another very widely in the structure of the frond. From low 
forms, consisting of short filaments, we pass upwards, through various 
cylindrical, crustaceous, and globose forms, to the highly developed 
devil's aprons, Laminarece, the largest of our sea- weeds; and, finally, 
on the coast of California and in the Antarctic Ocean, we find the per- 
fection of the order in the enormous Macrocystis pyrifcra, which is sev- 
eral hundred feet long ; the Ncreocystis or bladder-kelp of California ; and 
Egregia, in which we have what appears to be a separate stem, leaves, 
bladders, and fruit-bearin g leaves. Janczewski distinguishes three prin- 
cipal modes of growth of the thallus in Phccosporccc. The first consist 
in growth from a single terminal cell, as in Sphacelaria,, Cladostephus, 
and Dictyosiphon, resulting in the formation of a filamentous solid plant. 
The second mode consists in the simultaneous growth of several contigu- 
ous filaments at their tips, so as to form either a flat expansion, as in 
Myrionema and Ralfsia, or a more or less globular body, as in Lcathesia. 
The third mode is illustrated by the genus Laminaria, in which there is 
a stalk, a blade, and root-like growths. The place of growth is at the 
point of union of stem and blade, and the new blade, which begins to 
form at the tip of the stem, grows upwards from the base and gradually 
pushes off the old blade. In Scytosiphon a similar mode of growth is 
found only here, there being no stalk, the growth is at the base of the 
plant. During a certain part of the year, especially in the spring, most 
of the Phwosporccc are covered with delicate hairs, which disappear as 
the plant becomes old. 

The suborder contains a large number of species, which are divided 
into several families. Those found on our coast are the following : 

ScYTOSiPHONEiE. — This family includes the two genera ScytosipJion 
and Pkyllitis, which comprise the old Chorda lomentaria and Laminaria 



16 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

fascia, which were placed among the Laminarice in the Nereis Am.-Bor. 
In Phyllitis the frond is membranous, and its whole surface is covered by 
the plurilocular sporangia which are formed from the superficial cells, 
which divide so as to form club-shaped filaments consisting of five or six 
cells, each one of which contains a zoospore. Scytosiphon resembles 
Phyllitis except that the frond, instead of being a flat membrane, is a 
hollow tube. There are no paraphyses in Phyllitis, but in Scytosiphon 
there are ovoidal cells interspersed among the plurilocular sporangia, 
which seem to be of the nature of paraphyses. No true unilocular spo- 
rangia are known in this family. 

Punctarie^:. — In this family we find both unilocular and plurilocu- 
lar sporangia, which are formed in spots on the frond, and arise from 
the superficial cells. The former are spherical and the latter ellipsoid 
in outline, and divided into a number of small cells. 

Desmarestie^:. — In the two preceding families the fronds were 
either flat membranes or hollow tubes. In the present there is a solid 
axis and numerous branches. The cells of the cortical layer are changed 
into unilocular sporangia. The plurilocular sporangia are unknown. 

Dictyosiphone^. — In this family the fronds are solid and branch- 
ing as in the last, and only the unilocular sporangia are known. They 
are in the form of large spherical cells, imbedded in the cortical layer and 
opening at the surface. Except that in Desmarestia the sporangia are 
formed directly from the superficial cells, while in Dictyosiphon they 
originate below the surface, this tribe scarcely differs from the last. 

Ectocarpe^:. — This family comprises a large number of filamentous 
algse, upon whose branches are borne the sporangia. The plurilocular 
sporangia are usually in the form of pod-like branches, composed of a 
large number of small muriform cells, in each one of which is produced 
a zoospore. The unilocular sporangia are either globose bodies, borne 
on a short stalk, or else are formed by the direct enlargement of several 
contiguous cells of the branches. 

Sphacelarie^e. — This family is kept distinct from the last by Thuret. 
Both unilocular and plurilocular sporangia are known, and are similar 
to those of the Ectocarpcce. If the two families are to be kept distinct, 
the reason must be that the fronds of the present order are solid, and 
the growth is by the means of a single terminal cell, which is not the 
case in the Ectocarpece. 

Leathesie^e. — In the Leaihesiece and Chordariem the sporangia are 
distributed indefinitely over the frond, but in the succeeding families 
they are found in separate spots or bands. The Leathesiece, in which we 
do not include Myrionema, are either in the form of small tufts, as in 
Elachistea, in gelatinous expansions of indefinite shape, as in Petrospon- 
gium, or in vesicular masses, as in Leathesia, The greater part of the 
frond consists of a cellular filamentous mass, upon the surface of which 
is borne a layer of short filaments composed of smaller cells. The uni- 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 17 

loeular and plurilocular sporangia are borne at the base of the peripheral 
filaments. In Elaclvistea there are also paraphyses. 

Chord arie^s. — In this family the branching frond is filamentous, 
and consists of an axis of longitudinal filaments and a peripheral series 
of short filamenfcs, which are given off at right angles to the axis. The 
sporangia are found amongst the peripheral filaments, the unilocular are 
ovoidal, and the plurilocular arise from the metamorphosis of the cells 
at the outer extremity of the peripheral filaments. 

Asperococce^:. — The fronds of this family are the counterparts of 
those in the Scytosiphonece, but the sporangia, instead of being superficial, 
are external and do not cover the whole surface, but are found in spots. 
The spots contain paraphyses and spherical unilocular sporangia. 

EalfsievE. — In this family, composed of very few species, the frond 
is in the form of a crust, resembling a lichen. The fruit is found on the 
surface in spots, composed of paraphyses and unicellular sporangia. 

Sporochne m. — Here the frond is a solid branching filament and the 
fruit is found in spots on the surface. Each spot consists of a number 
of paraphyses, at the base of which are either oval unilocular sporangia 
or plurilocular sporangia in the form of short filaments, resembling the 
sporangia of Phyllitis. 

Laminarie^e. — The family which includes the devil's aprons and sea- 
colander of our coast. The fruit either forms long patches or more or 
less irregular spots along the center of the frond. Unicellular sporangia 
only are known. The sporangia are separated from one another by pe- 
culiar-shaped unicellular paraphyses, which are expanded at the top so 
as to cover the sporangia. 

Oospores. — In the order Zoospores the sexual reproduction consists 
in the direct union of two zoospores, which form a zygospore. The two 
conjugating zoospores, or gameten if we adopt De Bary's nomenclature, 
are alike in structure, and it is impossible to say which is male and 
which is female. In the Cutleriece, of which no representative has as 
yet been found on our coast, we have algae resembling the Phceosporece 
in habit, but differing from them in that their reproduction is of a higher 
grade. The Cutlerice have /both zoospores and antherozoids, or proper 
male organs. The zoospores are large, and are born singly in cells, 
which are united in eights into an oblong body. The antheridia borne 
on distinct individuals are also oblong in shape, but, instead of being 
divided into eight cells, they are formed of a much larger number of 
small cells, in each one of which an antherozoid is produced. The an- 
therozoids are small oval bodies, almost colorless, and provided with 
two lateral cilia. In Gutleria collaris Eeinke found that the zoospores 
after swimming about for some time, lost their cilia and came to rest. 
While at rest the antherozoids approached them, and he considered that 
the sexual union then took place. Here, then, we find a clear distinc- 
tion of the sexes such as is nowhere found in the Zoosporece, and it is 
but a step higher to the Oosporece, in which we have a distinct male 
S. Mis. 59 2 



18 EEPORT OF- COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

organ, the antherozoid, borne in an antheridium, and a female, called 
in this order the oogonuim. The order is divided into two suborders, 
in which, although the general plan of reproduction is the same, the 
details vary. 

Vatjcherie^e. — This suborder includes a number of species of green 
algae which form dense turfs upon the mud in brackish ditches and 
rivers, or else loosely floating masses of green filaments. They may 
generally be recognized at sight by their deep-green shining color and 
velvety appearance. They consist entirely of long green threads, which 
occasionally branch, but which are destitute of any cross-partitions ex- 
cept at the time of reproduction. The non-sexual reproduction is by 
means of zoospores. A cross -partition is formed near the end of a 
filament, and in the cell thus cut off from the rest of the plant a single 
very large zoospore is formed. In some species the zoospore escapes 
through an opening in the apex of the cell, and when free its whole sur- 
face is seen to be covered by a large number of vibratile cilia. In other 
species the cell containing the zoospore breaks off from the rest of the 
plant and the zoospore remains in a more or less passive condition. 
The antheridia grow from the sides of the filaments, and are either in the 
form of oblong, at times nearly sessile, cells, .or else a lateral shoot is 
formed which ends in one or more convolute processes, at the tips of which 
a cell is cut off from the rest. The antherozoids are very small bodies 
with two cilia. The oogonia, or female organs, are generally situated 
near the antheridia, and are irregularly ovoid, with a blunt tip. The 
-cell contents collect in a roundish mass at the center, called the oosphere, 
while at the tip of the oogonium is a mass of slimy substance. At the 
time of fertilization the antheridium opens and discharges the anthero- 
zoids and the tip of the oogonium opens to admit the antherozoids, which 
remain for a short time in the interior of the oogonium and then with- 
draw. The oogonium is then closed and, the oosphere, which before fertili- 
zation was merely a mass of protoplasm, has now formed around it a 
wall of cellulose, and ripens, forming an oospore. The oospore finally 
escapes from the oogonium and germinates. 

Fucaoeje. — This suborder includes the rock-weeds, Fuel and Sargas- 
sum, of our coast, which constitute the bulk of the olive-brown sea-weecls 
found between tide-marks. The admirable paper of Thuret on the fer- 
tilization of Fucus leaves nothing to be desired on that subject, and his 
observations are now so widely known in this country that little need 
be said in this connection. In the two common rock-weeds of our coast,' 
Fucus vcsiculosus and F. nodosus^ the two sexes are on distinct individuals.. 
In F. evanescens and F. furcatus they are on the same individual. The 
Fuci fruit principally in winter and spring, but F. vesiculostis may be found 
in fruit throughout the year. In the last-named species, if we examine 
the swollen tips of the frond, we find certain granular bodies, which on 
section are seen to be sacks opening outwards. The sacks are called 
•eonceptacles. The male plant can generally be distinguished from the 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 19 

female by the brighter color of the tips which bear the conceptacles. 
A section through the conceptacles of the male plant, as in PI. IX, Fig. 2, 
shows a number of branching filaments which line the interior of the 
conceptacle. Attached to the filaments are oval bodies, the antheridia. 
The antheridia contain the antherozoids, which are ovate and provided 
with two cilia attached at the side. Usually about day-break the an- 
theridia discharge their antherozoids, which then swim about in the water 
until they reach the female plant. A section through the tip of a 
female plant shows a number of conceptacles similar in shape to those 
of the male plant. On the walls of the conceptacle there are paraphyses, 
and scattered among them are the oogonia, as shown in PI. IX, Fig. 1. 
The oogonia are oval and seated on broad short pedicels. In Fucus 
vesiculosus the contents of the oogonia divide into eight oospheres, which 
are at first angular, but afterwards become spherical. The oogonia be- 
come free from their attachments, and the wall, which is realty double, 
ruptures, and the oospheres escape into the water. In this condition 
they are merely spheres of protoplasm. The antheridia then collect 
around the oospheres in large numbers, and the mass begins to ro- 
tate. The rotation continues for a short time, and when it ceases the 
antherozoids withdraw and soon perish. It is not yet certain whether 
one or more of the antherozoids really penetrates into the substance of 
the oosphere during the revolutions. As soon as it comes to rest the 
oosphere takes on a cell-wall of cellulose and becomes an oospore, which 
after an interval of rest begins to divide so as. to form eventually a new 
frond. 

Dictyote^e. — Although no members of this order are known on our 
coast north of Korth Carolina, the order cannot pass unnoticed in the 
present article, because it forms a connecting link between the Fucacece 
and Phceosporece on one hand and the Floridecc on the other. The 
species are olive-brown and form expanded membranous fronds. Three 
kinds of reproductive organs are known, antheridia, spores, and tetra- 
spores. All are formed by outgrowths from the superficial cells. The 
tetraspores are formed, as the name implies, in fours in a mother cell, from 
which they escape and then readily germinate. The spores are borne 
singly in a mother cell. The antheridia are composed of a number of 
oblong cells, which become divided by numerous longitudinal and trans- 
verse divisions into small cells, each of which contains an antherozoid. 
The Bictyotacece resemble the Floridece in having tetraspores and 
spores which germinate without first passing through a zoosporic con- 
dition. The action of the antherozoids is at present unknown, and the 
spores of this order cannot be the product of a fertilization such as we 
find in the Floridece. 

Floridece. — This order is the same as the Bhodospermece of Harvey's 
Nereis. The species composing it form a very natural group, ancj. are, 
with the exception of a few genera, entirely marine. Their color is al- 
ways some shade of red or purple when tliey are growing in their nor- 



20 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

ma! condition. When, however, they grow in positions where they are 
much exposed to the light they become green, and in decaying they pass 
through various shades of orange and yellow to green. Their favorite 
place of growth is below low- water mark and in deeper water, but some 
species grow in tide-pools. The fronds vary in structure in the different 
genera, but as a rule they are less complicated than the fronds of the 
Fuci and Laminar iece. The non-sexual mode of growth is by means of 
bodies called tetraspores, formed by the division of a single cell into four 
parts. The divisions may be at right angles to one another, when the 
tetraspore is said to be cruciate; they may be parallel to each other, in 
which case the tetraspore is said to be zonate; or they may be arranged 
as in PI. XI, Fig. 1 «, wheu it is said to be tripartite. The tetraspores may 
either be isolated or collected in wart-like masses, called nemathecia. 
The individuals which bear the tetraspores are, with rare exceptions, dis- 
tinct from those which bear the sexual fruit or cystocarps. Occasionally 
both kinds are found on the same individual, as sometimes happens in 
Callithamnion Baileyi and Spyridia filamentosa. The tetrasporic plants, 
taking the order as a whole, are decidedly more abundant than those 
which bear the cystocarps. The sexual fruit, called the cystocarp, is 
formed by the action of antherozoids upon a structure called the 
trichogyne, which forms a part of the procarpe. The antherozoids are 
small colorless spheres, destitute of cilia. They are borne singly in 
cells, which are agglomerated in various forms, which differ in the dif- 
ferent genera, but are usually either in the shape of short, dense tufts, 
or else are siliculose in outline. In Chondria the antheridia cover the 
surface of irregular disk-like branches, and in membranous genera 
they form spots on the surface. 

The name of procarpe was given by Bornet and Thuret to the collec- 
tion of different cells, of which the female organ is composed before 
fertilization. The procarpes are borne on the younger parts of the frond 
generally near the surface. The cells of which they are composed may be 
divided into two sets — those which take part in the act of fertilization 
and those from which the spores are formed. The former consists of 
the trichogyne, a long, slender, hyaline hair, at whose base is the 
trichophore. The latter set, called by Thuret and Bornet the carpogenic 
cell or system, varies in the different genera, and is in most cases too 
complicated to be explained in the present article. In the simplest gen- 
era, as in Nemalion and Batrachospermum, the antherozoids come in con- 
tact with the extremity of the trichogyne, where they remain fixed for 
a considerable time. The contents of the antherozoid, or antherozoids — 
for more than one may be attached to the trichogyne — pass into the 
trichogyne, and, in consequence of this action, a change takes place in 
the trichophore, which divides, the divisions growing into short fila- 
ments, which are formed into chains of spores by transverse divisions. 
In this case the trichophore represents the carpogenic cell. In Nemalion 
the cystocarpic fruit is a globular mass of spores, arranged in filaments 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 21 

and destitute of any general envelope. ITT by far the greater number of 
genera the spores are not formed by direct outgrowths from the tricho- 
phore. In Callithamnion, for instance, the fertilizing influence is propa- 
gated from the trichogyne, through the trichophore and the cells below it 
which constitute the trichophoric apparatus, to certain lateral cells, from 
which by repeated cell-division the spores are formed. In Dudresnaya the 
cells of the trichophoric apparatus send out a number of lateral tubes, 
which, in turn, convey the fertilizing impulse to certain modified branches 
in other parts of the frond, so that, in reality, the cystocarp is formed 
at some distance from the trichogyne by means of which it has been 
indirectly fertilized. A similar mode of fertilization is known in Poly ides 
and, according to Professor Schmitz, in the Squamariece. The cystocarps 
are sometimes naked, that is, without a special membranous envelope, 
as in Nemalion, but they not unfrequently are contained in a concepta- 
cle or pericarp. In the latter case, the development can only be studied 
with difficulty, because the conceptacle, which originates from some of 
the cells below the trichophore, develops more rapidly thau the rest of 
the cystocarp, and so shuts out from view the process of the formation 
of the spores. It is impossible in the present article to enter into the 
details of the development of the cystocarp in this complicated order, 
but the reader interested in the subject is referred to the superb work 
of Thuret and Bornet, Etudes Phycologiques, and the hardly less admi- 
rable Notes Algologiques, of the same authors, for a masterly exposition 
of the subject. 

MODE OF COLLECTING AND PREPARING SEA-WEEDS. 

The collector of sea- weeds should be provided with a pail of tin or 
wood, or, better still, with one of papier mache' if it can be procured, in 
which he should place a number of large wide-mouthed bottles and several 
small bottles, and one or two vials filled with alcohol should not be forgot- 
ten. A knife is needed for scraping crustaceous alga3 from stones, and a 
geologist's hammer and chisel are often useful. A hand-net, with a long, 
stout, jointless pole and net with small meshes is a necessity. Clothes for 
wading are also indispensable, since the best collecting grounds are 
below low- water mark. If the collector is not already sufficiently en- 
cumbered, he may throw a common botanical collecting-box over his 
shoulder, as it will serve to carry the coarser species. Collecting on 
sandy or gravelly beaches is very simple. One finds there only the 
Floridece and larger brown sea- weeds which are washed ashore after a 
storm. It is only necessary to pull over the heaps of refuse at high- 
water mark, or to dip up with a net the specimens which are floating at 
low- water. Collecting on beaches is uncertain, because it is only at 
certain times that specimens are washed ashore. On rocky shores, on 
wharves, and on the eel-grass we are always sure to find something. 
One should examine the surface of rocks wet with the spray, the bases 
of the stalks of the marsh -grasses, and even the surface of mud which is 



22 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

overflowed at high tide. Here one will find an abundance of Crypto- 
phycece and some Chlorosporece. Pools, more especially rocky pools, are 
rich in Chlorosporece and the filamentous Phceosporece. The richest local- 
ity is just beyond low-water mark, especially at the spring tides. One 
should carefully scrape old wharves and piers. This is best done at 
low tide from a boat. A long-handled net with a scraper on one side 
is the best thing, but any stout net will do. By scraping old wood- 
work which looks very unpromising one sometimes gets the rarer Calli- 
thamnia and other delicate algae. A number of interesting species are 
also to be found growing on eel-grass, which may be reached at low tide 
by wading, or, better still, by boat. 

For botanical purposes the dredge is not of very great service. One 
sometimes secures by its means rare species, but, as a rule, a day of 
dredging is a day wasted. Most algae grow on rocky bottoms where 
the dredge does not work well, in fact not so well as grappling hooks. 
The best opportunity for dredging is on a shelly bottom, where several 
rare species are found. Good specimens are not unfrequently brought 
up by fishermen on their nets. The different species when collected should 
be cleaned of sand and small animals and placed in bottles, each species 
in a separate bottle. This is absolutely necessary in case of genera like 
Cladophora and Uctocarpus, which would otherwise be hopelessly en- 
tangled. The small specimens and those to be kept for microscopic 
study should be put into alchohol. The coarse species which are merely 
to be mounted and are not to be studied should be put dry into the pail. 
Anything to be studied should be kept in plenty of water, or, if not to 
be studied in a short time, be put immediately into alcohol. It is, how- 
ever, useless to put into alcohol large quantities of sterile specimens of 
genera, like Cladophora, the species of which are characterized by their 
branching and not by microscopic structure. Sea- weeds are best mounted 
in salt water, that is, in this way they are in a more natural condition 
for after- study, and if one is able to procure plenty of salt water it is 
best always to mount in it. However, one may be stopping at a dis- 
tance from the shore, in 'which case it is possible to make use of fresh 
water. Besides, if salt water is used continually the driers become 
saturated with salt, and it is then impossible to prepare specimens in 
the damp weather so frequent at the sea-shore. As a matter of economy, 
one had better mount only the finer and most important specimens in 
salt water and the rest in fresh water. 

The larger sea- weeds, as the rock-weeds and devil's aprons, should be 
allowed to soak several hours in fresh water before being mounted. 
They can then be pressed in the same way as flowering plants, and, when 
dried, mounted on the ordinary herbarium sheets. If a number of large 
specimens are to be prepared, it is best to hang the plants up as soon as 
they are gathered and allow them to dry, and they can afterwards be 
soaked out at leisure in fresh water. The collector should know that 
there are probably no plants which so quickly spoil driers as the species 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 23 

of rock- weed. For mounting the smaller species one slionld have two 
or three shallow dishes of salt water, in which the plants are to he 
washed and floated out, and a deep basin of either salt or fresh water, 
as the case may be, for' mounting. A zinc tank, one of whose sides is 
slanting, is convenient for mounting, but is rather an awkward thing 
to carry about in travelling. The specimens to be mounted are put into 
the basin and floated out ; a piece of paper is slipped under them and 
they are lifted out of the water. A moderately thick unglazed paper is 
best for mounting, although almost any kind will do, provided it is not 
very thin. Many ladies make use of photographer's cards. 

With a little practice it is perfectly easy to remove sea-weeds from 
the water, but to prevent the specimen slipping off the paper or to one 
side of the paper it is best to put the middle finger under the center of 
the paper and raise it so that the water drains off equally on all sides. 
Some slip a pane of glass under the paper, and lift it out of the water 
in that way. The papers should then be left in an inclined position for 
a short time, so that the superfluous water may run off. They are then 
to be put on the driers and covered with a piece of muslin or other thin 
white cloth, from which the glazing has been removed by washing. Very 
gelatinous specimens should be exposed for some time to the air before 
pressing. The driers should be of bibulous paper and the best material, 
but unfortunately the most expensive, is thick white blotting-paper. 
The specimens are to be laid on the paper and covered with a cloth, 
and then another layer of paper is placed above, and so on. The best 
form of press is a board with a number of stones for weights. The 
driers should be changed morning and night until the specimens are 
dry. Some of the smaller species dry in a few hours j others re- 
quire two or three days. Great pressure is to be avoided, and the 
specimens, if prepared in fresh water, should not be allowed to remain 
long in the water. Most small species adhere to the papers naturally ; 
others require to be fastened with gum. Besides mounting specimens 
on paper, it is a very good plan to prepare specimens of fruit or any 
small filamentous species on pieces of mica or glass. Fragments of 
mica good enough for the purpose can be obtained for a very small 
sum of those who manufacture air-tight stoves. Specimens prepared on 
mica can be moistened and at once used for microscopic study. All 
really microscopic forms, such as Glceocapsa, Clathrocystis, &c, had better 
be mounted on mica or glass than on paper. A difficulty is experienced 
in preparing corallines and other calcareous forms. If prepared in the 
same way as other sea-weeds, they become very brittle, and are often 
ruined by transportation. Various means have been devised for making 
them less brittle — such as painting them with a thin solution of gum. 
A better method is to paint them with a hot solution of isinglass which 
has been boiled for a few moments in alcohol. The habit may be pre- 
served, although the structure is somewhat injured, by immersing coral- 



24 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

lines for a short time in some dilute acid, which, by removing the calca- 
reous matter, renders the specimens more flexible. 

As we have said, selected material for future study should be put into 
alcohol. Several other preserving fluids have been recommended, but 
none in the long run do as well as alcohol. Some species do well in 
glycerine, especially parasites like Streblonema and Bulbocoleon, which 
grow in the fronds of other species. A one per cent, solution of osmic 
acid is a favorite preserving fluid of some botanists. Certain sea-weeds, 
as the Phceosporece, can be mounted for the microscope in almost any 
of the ordinary mounting fluids, and keep very well. The Floridece, on 
the other hand, do not keep at all well, and after a few months the pre- 
parations begin to spoil. A saturated solution of calcic chloride, a mix- 
ture of glycerine and acetic acid, half and half, boiled and filtered, weak 
solutions of carbolic acid, or a one per cent, solution of osmic acid are all 
about equally good for mounting algae. As we have said, Phceosporece 
generally do well and Floridece badly, but one sometimes has success 
even with the latter. 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 25 

ORDERS AND SUBORDERS* 

OF 

MARINE ALGJS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



Order I. CRYPTOPHYCE^}. 



Suborder Chroococcace^. 

JSTOSTOCHINE^E. 



Order II. ZOOSPORES. 



Suborder Chlorospore^ej. 
Bryopsideje. 
botrydie^e. 
Ph^eosporeje. 

Order in. OOSPORES. 

Suborder Vaucherie.^. 
Fucace^e. 

Order IV. FLORIDE^E. 

Suborder Porphyreje. 
Squamarieje. 
Eemaeieje. 
Spermothamnieje. 
Oeramieje. 
Spyridie^:. 
Cryptonemee^. 
Dtjmontie^;. 

GlGARTINEJE. 

Rhodymenieje. 

spongiocarpe.33. 

Gelidie^. 

Hypne^:. 

Solierieje. 

Sph^erococcoide^:. 

RHOD OMELET. 

CORALLINES. 

*An artificial key to the genera of New England algae will be found at the end of 
this paper. 



26 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 



Order I. ORYPTOPHYGEJi, Thuret. 

Algse composed of cells which are either isolated or imbedded ill 
mucus, so as to form colonies, or united in the form of filaments. Color 
usually bluish green, sometimes brown, purple, or pink. Eeproduction 
by hormogonia or non-sexual spores. Sexual reproduction unknown. 

We have retained the name given by Thuret, in Le Jolis's Liste des Algues Marines 
de Cherbourg, to the group of low algae in which sexual reproduction is unknown. 
Our species belong to the Schizophytos of Cohn (Beitriige zur Biologie der Pflanzen, 
Vol. I, p. 202), which also includes the minute forms commonly known as Bacteria. 
Most of the species here enumerated are bluish green, owing to the presence of phy- 
cochrome, and would be placed by some writers in the order Phycochromacew. Some 
are destitute of phycochrome and have been placed by different writers in the Chroo- 
coccacece and Palmellacew. Naageli, in Die Niederen Pilze, is of the 9pinion that the 
Bacteria should not be classed with the Pliycoehromacece, as in the Schizophytce of Colm, 
but one cannot expect to make a satisfactory classificati6n of forms in which no sexual 
reproduction has, as yet, been discovered. The Protopliytes of Sachs's Text-Book 
include all the Scldzopliytoe of Cohn, together with the Palmellacece and Saccharomycetes. 
From the nature of the plants themselves, none of the above classifications can be 
considered of decided scientific value, and, regarding the question of convenience 
alone, we have adopted the name Cryptophyceas as expressing sufficiently well all the 
marine Protopliytes of our const, whether they contain phycochrome or not. The 
order is divided into two suborders, as follows : 

a. Cells free, or united by a gelatinous intercellular substance into fami- 

lies which never form true filaments Chroococcace^e. 

b. Cells arranged in filaments Nostochine^e. 

Suborder CHBOOCOCCACE.E. 

(Glceogence, Cohn in part.) 

1. Cells free or united in twos or fours Chroococcus. 

2. Cells united by a mucous intercellular substance into amorphous 

[Note. — In the following descriptive part of the present paper the synonymy of the 
species is carried only so far as to enable the reader, in the first place, to recognize 
the more common synonyms and also the works in which the synonymy is given in 
full, and, in the second place, to give a reference to the more accessible works in 
which the different species are figured. Of the latter frequent reference is made to the 
Nereis Boreali- American a and Plxycologia Brittanica of Harvey, to the Etudes Phycologiquea 
and Notes Algologiques of Bornet and Thuret, and the Taouloe PhycologicoB of Kiitzing. 
For a list of descriptive works consulted the reader is referred to the end of this paper. 

All microscopic measurements are given in fractions of a millimeter, but gross meas- 
urements of objects more than half an inch in diameter are given in feet and inches, 
as the divisions of the meter are not, in this country, readily applied to objects which 
can be seen by the naked eye. 

Unless otherwise stated, the loca lities given are those in which the writer himself 
has collected the species, but in the case of common species it has been considered un- 
necessary to give special localities. ] 



THE MARINE ALG^S OF NEW ENGLAND. 27 

colonies. Intercellular substance generally forming concentric 

layers around the cells Glcsocapsa. 

3. Cells united in colonies of definite shape. 

x. Cells arranged in the form of an irregular sphere, which becomes 

finally hollow and net- shaped Clatlirocystis. 

J). Cells arranged in several layers forming a solid spheroidal body. 

Polycystic. 
c. Cells united in branching dendritic masses Entophysalis. 

CHEOOCOCCUS, Ka3g. 

((From xp°°Cj the color of the body, and kokkoc, a berry.) 

Cell division taking place in all directions, cells spherical, solitary, 

or united in twos or some multiple of two, free, i. e., not united into 

families by means of an intercellular substance. 

According to Nrogeli, the principal distinction between Cliroococcus and Glceocapsa 
lies in the fact that in the former genus the cell-wall is thin, while* in the latter it is 
thick and formed of concentric layers. This difference, however, is not constant, as in 
Cliroococcus iurgidus the cell- wall is comparatively thick, whereas in Glccocapsa crej)i~ 
din urn the cell-wall is reduced to a minimum. A more characteristic distinction seems 
rather to be the existence of an intercellular substance in Glccocapsa which binds the 
cells together, but which is wanting in Cliroococcus. 

C. tuegidus, Nreg. (Protococcus, Kiitz., Tab. Phyc, Yol. I, PI. 6, 
Fig. 1. — Hamiatococcus binalis, Hassal, Fresh- water Algae, p. 331, PI. 
82, Fig. 2.) 

Cells bluish green, oval, usually single or binate, about .02 mm to 
,025 mm in diameter, surrounded by a thick cell -wall. 

Cape Ann, Mrs. A. L. Davis; Europe. Fresh water and marine. 

Found on slimy rocks and piers upon which species of Calothrix, Lyngbya, &c, are 
growing. Probably common throughout New England. The size of the cells varies 
very much. What we have given above is an average measurement. 

GLCEOCAPSA, (Kiitz.) Ka3g. 

(From ylowc, sticky, and m-tya, a box.) 

Cell division taking place in all directions, cells spherical, with thick 
walls, solitary or united in families, which are surrounded by a gelatin- 
ous substance which is generally in concentric layers around the cells. 
Spores known only in G. stegophila, Itzigs. (G. Itzigsohnii, Bornet mscr.). 

This genus, if we adopt the views of the advocates of Schwendener's theory, forms 
the gouidia of the lichen genera Synalissa, Omphalaria, &c. 

G. crepidinum, Thuret, Notes Algologiques, p. 2, PI. I, Figs. 1-3. 
(Protococcus, Thuret, in Mem. Soc. Natur. Cherbourg, Vol. II, p. 388; 
Le Jobs, Liste des Algues Marines de Cherbourg, p. 25; Farlow, List 



28 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

of Marine Algse, 1876. — Plcurococcus, Bab., Flora Europ. Alg., Sec. HI, 
p. 25.) PL I, Fig. 1. 

Cells spheroidal, yellow, about .0035 mm to .005 mm in diameter, im- 
bedded in an olive-brown gelatinous stratum, occasionally single, usually 
united in twos or some multiple of four. 

Eastport, Maine ; Gloucester, Mass.j Newport, E. I.; northern coast 
of France. 

We found this species abundant in October, 1875, on the wharves of Eastport, where 
it formed thin gelatinous layers of a dark-brown color at high-water mark. It prob- 
ably occurs at high-water mark on wharves along our whole coast. This species is said 
by Thuret to form the gonidia of Verrucaria halodytes, Nyl., a species which we are 
informed by Prof. Tuckerman is not known to lichenologists in this country. In 
the present species the concentric layers of the gelatinous envelope of the cells is 
wanting. The color of the cells is quite constantly brownish yellow, but occasion- 
ally they become dark green. The average diameter of the cells in American speci- 
mens seems to be slightly less than Thuret's measurement. • 

POLYCYSTIS, Kutz. 

(From 7ro/lyf, many, and kvotic, a bladder.) 

Cells spherical, densely aggregated, united by an intercellular mucus 
into solid masses. 

In this genus we include Microcystis of Kutzing, in which the colonies are isolated 
and not united in botryoidal masses, one being evidently an immature state of the 
other. 

P. elabens, Kutz. (Microcystis, Kutz., Tab. Phyc, Yol. I, PI. 8, 
Fig. 1.) 

Cells bluish green, oblong, about .004 mm in diameter, closely packed 
in solid colonies, which are aggregated in botryoidal masses. 

Wood's Holl, Mass.; Europe. 

Common in summer on decaying algaB, over which it forms slimy masses, mixed with 
6pecies of Lyngbya, Microcoleus, &c. 

P. PALLIDA, (Ktitz.). 

Cells bluish green, oval, .005-7 mm x .007-9 mm . 

Newport, E. I. ; Gloucester, Mass. ; Europe. On Cladophorce and Zos- 

tera. 

Differs mainly in the size of the cells from the preceding species. Our form agrees 
closely with European specimens. 

CLATHEOCYSTIS, Henfrey. 

(From KTirj&pov, a lattice, and kvctic, a bladder.) 

Cells minute, very numerous, imbedded in mucus, forming a colony 
which is at first solid, then hollow, and finally perforate. 
C. roseo-persicina, Cohn, in Beitrage zur Biologie, Yol. I, Part III, 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 29 

p. 157, PI. VI, Figs. 1-10. (Microhaloa rosea, Kiitz., in Linnea, VIII, 
341. — Protococcus, Kiitz., Spec. Alg. — Pleurococcus roseo-persicinus, Rab., 
"Flora Europ. Alg. — Cryptococcus roseus, Kiitz., Phyc. Gen.; Le Jolis, 
Liste des Algues Marines; Crouan, Florule du Finistere; Farlow, List 
of Marine Algae, 1876. — Bacterium rubescens, Lancaster, in Quart. Journ. 
Micros. Science, Vol. XII, new series, p. 408, PL 22 and 23.) 

Cells very small, about .0025 mm in diameter, rose-colored. 

Whole New England coast ; Europe. Both marine and in fresh water. 

Very common on decaying algae and on the mud, which it covers with a purplish-red 
film. It is also found on codfish in the Gloucester market, causing what is known as 
the red fish. This alga, of which the detailed history is given by Cohn and Lankas- 
ter, 1. c, after having been placed by different writers in several different genera, has 
fiually been associated with Clathrocystis aeruginosa, Henfrey, a common fresh-water 
alga of Europe and the United States. Both species are at first minute and solid, but 
as they grow older become hollow, and at length portions become detached, leaving 
holes in the circumference. Although in Europe the species is found in fresh water as 
well as in salt, it has not yet been observed in the interior of this country. 

ENTOPHYSALIS, Kiitz. 

(From evrog and <pvaaXt,g, a bladder.) 

Cells united in colonies, which assume a dendritic form. 

The genus is founded on Entojyhysalis granulosa, a species of the Mediterranean, re- 
ferred by Zanardini to the Palmellacece, but more correctly by Thuret and Bornet to 
the Chroococcacece. 

E. Magnolia, n. sp. 

Cells dark purple, .004-G mm in diameter, united in twos and fours and 
imbedded in jelly, which forms a densely branching mass. 
Magnolia Cove, Gloucester, Mass. Eare. Autumn. 

This alga forms a thin slime on exposed rocks, in company with Gloeocapsa crepidi- 
num. The ramifications of the frond are visible on careful dissection. The species is 
much smaller and differs in color from E. granulosa of Europe. The cells do not differ 
much in size from those of the Glaeocapsa, but they are of an entirely different color 
and have the concentric arrangement of the cell-wall much better marked than in 
that species. The cells adhere together in twos, fours, or some multiple of four, and 
all are held together by a mucous mass, which branches in a very dense fashion. The 
genus Entophysalis is merely a Glceocapsa, which instead of being indefinitely expanded 
is densely ramified. 

Suborder NOSTOCHINE^E. 

(Nematogence, Cohn in part.) 

We have followed Thuret's Essal de Classification des Nostochinees, 
Ann. des Sciences, 6 serie, Tome I, in the arrangement of the genera. 

1. Filaments terminating in a hyaline hair 7 

Filaments destitute of a terminal hair 2 



30 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

2. Filaments furnished with heterocysts 10 

Filaments destitute of heterocysts 3 

3. Filaments spirally twisted Spirulina. 

Filaments not twisted 4 

4. Filaments without a distinct sheath 5 

Filaments formed of one or more colored trichomata contained in a 

transparent sheath 6 

5. Cells bluish green or purple Oscillaria. 

Cells colorless, or filled with minute black grains Beggiatoa. 

6. Sheath containing several trichomata Microcoleus. 

Sheath containing only one trichoma Lyngbya. 

7. Filaments free, forming tufts of indefinite extent. Calothrix. 

Filaments united by a more or less firm gelatinous substance, 

frond of definite shape and extent 8 

8. Heterocysts basal, i. e., placed at the base of the principal filaments 

and branches . , . 9 

Heterocysts intercalary Sormactis. 

9. Frond hemispherical or vesiculose, filaments radiating from the 

base Bivularia. 

Frond plane, filaments parallel Isactis. 

10. Filaments destitute of a sheath Splicer ozyga. 

Filaments consisting of a trichoma in a sheath Nodularia. 

SPH^EEOZYGA, Ag. 

(From a<j>aipa, a sphere, and &yog, a yoke. ) 

Filaments free, destitute of sheath. Spores produced in the cells adja- 
cent to the heterocysts. 

S. Carmichaelii, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 113 a. (CyUndrospermunij 
Kiitz., Spec. Alg., p. 294. — Andbaina marina, Breb.). PL I, Fig. 3. 

Filaments flexuous, densely interlaced, forming slimy bluish-green 
expansions, cells cylindro-spherical, about .0035 mm in diameter, dimin- 
ishing in size towards the end of the filament, terminal cell pointed. 
Heterocysts several in each filament. Spores oblong, usually one on 
each side of heterocyst, about .018 mm in length when ripe, rather more 
than twice as long as broad, at first green, then yellowish. 

Noank, Conn.; Wood's Holl, Gloucester, Cambridge, Mass.; Europe. 
Summer. 

Probably a common alga along our whole coast in midsummer and autumn on 
decaying algse, looking like a shining emerald-green film. It occurs most frequently 
on the surface, but is also found at the depth of several feet. In his work on the 
Fresh-water Algas of America, Prof. H. C. Wood, jr., mentions the present species as 
occurring at Camden, N. J. We cannot, however, agree with him in placing it in 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 31 

the genus DolicJiospcrmum of Thwaites. Ralfs, in Annals and Mag. of Nat. History, 
Vol. V, 2d series (1850), p. 325, following C. A. Agardh, who first described the genus 
Sphcerozyga (Flora, 1827), says that in Splwrozyga the spores are first formed from the 
cells nearest the vesicular cells (heterocysts), as is shown by Professor Wood's figure, 
PI. 3, Fig. 3, to be the case with the species from Camden. Neither can we regard 
S. Carmichaelii, Harv., as a synonym of Cyllndrospcrmum polysporum, Kiitz., as given 
by Professor Wood. Although we have examined a large number of specimens, in 
only one instance have we found more than a single spore on each side of the het- 
erocyst, which is quite diiferent from C. pohjsporum, Kiitz. 

NODULABIA, Mertens. 

(From nodulus, a little joint.) 

Filaments free, trichoma inclosed in a definite sheath, cells discoidal. 
Heterocysts at regular intervals. Spores numerous, contiguous, not adja- 
cent to the heterocysts. 

The genus Spermosira of Kutzing is included under the above. 

K Harveyana, Thuret, Class, des Nostoch. (Spermosira Harvey ana, 
Thwaites, Pnyc. Brit., PL 173 c.) 

Filaments curved, cells discoidal, .0015-20 x .004 mm , heterocysts 
.0035 mm in diameter, spores numerous, about 4-8 together, spherical, 
.005-70 mm in diameter. 

Charles Eiver, Cambridge, Mass.; Europe. 

Found in small quantities, mixed with Sphwrozyga, in company with Bliizoclonium. 

SPIRULINA, Turpin. 

(From spirula, a small spiral. ) 

Filaments simple, without a proper sheath, oscillating, spirally 
twisted. Spores unknown. 

S. tentjissima, Kiitz., Phyc. Brit., PI. 105, Fig. 3; Farlow, List of 
Marine Algse, 1876. PL I, Fig. 4. 

Filaments intricately interlaced, .0035 mm in diameter, hyaline, spiral, 
closely twisted, cell divisions scarcely visible, oscillations rapid. 

Eastport, Maine; Gloucester, Cambridge, Wood's Holl, Mass. ; Europe. 

This species is common at Eastport, where it forms, mixed with species of Oscil- 
laria, dark purple-colored patches on the wharves at low-water mark, and it is with- 
out doubt to be found in similar localities along the whole coast. 

Wc found at Wood's Holl, in 1876, a species of Spirulina which formed a greenish 
film ou decaying algas five or six feet below low-water mark, and the same species was 
collected by Mr. F. W. Hooper at Key West. It agrees closely with S. Thvretii, Cra., 
a species which differs from S. tenuissima, Kiitz., in having slightly smaller filaments, 
which are also less tightly coiled. It hardly seems to us, however, as though the 
difference was sufficient to separate the two species. A Spirulina with much finer 
filaments than in 8. tenmssima, and with a much more open spiral, occurs at Wood's 
Holl, but wo have never found it in sufficient quantity to ascertain the species. 



32 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

BEGGIATOA, Trevisan. 

(Named in honor of Francesco Sccondo Beggiato, an Italian botanist.) 

F. laments simple, hyaline, no proper sheath, rapidly oscillating, 
cells filled with opaque granules. Spores unknown. 

A genus separated from Oscillaria only by its color, which is white to the naked 
eye, and by the granules of sulphur which often make the cell seem quite opaque 
when viewed with the microscope. The species give off a strong odor of hydric sul- 
phate, and are found in both fresh and salt water, especially in hot springs. The 
diameter of the filaments, an uncertain mark, is about the only guide to the distinc- 
tion of the species. 

B. alba, Treves, var. marina (Warming, Videnskab. Middels., 1875, 
PI. X, Figs. G, 7). 

Filaments .0036 mm in diameter, cell divisions indistinct, granules 
usually irregularly placed. 

Cambridge; Europe. 

In brackish ditches. 

B. akachnoidea, Bab. (Warming, 1. c, PI. X, Figs. 2-4). 

Filaments .005-7 mm in diameter, cells narrower than broad, granules 
usually in bands parallel to the transverse cell- walls. 

Eastport, Maine ; Wood's Holl, Mass. ; Europe. 

On dead algse. 

B. mirabilis, Cohn (Warming, 1. c, PI. X, Fig. 5). 

Filaments .016 mm (20-40, Warming) in diameter, cells a third as long 
as broad, granules arranged in bands. 

Cambridge, Mass. ; Europe. 

There is a doubt about the accuracy of the determination of the specimens referred 
to this species. It is much the largest of the genus found on our coast. The only 
specimens which we have measured were .016 mm in breadth, which agrees with the 
measurement of Cohn, but not with that of Warming. We have the impression, 
however, that we have seen larger specimens than those measured. 

LeptotJirix rigidula, Kiitz., is found at Wood's Holl, on Ectocarpus and other algse. 
The genus Leptothrix is now limited to small species related to Bacillus. The pres- 
ent species is parasitic on Ectocarpus and Cladophora, on which it forms white fringes 
in midsummer. The filaments are about .002 mm in diameter. The cell divisions are 
very indistinct. The species may possibly be the same as Beggiatoa minima, Warm- 
ing, 1. c, PI. X, Fig. 10. 

OSCILLARIA, Kiitz. 
(From oscillo, to vibrate.) 

Filaments simple, destitute of distinct sheath, oscillating, bluish 

green or dark purple. 

The species of this genus are found on mud, wharves, and wood work. They are 
not usually found pure, but mixed with Spirulina, Lyngbya, &c. The following are 
all to which we care to give a name, but not by any means all which occur with us. 



THE MARINE ALG^E OP NEW ENGLAND. 33 

O. limosa, Kiitz., var. chalybea, Tab. Phyc, Yol. I, PL 41, Fig. 3 ; 
Le Jolis, Liste des Algues Marines. 

Filaments .008-9 mm in diameter, flexuous, apex obtuse, oscillations 
marked, cells about half as long as broad, purplish colored. 

Eastport, Maine ; Europe. 

Forming a slimy layer on piles. Our specimens seem to agree well with specimena 
from Cherbourg. 0. littoralis, Harv., of Crouan's Alg. Finistere, No. 325, is apparently 
very near to this, if not the same. 

O. subuliformis, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 251 b. 

Filaments .006-7J mm in diameter, at the end tapering to an incurved 
point, cells about one-third as long as broad, bluish green. 

Charles River, Cambridge ; Europe. 

O. sttbtokulosa, (Breb.). (Phormidium subtorvlosum, Breb., in Kiitz. 
Tab. Phyc, Vol. I, PI. 49, Fig. 5.) 

Filaments .003-4 mm , cells nearly cuboidal, with rounded angles, so 
that the filament appears slightly crenate. 

Eastport, Maine j Wood's Holl, Mass.; Europe. 

To this species is doubtfully referred a form common on wharves at Eastport 
and on the government wharf at Wood's Holl, Where it forms slimy patches, mixed 
with Spirulina, &c. The filaments, of this species bear a decided resemblance to the 
trichomata of Microcoleus clithonoplastes, and it may perhaps be a question whether 
they are not really a stage of that species in which the trichomata have escaped from 
the enveloping sheath. Opposed to this view is the large quantity of filaments and 
apparently an entire absence of empty sheaths. That the trichomata of M. clithono- 
plastes often escape from the sheath can easily be seen, but how long they remain fre«j 
and how rapidly they increase under such circumstances is uncertain. 

MICROCOLEUS, Desmaz. 

(From pinpog, small, and noltog, a sheath.) 

Filaments slowly oscillating, destitute of heterocysts, several united 
in a single gelatinous sheath, which is either simple or branching. 

M. chthonoplastes, Thuret. ( Oscillatoria clithonoplastes, Lyngbye — 
Chthonoblastus Lyngbei, Kiitz. — Microcoleus anguiformis, Harv., Phyc. 
Brit., PL 249; Kiitz., Tab. Phyc, Vol. I, PI. 57.— Chthonoblastus angui- 
formis, Rab., Flora Europ. Alg., Sect. II, p. 133.) PL II, Fig. 3. 

Sheaths elongated, fusiform, being six or more times broader in the 
center than at the extremities, simple, several twisted together so as to 
form a green stratum, filaments dark green, about .005 mm in diameter, 
intricately twisted together, three or four only at the extremity of the 
sheath, but very numerous at the center, where the sheath is frequently 
ruptured, allowing the filaments to protrude ; cells as long as broad, or 
a little broader, terminal cell acutely pointed. 
S. Miss. 59 3 



34 KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Wood's Holl, Mass. ; Atlantic shore of Europe. Summer. 

A species easily recognized and probably common along the New England coast in 
summer, but rarely found in sufficient quantities to make herbarium specimens. It 
is usually found in small streaks, so entangled with other Nostocliinece and Confervas as 
to be quite inextricable. At times it is found tolerably pure on the old stalks of Spar- 
Una, between tide-marks. Pure specimens may be obtained by allowing specimens 
in which filaments of this species are entangled to remain overnight in a shallow 
dish of salt water, when the Microcoleus will have freed itself from other substances 
and come to the surface. As generally found, the plant looks like an attenuated corn- 
ucopia, owing to the rupture of the sheath in the middle, allowing the filaments to 
project. This is shown in Harvey's figure, 1. c, and also in PI. II, Fig. 3, where only 
half of the plant has been drawn. Normally the sheaths are about a quarter of an 
inch long, about .075 m,n broad in the middle, and tapering to about ,012 mm at the 
ends. Color a deep bluish green. The filaments readily escape from their sheath, and 
might in this condition pass for a species of Oscillaria. 

Microcoleus terrestris, Desmaz. (Chthonoblasius repens, Kiitz.), and M. versi- 
color, Thuret, are not infrequently found in muddy places in the interior of New 
England. 

LYNGBYA, Ag. 

(Named in honor of Hans Christian Lyngbye, a Danish botanist.) 

Filaments free, each provided with a distinct sheath, simple, destitute 

of heterocysts, no proper oscillations. Spores unknown. 

i 
L. majuscula, ITarv. ; Mermaid? 8 Hair. ( Conferva majuscula, Dillw. — 

L. crispa, Ag. in part, — L. majuscula, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PL 62; Ner. Am. 

Bor., Part III, p. 110, PL 47 a.) PL I, Fig. 4 

Filaments long, forming floating tufts, crisped, about .028 mm to .032 mm 
in diameter, blackish green, sheath prominent, cells 8 to 10 times as 
broad as long. 

Cape Cod, Mass., to Key West; Europe; Pacific Ocean. Common 
and widely diffused. Summer. 

The largest, most striking, and most common of our marine Lyngbya?, easily recog- 
nized by the length and diameter of its filaments and its color, which is a blackish 
green. It forms during the later summer months large tufts upon Zostera and various 
other alg£e, and is often found floating free in considerable quantities. In the center 
of the masses the filaments are intricately twisted together, but on the surface they 
float out from one another, so as to deserve the common name of mermaid's hair. In 
the older specimens the filaments are very much curled and twisted, forming the L. 
crispa of some writers. The sheath is always well marked, although, as is the case in 
all the species, it varies so much in thickness under different circumstances as to render 
it impossible to give accurate measurements. The heterocysts, " cellulis interstitiali- 
bus sparsis," described by Rabenhorst in this species, Flora Europ. Alg., Part II. 
p. 142, have, in reality, no existence. 

L. ^stuarii, Liebm. (L. aeruginosa, Ag. — L. ferruginea, Ag., in Ker. 
Am. Bor., Part III, p. 102, PL 47 b; Phyc. Brit., PL 311.) 

Filaments forming a verdigris-green stratum, about .016-18 mm in diam- 
eter, sheaths distinct. 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 35 

Gloucester, Mass., Mrs. A. L. Davis, and southward ; Europe. Sum- 
mer. 

A common species of the New England coast, abundant in shallow, brackish pools, 
where it covers the exposed algae and Zostera. Much less striking than L. majuscuJa, 
Harv.j from which it is distinguished at sight by its brighter green color, changing to 
yellowish rather than blackish, by the diameter of its filaments, which is about half 
that of L. majuscuJa, by its thinner sheath, and by forming thin strata rather than 
loose tufts. In the Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, the diameter of the filaments of X. majus- 
cuJa, Harv., is given as .05 inch, and that of the filaments of L. ferruginea, Ag., as .001 
inch, which is evidently incorrect, as one species is not fifty or even five times larger 
than the other. 

L. luteo-fusca, Ag. (L. fulva, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, 

p; 102, PL 47/.) 

Filaments fasciculate, erect, greenish yellow, .008-10 mm in diameter, 
sheath distinct. 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 48. 

Stonington, Conn., Bailey; Noank, Conn. ; Wood's Holl, Mass., W. G. 
F.; Europe. 

Apparently a common alga of Southern New England, differing in its habit from all 
our other species of the genus, except L. tenerrima. It grows in large patches on 
stones and wood-work between tide-marks. The filaments are erect, from one to three 
iuches high or somewhat higher, when in their best condition olive-colored, but 
more frequently a pale yellow. The thickness of the sheath, by which Harvey sepa- 
rated his L. fulva from L. luteo-fusca, Ag., is by no means constant, and the species 
cannot be kept distinct. As is the case in several of the species of Lyngbya, the sheath 
is sometimes two, three, or even a greater number of times thicker than at others. 

L. tenerrima, Thuret, mscr. 

Filaments slender, fasciculate, erect, bluish green, .0035 mm in diam- 
eter, sheaths very thin. 

Gloucester, Mass., Mrs. A. L. Davis; Newport, R. Lj Europe. 

This species was first detected near Gloucester, by Mrs. Davis, growing apparently 
on sand-covered rocks. The filaments are bluish green, and not over a quarter of an 
inch high. The species will be easily recognized by the diameter of the filaments, 
which is decidedly less than that of any other of our species. Dr. Bornet, to whom 
a specimen was sent, considers our. plant the same as that collected by the late M. 
Thuret, at Biarritz, France, and named by him L. tenerrima. I have since found it in 
considerable quantity at the base of the cliffs near the Winans mansion, at Newport. 

L. nigrescens, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, p. 102, PI. 47 d. 

" Filaments very slender, flaccid, densely interwoven into a fleecy, 
blackish- green stratum." (Harvey, 1. c.) 

Canarsic Bay, L. I., Hooper; Peconic Bay, Harvey ; on mud and on 
Zostera, Gloucester, Mass., Mrs. A. L. Davis. 

Var. major. 

Filaments formiug a dark-brown gelatinous stratum, .0152 mm in diam- 
eter, sheath thin. 



36 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Wood's Holl. Common on Zostera. Summer. 

From Harvey's description, it would be difficult to recognize this species. From 
an authentic specimen in our possession, collected by Harvey at Peconic Bay, the 
filaments are seen to be from .00y5 mm to .01115 mm in diameter. The sheaths are dis- 
tinct, but less marked than in L. cestuarii, from which the present species differs iu 
the shortness and smaller diameter of the filaments, and in the color, which is a dark 
purple, at times almost black. The filaments differ from those of both L. majuscula 
and L. cestuarii in being held together by an amorphous, gelatinous substance, sup- 
posed to be characteristic of the genus Phormidium. That genus, however, includes 
plants which are now properly assigned to other genera. 

We have often searched for this alga, but have never found a form which seemed 
to correspond exactly to Harvey's specimen. The same alga has, however, been col- 
lected by Mrs. Davis at Gloucester. At Wood's Holl is a Lyngbya, distributed in 
Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 47, which is not uncommon, forming- 
patches several inches long on Zostera, and which resembles L. nigrescens closely in 
everything but the greater diameter of the filaments. Its sliminess and the delicacy 
of the filaments cause it at first sight to be mistaken for diatomes. In drying, it be- 
comes somewhat greenish. This species, which resembles closely L. Kiitzingiana, 
Thuret (Phormidium, Le Jolis), we can regard only as a large variety of Harvey's L. 
nigrescens. 

CALOTHEIX, (Ag.) Thuret. 

(From naloc, beautiful, and $pi=, hair.) 

Filaments terminating in a hyaline hair, fixed at the base, free above, 

occasionally branching, growing in little tufts or strata of indefinite ex- 

tent, heterocysts present in most of the species, no oscillations. Spores 

unknown. 

We adopt the genus with Thuret's limitations, including, in part, the genera Schizo- 
siplwn, Amphithrix, Leibleinia, &c, of Kutzing. 

a. Species growing in little tufts. 

C. confervicola, Ag. {Leibleinia chalybea and amethystea, Ktitz. — 
C. confervicola, Ag., Phyc. Brit., PI. 254; Notes Algologiques, PL 3.) 
PI. I, Fig. 6. 

Tufts fasciculate, filaments dark bluish purple, attenuated, .OlS™ 111 iu 
diameter, heterocysts all basal, generally few in number. 

On algae of all kinds. Summer. Yery common. Europe. 

0. Crustacea, (Schousb.) Born. & Thur. (Schteosiphon fasciculatus 
and lasiopus, Kiitz. — Oscillatoria Crustacea, Schousb. — Calothrix Crus- 
tacea, Bornet & Thuret, Notes Algologiques, p. 13, PI. IV.) 

Tufts fasciculate, filaments bright green, attenuated, .0125 mm in diam- 
eter, heterocysts intercalary, often very numerous. 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 49. 

On algae of all kinds, and on rocks. Summer. Very common. Europe. 

The two species just described are very common, certainly from Wood's Holl to 
Kew York, and probably also northward, on all kinds of algse, on which they form 
fine tufts or fringes. The two species usually grow mixed together, but may be 



THE MARINE ALG^l OF NEW ENGLAND. 37 

easily distinguished under the microscope, C. confervicola being darker colored, the 
filaments thicker, and only furnished with heterocysts at the base, whereas in 
C. Crustacea the heterocysts are scattered through the filament, often solitary, but 
sometimes as many as eight together, and frequently truncate. C. Crustacea is also 
common on rocks. 

b. Species forming expansions. 

G. scopulorum, Ag., Phyc. Brit., PI. 58 b; Ner. Am. Bor., Part 
III, p. 105. 

Filaments forming strata of indefinite extent, flexnons, usually 
branching, .008-12 mm in diameter, heterocysts basal and intercalary, 
sheaths thick, striate. 

Var. vivipara. (G. vivipara, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, p. 106.) 

Nahant, Wood's Holl, Mass., W. G. F. ; Ehode Island, Bailey; Eu- 
rope. Yar. vivipara at Nakant, W. G. F. y and Seaconnet Point, Bailey. 

Forming indefinite-shaped patches on rocks, on Bhizoclonium, and other prostrate 
algae. Apparently much less common than the two preceding species. It differs 
from C. Crustacea in the flexuous habit of the filaments, which are loosely twisted 
around one another, in the much rarer occurrence of intercalary heterocysts, and in 
the color of the filaments, which is not a bright green, but generally brownish. The 
sheaths, too, become thick, dark, and striated. As is the case in all species of Calo- 
tltrix where the filaments are closely interwoven, the diameter of the filaments is 
greater and that of the sheath less, proceeding from within outwards. The variety 
vivipara is only a luxuriant form of the typical species. 

C. pulvinata, Ag. (C. hydnoides, Harv.) 

Filaments densely packed, forming a dark-green spongy layer, united 
at the surface in tooth-like masses, flexuous, .006 mm to .0115 mm in diam- 
eter, heterocysts intercalary. 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Fallow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 50. 

Wood's Holl, on wharves. Common. Europe. 

In this species the filaments are much more densely interwoven and flexuous than 
in any of the preceding species. It forms patches looking like a honeycomb, or like 
a small Hydnum, and can be torn from its attachment in pieces of considerable size. 

G. parasitica, Thuret. (Bivularia, Chsb\xvin.—-Scliizosiphon) Le Jolis.) 
Filaments loosely united, forming a velvety film, bulbous at base, 

simple or only slightly branching, about .008-1 mm in diameter, 

heterocysts basal, obliquely truncate. 
On Nemalion multifidum, Newport, R. I. ; Europe. 

Easily recognized by its bulbous base and obliquely truncate heterocysts, and its 
peculiar habitat. 

KIVULARIA, Both. 
(Named from the fluviatile habitat of many of the species. ) 

Frond gelatinous, more or less globose, filaments radiating, atten- 
uated, furnished' with distinct sheaths, branching, a heterocyst at the 
base of each branch. 



38 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Few genera of algae have been divided by different writers into so many artificial 
and unsatisfactory genera as Eivularia. Some of the described genera are character- 
ized by striations or alterations of the sheath which arise from age or unfavorable 
external conditions. Other so-called genera are characterized by the presence of 
parasitic plants in the thallus of a true Eivularia. As understood in the present arti- 
cle, the genus differs from Calothrix in the fact that the filaments are imbedded in a 
mass of jelly and the thallus is of a definite shape and extent. From Isactis, which 
might be perhaps considered a subgenus, Eivularia differs in having its filaments 
radiate from a central point instead of being parallel to one another. From Hormactis 
it abundantly differs in the mode of formation of the filaments. In Eivularia the 
branches are formed by the division of the filament laterally, the upper part of the 
branch separatiug from the main filament, and the two being only in contact at the 
base of the branch, where a heterocyst is always to be found. In Hormactis the fila- 
ments push out side wise in the form of an inverted V. The apex of the V then 
elongates upwards and, at the same time, the sides of the V elongate so that, in 
passing from the interior of the thallus outwards, instead of finding a series of fila- 
ments spreading out fan-shaped, we find the filaments converging two by two, 
which finally unite into single filaments near the surface of the thallus. Moreover, 
the heterocysts in Hormactis are intercalary, not basal. In none of our marine species 
of Eivularia have spores been seeu, but spores are found in some fresh-water species of 
Glceotricliia, a genus closely allied to, if not to be included in, Eivularia. 

B. atra, Both. (Zonotrichia hemispwrica, Ag. — Euactis amcena, atra, 
confluens, hemisphcerica, Lenormandiana, marina, Kiitz. — Linclcia atra, 
Lyngb.— B. atra, Phyc. Brit, PI. 239.) PL II, Fig. 2. 

Thallus solid, globose or hemispherical, varying in size from that of 
a head of a pin to half an inch in diameter, dark glossy black, 
filaments straight, .0038-45 mm in diameter, heterocysts about as broad as 
or rather broader than the filaments, usually somewhat pointed. 

Yar. confluens, fiattish, owing to the coalescence of several individuals. 

Common along the whole coast, on stones, algae, and stalks of Spartina, often in 
company with Isactis plana. Distinguished by its dark, shining color and usually 
hemispherical shape. It is generally minute in size, but occasionally grows as large 
as a pea or somewhat larger. The variety confluens resembles, to the naked eye, 
Isactis plana, but is decidedly thicker. Microscopically the two are quite different. 

B. plicata, Carm., Phyc. Brit., PI. 315. (Physactis, Kiitz.) 
Thallus at first solid, soon becoming hollow, plicato-rugose, folds 

sinuous, filaments flexuous, .003-4 ram in diameter, heterocysts nearly 

spherical, about as broad as the filaments. 
On mud and Spartina roots. Cohasset Narrows, Wood's Holl, Mass., 

W. G. F. Common. 

Although as yet known to occur only at the two aboVe-named localities, this species 
will probably be found to be common along the whole New England coast, but it 
is certainly less common than the preceding species. Its favorite habitat is the mud 
in which Spartina is growing, between tide-marks. It attains a larger size than E. 
atra, is almost always hollow, and easily recognized by its cerebriformly plicate sur- 
face. The substance is softer than in E. atra, the filaments are slightly narrower and 
less closely packed together, and the heterocysts are rather more spherical than in that 
species. 

R. hospita, Thuret (Euactis hospita and prorumpens, Kiitz.), which differs from the 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 39 

preceding species in having filaments .008 mm to .012 mm in diameter, was recognized by 
Dr. Bornet in company with B. plicata in a specimen from Cohasset Narrows. As we 
have not been able to recognize the species in any of our own specimens from the 
same locality, the presumption is that it is not very common. 

ISACTIS, Thuret. 

(From Laog, equal, and unrig, a ray.) 

Frond plane, composed of parallel filaments, held together by a tough, 
gelatinous intercellular substance, ending in a hyaline hair, hetero- 
cysts basal, ramifications few. Spores unknown. 

This genus differs from Bivularia only in that the filaments are parallel to one 
another so as to form a flat frond, whereas in Bivularia they radiate from a central 
point and form more or less spherical fronds. It might with propriety be considered 
a subgenus under Bivularia. 

I. plana, Thuret, 1. c. (Dasyactis, Kiitz. — Physactls atropurpurea, 
obducenSj Kiitz.) PI. I, Fig. 2. 

Frond flat, thin, dense, dark green, outline irregular, filaments 
.0076-95 ram in diameter, .12-.15 mm high sheaths often torn and striate. 

Whole New England coast ; Europe. 

Very common on rocks, Fucus, Punctaria, and other algse, forming dark-green spots, 
scarcely raised above the substance on which it is growing. 

HORMACTIS, Thuret. 

(From bpiiog , a necklace, and uKTig , a ray. ) 

Frond gelatinous, globose, at first solid, then hollow and plicate, 
heterocyst intercalary, filaments simple at the surface of frond, bifur- 
cating below. Spores unknown. 

H. Qtjoyi, (Ag.) Bornet, in litt. (Bivularia nitida, Farlow, List of 
Marine Algae, 1876. PL II, Fig. 1. 

Fronds gregarious, dark green, plicato-rugose, from a quarter of an 
inch to two to three inches in diameter, filaments .0028-55 mm in diam- 
eter, tortuous, cells of external part of the frond thick and discoidal, 
becoming more oval in the interior of the frond heterocysts numer- 
ous, scattered, about .0038 mm x .0058 mra . 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 45. 

Wood's Holl, Mass., W. G.F.; Falmouth, Mass., Mr. F. 8. Collins; 
Marianne Islands. 

This interesting species, although it has as yet only been found at Wood's Holl and 
the adjoining coast, will probably also be found at other localities on Long Island 
Sound. It grows in considerable quantities upon species of Fucus, at half tide, on the 
inner side of Parker's Point, Wood's Holl, and we have also found it washed ashore 
on the beaches of Buzzard's Bay, in the same township. It makes its appearance in 
June, and disappears in the month of September, being in perfection in the mouth of 
July. The fronds sometimes acquire a large size, two or three inches in diameter, 
but usually they are much smaller and densely aggregated, almost covering the Fucus 



40 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

stalks upon which they are growing. It first appears as solid green spots upon the 
Fucus, which soon swell out into thin bladders, which partly collapse on being 
removed from the water. The peculiar inverted V-shaped filaments are seen to greater 
advantage by dissecting with needles small pieces of the frond than by making sec- 
tions with a razor. 

The only other species of this genus is Hormactis Balani, Thuret, which grows on 
barnacles on the coast of France. It is a comparatively minute plant, much less 
striking than our own species, which seems rather to replace, on our coast, the Rivu- 
laria nilida, Ag., of the coast of Europe, which it resembles in general appearance 
and habit. The external resemblance to that species is so great that specimens were 
sent to Dr. Bornet as E. nitida, Ag. (?) By him it was recognized as a new species 
of Hormactis, H. Farlowii, under which name it was distributed in Alg. Am. Bor. 
Since then Dr. Bornet has recognized its identity with Bivularia Quoyi, Ag., of the 
Marianne Islands. It is not a little remarkable that the species is only known in two 
localities so widely remote from one another. 

Stigonema mamillostjm, Ag., occurs in a brook which empties into the sea at 
Rafe's Chasm, Magnolia Cove, in Gloucester; and Calothrix parietina, Thuret, is 
found in Nobska Pond, close to the sea, at Wood's Holl. The species named all belong 
in the present order, but are not strictly marine. 

Order ZOOSPORES. 

Algae either green or olive-brown in color. Eeproduction by means of 
zoospores, which unite in pairs to form a zygospore. 

This order includes all the marine Clorospermece attributed to New England in the 
Nereis Am. Bor., with the exception of the genus Vaucheria, as well as the greater 
part of the olive-brown sea- weeds, with the exception of the rock-weeds or Fucacece. 
The account of the order given in the introduction to the present article should be 
consulted in the present connection. 

a. Green algae, multicellular, zoospores of two kinds — macrozoospores 
with four and microzoospores with two terminal cilia. . Chlofosporew. 

h. Green algae, frond unicellular, branching Bryopsidece. 

e. Green algae, frond unicellular, simple Botrydiece. 

d. Olive-brown algae, zoospores of one kind, with two cilia laterally 
attached Phceosporece. 

Suborder CHLOROSPORE.E. 

1. Fronds membranaceous ( Ulvce) 2 

Fronds filamentous 3 

2. Cells in a single layer Monostroma. 

Cells in two layers - ITlva. 

3. Some of the cells furnished with long hyaline hairs Bulbocoleon. 

Cells destitute of hyaline hairs « 4 

4. Filaments branching throughout Cladophora. 

Filaments with short, root-like branches only Rhizoclonium. 

Filaments unbranched 5 

5. Filaments rigid, setaceous Chcetomorpha. 

Filaments soft and flaccid Ulothrix. 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 41 

MONOSTKOMA, (Thuret) Wittrock. 

(From fiovog, single, and orpio/ia, a bed.) 

Fronds membranaceous, consisting of a single layer of cells, which are 
either parenchymatous or separated from one another by more or less 
jelly. 

As defined by Thuret, Monostroma differed from TJlva in having the cells embedded 
in jelly rather than arranged in the usual form of parenchymatous tissue. Wittrock 
includes in the genus all the JJlvce consisting of a single layer. In most of the species 
the frond is at first sack-shape, but soon ruptures, the segments being composed of one 
layer of cells. The basal cells are prolonged downwards, but they become more or 
less circular in the upper part. 

M. PULCHRUM, n. sp. 

Fronds membranaceous, fasciculate, light green, lanceolate or cuneate- 
lanceolate, attenuated at the base, margin crisped, two to twelve inches 
long, two inches broad, substance very delicate, about .006 mm in thick- 
ness, cells irregular, more or less sinuous, intercellular substance small. 

Watch Hill, Conn., Prof. Eaton; Gloucester, Mass., Mrs. Bray ; Port- 
land, Me., Mr. C. B. Fuller. Spring. 

A beautiful and apparently not uncommon spring plant of New England, dis- 
tinguished by its outline and delicate substance. When fully grown the fronds are 
most frequently attenuated at the base and rather obtuse at the summit. When young 
they are lanceolate, and seem to be always plane, never saccate, as in the next species. 
The color is a delicate green, and the plant cannot easily be removed from the paper 
on which it is pressed. This species has sometimes been distributed as Ulva Linza, to 
which it bears more or less resemblance in shape. 

M. Grevillei, Wittrock. ( Ulva Lactuca, Grev. non Linn. ; Harv. Phyc. 
Brit., PI. 243, and Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, p. 60. — Enteromorpha Gre- 
villei, Thuret.) 

Frond at first saccate, then split to the base into irregular segments, 
color light green, segments plane, unequally laciniate, frond about 
.012 mm thick, cells angular, intercellular substance small. 

Boston Bay (Ner. Am. Bor.); Maiden, Mass., Mr. Collins; Ives 
Point, Conn., Mr. F. W. Sail; Europe. Spring. 

A common spring species of the Atlantic shores of Europe, but apparently not so 
common in New England. The cells of this species vary considerably, and in some 
specimens the intercellular gelatinous substance is tolerably prominent. 

M. Blytii, (Aresch.) Wittr. ( Ulva Blytii, Aresch., Phyc. Scand., p. 
186, PI. 10 g.—M.Blyttie, Wittrock, Monog. Monostr., p. 49, PI. IV, Fig. 
11.) 

Frond membranaceous, subcoriaceous, dark green, irregularly cleft, 
margin crisped, .028-40 mm in thickness, cells angular, closely packed, 
intercellular substance small. 

Exs. — Nordstedt & Wittrock, Alg. Scand., No. 44 5 Alg. Am. Bor., 
Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 98. 



42 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Eastport, Maine j Gloucester, Nahant, Mass. $ Northern Europe. Au- 
tumn. 

This, by far the most striking of our Hfonostromata, grows luxuriantly in the large 
tide-pool at Dog Island, Eostport, where it attains a length of oue foot. In habit it 
resembles Ulva lactuca var. rigida, but it is of a deeper green. Our specimens were 
collected in the month of September. As it occurs at Nahant the species is not gen- 
erally more than two or three inches long, and recalls the figure of Ulva obscura, Kiitz., 
Tab. Phyc, PL 12, No. 2. It is found in the clefts of exposed rocks, late in the season. 
Its color is a deep green when growing, which becomes brownish in drying. It does 
not adhere well to paper. > 

M. CREPIDINUM, n. sp. 

Fronds delicate, light green, one to three inches long, flabellately or- 
biculate, split to the base, segments obovate, .018-36 mm thick, cells 
roundish-angular, intercellular substance prominent. 

Government wharf, Wood's Holl, Mass. August. 

This small species is common on the piles of the wharf at Wood's Holl. It is very 
soft, and collapses on removing it from the water. It preserves its color well ou paper. 
The above name is given provisionally, as we are not able to refer the species to any 
known form. It resembles H. Wittrockii, Bornet, a species, we believe, not yet de- 
scribed. Except in its small size, it is very near M. orbiculatum, Thur., but the thick- 
ness of that species, as given by Wittrock, is .032-40 mm . An examination of a specimen 
collected by Thuret, however, gives the same measurement as our species. If the 
species eventually is united with M. orbiculatum, the present must be regarded as a 
small form. 

ULYA, (L.) Le Jolis. 
(Supposed to be from ul, Celtic for water.) 

Fronds simple or branching, consisting of two layers of cells, which 
are either in close contact with one another or else at maturity separate 
so as to form a tubular frond. 

We have followed Le Jolis in uniting the old genera Ulva and Enteromorph-a, and we 
might perhaps have gone farther and united Monostroma with Ulva, for if Honostroma 
Grevillei when young resembles an Enter omorplia, in its older stages it splits into 
membranes consisting of a single layer of cells, which are. certainly imbedded in a cer- 
tain amount of gelatinous substance, yet so little as to make it doubtful whether to 
call the frond parenchymatous or not. 

TJ. Lactuca, (Linn.) Le Jolis. ( Ulva latissima and rigida, Ag. & Auct. 
recent. — U. latissima, Grev. & Harv. — Phycoseris gigantea, myriotrema, 
australis, &c, Kiitz.) PI. III. Fig. 1. 

Frond flat, thick, unbranched, variously more or less ovate in outline, 
divided, the two layers of cells adherent. 

a. Yar. rigida, (Ag.) Le Jolis. (Z7. rigida, Ag. — U. latissima, Harv., 
Phyc. Brit., partim. — Phycoseris australis, Kiitz.) 

Frond rigid, rather thick, generally deeply divided, latinise irregu- 
larly lacerate-erose, the base of frond more dense and deeply colored 
than the rest. 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 43 

8. Yar. Lactuca, Le Jolis. (U. latissima, Harv., partim.— Phycoseris 
gigantea, Kiitz.) 

Frond orbicular, oblong or elongate-fasciate, simple, undivided or 
scarcely lobed, frequently spirally contorted. 

y. Yar. latissima, Le Jolis. 

Frond simple, at first cuneate-substipitate, afterwards broadly ex- 
panded. 

Yery common all over the world, especially in brackish waters. 

The present species nearly corresponds to the Ulva latissima of the Nereis Am. Bor., 
but is not the U. Lactuca of that work. It is distinguished from the remaining species 
by being always flat, never tubular at any age, and by its more or less orbicular out- 
line not becoming linear or ribbon -shaped. Var. a is the common Ulva on rocks and 
in pools exposed to the action of the waves. The frond, although not very large, ia 
rigid, and does not adhere well to paper in drying. In outline it is orbicular, and is 
generally deeply incised. Var. 8 has a more elongated shape, and is generally plicato- 
undulate. Var. y is very common in brackish places on the mud, and attains a very 
large size. When fully grown it has no definite shape, but is ragged on the margin 
and often perforated. 

Ulva enteromorpha, Le Jolis. 

Frond linear or lanceolate in outline, attenuated at base, the two lay- 
ers of cells either entirely separating, so as to form a tubular frond, or 
slightly cohering, forming a flat frond. 

a. Yar. lanceolata, Le Jolis. ( Ulva Linza, Greville & Harvey. — 
Phycoseris lanceolata and crispata, Kutzing.) 

Frond narrow, flat, ribbon-shaped, unbranched, much attenuated at 
base, margin somewhat crisped, sometimes so much so that the frond 
appears spirally twisted. 

8. Yar. iNTESTiNALis, Le Jolis. (Enteromorpha intestinalis, Auct.) 

Frond simple, attenuated, and subcompressed at base, above tubuloso- 
inflated. 

y. Yar. compressa, Le Jolis. (Ulva compressa, L. — Enteromorpha 
compressa, Auct.) 

Frond tubuloso-compressed, generally proliferously branched, branches 
uniform, simple, attenuate at the base, broader and obtuse at the apex, 
color somewhat dingy. 

Yery common all over the world, particularly in brackish water. 

This species includes the Ulva Linza, Enteromorpha intestinalis, and Enteromorpha com- 
pressa of the Nereis Am. Bor., which can only be regarded as varieties of one species. 
The species reaches its highest development in the var. 8 (Enteromorpha intestinalis, 
Auct.), which is excessively common in all shallow water along our coast, and is con- 
spicuously disagreeable by its resemblance in shape to the swollen intestines of some 
animal. The species approaches Ulva Lactuca, L., in var. a, which is not so common 
as the other forms of the species whose long ribbon-like fronds are compressed instead 
of tubular, as in var. 8. In var. y, with branching instead of simple fronds, the 



44 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

species approaches TJlva clathrata. Innumerable varieties have been made of the 
various forms of this species, but an enumeration of them is quite uncalled for in this 
place. 

TJlva clathrata, Ag. 

" Frond tubular, filiform, several times branched, branches attenuate 
at the apex, often very fine, cells arranged in rows." (Le Jolis, Liste 
des Algues Marines de Cherbourg.) 

As usually defined by algologists, TJlva clathrata differs from TJ. compressa princi- 
pally in the smaller size of the branches, a character by no means constant. We 
quote the specific distinctions as given by Le Jolis, 1. c, which express more clearly 
than the descriptions of other writers the relations between the species : 

" I think they (the specific characters) are to be found, first, in the general form of 
the fronds, which, broadened at the summit in the different varieties of TJlva entero- 
morpha, are, on the contrary, much attenuated at the extremity in TJlva clathrata. 
Secondly, in the ramification. While TJlva compressa and intestinalis are rather proliferous 
than branching in the true acceptation of the word — their branches being ordinarily 
of such a character that when they are given off from the lower part of the frond there 
does not exist, so to speak, any principal axis, or when borne towards the extremity 
of the frond reduced to simple proliferations ; in TJlva clathrata, on the contrary, there 
exists a well-marked ramification, the fronds or primary axe» bearing numerous sec- 
ondary branches, which in their turn produce branchlets of an inferior order." 

Of the species, as defined by Le Jolis, there are several varieties common on our 
coast, principally to be distinguished by the fineness of the branches and more or less 
complicated ramification. The variety Agardhiana of Le Jolis (Enteromorpha Linlciana, 
Grev.), rather coarse and rigid, is common in shallow water, as is also the form called 
by Harvey Enteromorpha ramulosa. The var. Iiothiana forma prostrata is found in a 
ditch at Maiden, Mass. 

Ulva Hopktrkii, (McCalla) Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 263. 

Frond capillary, excessively branched, ramuli ending in a siugle row 
of cells. 

Greenport, L. I., Mr. Hooper ; Gloucester, Mass., Mrs. A. L.Davis; 
Europe. 

A beautiful species, looking much more like a fine Cladophora than an TJlva. It is in 
most cases easily recognized by its tenuity and light-green color. It grows in large 
tufts on other algae and is about eight or ten inches long. It is by no means certain 
that this species should not be regarded as an extreme variety of TJ. clathrata in spite 
of the fact that the branches usually end in a single row of cells. 

ULOTERIX, (Kiitz.) Thur. 
(From v2.tj, a forest, and -&pi%, a hair.) 

Filaments grass-green, soft and flaccid, unbranched, at first forming 
tufts attached at the base, afterwards becoming more or less entangled, 
cells never long in proportion to their diameter. 

The genus UlothrixheTQ includes all the unbranching marine Chlorosporew of a deli- 
cate texture, and embraces the species included by Harvey in the genus Hormotrichum 
of Kutzing, which can hardly be kept distinct from TJlothrix, an older genus of Kutzing. 
When young the species of the genus are attached at the base and unbranched, but in 
some cases, when old, the filaments are twisted together, and it is not always easy to 
find the point of attachment. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 45 

The genus is too nearly related to Chcetomorpha, from which it differs in substance, 
the filaments being more or less gelatinous in Ulothrix and rigid in Chcetomorpha. Of 
all the filamentous marine Cklorosporcce the species of Ulothrix are best adapted for the 
study of zoospores. The conjugation of zoospores in Ulothrix zonata, a fresh-water 
species, has been very fully described by Dodel-Port in Pringsheim's Jahrbiicher, 
Vol. X. 

IT. flacca, (Dillw.) Thuret. (Lyngbya flacca and Carmicliaelii, Harv., ' 
Phyc. Brit., PL 300 and 186 a. — Rormotrichum Carmichaelii, Harv., Ner. 
Am. Bor., Part III, p. 90.) 

Filaments fine, lubricous, greenish yellow, one to three inches long-, 
at first tufted, then entangled and forming strata of indefinite extent 
filaments .014-30 mm in diameter, becoming moniliform, cells .003-12 mra 
long, generally narrow, discoidal. 

Eastport, Maine., on stones and Bhodymenia, August j Nahant, Mass., 
Mr. Collins, spring ; Isles of Shoals, N. H., Mrs. Davis ; Europe. 

A species most luxuriant in the spring, but also found in summer. The form found 
at Eastport was the entangled stage which is common on wood-work at low- water 
mark. 

U. ISOGONA, (Engl. Bot.) Thuret. (Conferva Youngana, Harv., Phyc. 
Brit., PI. 328. — Lyngbya speciosa, 1. c, PI. 186 b. — Hormotriclmm Yonng- 
anum, Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, p. 89. — TJrospora penicilliformis, Aresch. 
in part.) 

Filaments fine, yellowish green, one to three inches long, at first 
tufted, afterwards forming strata, filaments .036-58 mm in diameter, 
moniliform, cells .015-50 mm long, from cuboidal becoming ovate, con- 
striction at nodes marked. 

New York, Harvey; Ives Point, Conn., Mr. Hall; Gloucester, Mrs. 
Davis; Nahant, Mr. Collins; Europe. Spring. 

Distinguished from the last by its greater size and by the marked constriction be- 
tween the cells at maturity. Apparently common on wood-work. Whatever name 
we may give to this species, it is the same form which is common in the northern 
part of Europe in spring and summer. It is the Rormotrichum Younganum of British 
authors, and the U. isogona of the French. It is the species referred by Areschoug, 
Observationes Phycologicaa, II, Act. Reg. Soc. Scient., Ser. Ill, Vol. 9, to Conferva peni- 
cilliformis, Roth, and made by him the type of the genus Urospora. Areschoug unites 
under the single species U. penicilliformis the following species of Phycologia Brit- 
tanica: Lyngbya speciosa, L. Carmichaelii, L. Cutleriw, L. flacca, and Conferva Youngana. 
In the present case we have kept U. flacca and U. isogona distinct, but agree with 
Areschoug in uniting U. speciosa with U. isogona. Perhaps a further acquaintance 
with the species might lead us to unite the present two species under Areschoug's 
name. 

The Hormotriclmm speciosum of Eaton's list of Eastport algae belongs to another 
genus. The R. boi'eale, 1. c, is unknown to me. 

U. collabens, (Ag.) ThurJ (Conferva collabens, Harv., Phyc. Brit., 
PI. 327. — Hormotrichum collabens, Kiitz., Spec. Alg., p. 383.) 
Filaments tufted, two to six inches long deep green, cells from .05- 



46 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES, 

,18 mm in breadth, once or once and a half as long as broad, nodes con- 
stricted. 

To this species is referred, with considerable doubt, a rare Ulothrix found by Mr. 
Collins at Nahant. The filaments are six or seven inches long, very soft, and they can 
with difficulty be removed from the paper on which they are pressed. The cells ave- 
rage from .035-90 mm in breadth by .054-.324 mm in length. In Rhode Island Plants, by 
S. T. Olney, Providence Franklin Society, April, 1847, under No. 1189, is the following : 
"Conferva collabens, Ag. ? ' or near it' — Harv. MSS. Sogormet Point! Narragansett 
Pier!" In the Nereis Am. Bor., Part III, no reference is made to C. collabens, Ag., by 
Harvey, whom Olney quotes in his list. Harvey, however, in the Nereis, describes 
a new species, CJicetomorpha OIneyi, which calls to mind C. collabens, and perhaps that 
is the plant referred to by Mr. Olney. 

CH^TOMORPHA, Kiitz. 

(From x aiT V, hair, and fiop^v, shape.) 

Filaments grass-green, coarse and rigid, nnbranched, either attached 
in tufts or floating in masses, cells variable in length, often much 
longer than broad. 

The species of this genus may be divided into two groups. In the first the fila- 
ments arise in tufts from a definite base. In the second the filaments are twisted to- 
gether and form intricate masses, which rest upon stones and other alga3. It may be 
a question whether the members of the last-named group are not the advanced stage 
of the species of the first group, which, as they have developed, have become twisted 
together and torn from their attachments. It would be comparatively a simple mat- 
ter to classify our own species taken by themselves, but in comparing them with for- 
eign species it becomes very complicated in consequence of the confusion of names 
applied to some of the common European species. We can only briefly mention the 
synonyms, which are almost hopelessly confused. 

0. melagonium, (Web. & Mohr.) Kiitz. ( Conferva Melagonium, Phyc. 
Brit., PI. 99 a.) 

Filaments erect, base scutate, coarse and wiry, dark glaucous green, 
cells .4-5 ram broad by .4-7 mra long. 

In tide-pools. 

Common from Boston northward ; Northern Europe. 

The most easily recognized species of the genus with us. It grows in deep tide- 
pools, attached to pebbles and rocks. The filaments can be recognized at a distance 
by their dark glaucous-green color and rigidity. It is generally a foot or more in 
length, and the filaments are usually free, but become more or less twisted together. 
It does not adhere well to paper in drying, and in spite of its coarseness it does not 
bear immersion in fresh water. 

0. ^rea, (Dillw.) Kiitz. {Conferva area, Phyc. Brit., PI. 99 b.) 

Filaments erect, base scutate, setaceous, yellowish green, cells 
.25-40 mm long by .15-30 mm broad. 

In high-tide pools. 

New York Harbor, Harvey; New Haven, Prof. Eaton; Newport, 
Bailey; Gloucester; Europe. 

This species has a wider range than the last, being found not only in the north of 
Europe, but also in the Mediterranean and other warm seas. With us it is not un- 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 47 

common in Long Island Sound, but is little known north of Cape Cod. It grows in 
pools, sometimes near high- water mark, and resembles in habit C. melagonium, from 
which it differs in color, in being much less rigid, and in the smaller size of its cells. 
As found on our coast, the filaments are rather more slender than the average of 
European specimens. 

0. Picquotiana, (Mont.) Kiitz. (Conferva Picquotiana, Ann. Scien. 
Nat., 3d Ser., Vol. XI, p. G6.—Chcetomorplia Piquotiana, Ner. Am. Bor., 
Part III, p. 85, PI. 46 c.) 

Filaments prostrate, intricately twisted together in masses, rigid, 
dark-green, cells .2-4 mm broad by .2-1.6 mm long, slightly oval in shape. 

Deep water, and washed ashore. 

Bather common from Boston northward ; Staten Island, Harvey; 
Gay Head, Mass. 

This species was first described by Montagne from specimens collected by Lamare- 
Picquot in Labrador. It is Che largest of our prostrate Chwtomorphce, and north of 
Boston is not uncommon on beaches after a storm, but it has not been seen in tide-pools. 
The localities South of Cape Cod perhaps need revision. We have found the species 
washed ashore at Gay Head, from deep water. It reminds one of C. melagonium by 
its color, rigidity, and size of the filaments, and it seems to us probable that it is 
merely an advanced stage of that species which has broken from its attachments and 
become entangled without having lost its power of growth. It is certainly very 
unlikely that any alga of this suborder is throughout its whole period of existence 
unattached. The cells differ from those of C. melagonium in being sometimes several 
times longer than broad, but, on the other hand, they frequently are found no longer 
than broad. If the species is really distinct and not an older stage of C. melagonium, 
as we suspect, it is the largest and coarsest of our species, and is to be compared with 
C. torulosa, Zan, of which we have examined specimens collected by Hauck at Pirano, 
in the Adriatic. In drying, our species does not adhere to paper, and the cells con- 
tract at the joints so as to give a toruloid appearance. 

0. Linum, (Flor. Dan.) Kiitz. (Conferva Linum, Crouan, Algues 
Marines dn Finistere, No. 353. — Conferva Linum, Areschoug, Alg. 
Scand., No. 183. — Chwtomorpha lierbacea, Kiitz., in Hohenacker's Meeral- 
gen, No. 355. — Chcetomorpha Linum, Kiitz., Spec. Alg., p. 378. — Chceto- 
morplia sutoria, (Berk.) Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part 3, p. 87. — Non 
Conferva Linum, Alg. Danmon., No. 220, nee Rhizoelonium Linum, 
Herb. Thuret.) 

Filaments prostrate, intricately twisted together in masses, rigid, 
bright green, cells .20-25 mm broad by .20-30 mm long, about as broad as 
long. 

Just below low- water mark. 

Common in Long Island Sound j Nahant, Ten Pound Island, Glou- 
cester, Mass. ; Europe. 

The confusion which has arisen from the application of the name Conferva Linum to 
different species and the useless multiplication of names, especially on the part of 
Kutzing, makes it exceedingly difficult to ascertain the name of this common species 
on our coast. It forms strata of considerable extent upon rocks and gravel just below 



48 REPOET OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

low-water mark. It can be distinguished from the preceding species by its lighter 
color, by being less rigid, and by the smaller size of the cells, which are rather uni- 
formly as broad as long. If we may suspect that C. Picquotiana is only a form of C. 
melagonium, we may also suggest that the present is possibly the corresponding form 
of C. wrea. To unravel the synouymy of the species is quite hopeless. Our specimens 
agree with No. 353 of Crouan's Algues Marines du Finistere and No. 183 of Ares- 
choug's Algae Scandinavicge, both of which are supposed to be the Conferva Linum of 
the Flora Danica. They are also identical with No. 355 of Hohenacker's Meeralgen, 
which purports to have been determined as C. lierbacea, Kg., by Kiitzing himself. 
Whether they are the same as the Conferva Linum of the Phycologia Brittanica we 
cannot determine. They approach very near to, if they are not identical with, C. 
crassa of the Italian algologists. In fact, Crouan considers C. Linum, Fl. Dan., to be 
the same as C. crassa, Ag. The Chwtomorpha sutoria of the Nereis Am. Bor. seems to 
us the same thing. We have examined Bailey's specimens, from which Harvey named 
the species in the Nereis, and have also examined Bailey's locality, at Stonington. 
To the naked eye, in Bailey's specimens, the filaments appear smaller than the typical 
form, but a microscopic examination gives the same measurements as specimens we 
collected ourselves, which agreed precisely with No. 353, Crouan. In saying that the 
New England specimens of C. sutoria should be considered to be rather C. Linum, we do 
not mean to imply that the European C. sutoria is not distinct. Whether our species 
is the same as Rkizoclonium Linum, Thuret, is, perhaps, doubtful. In. specimens of the 
last-named species from Cherbourg the filaments appear to be somewhat smaller. The 
species usually, but not always, loses its color drying, and scarcely adheres to paper 
unless under considerable pressure. 

SPECIES INQUIRENDJE. 

C. Olneyi, Harv., Xer. Am. Bor., Part III, p. 86, PL 46 d, 

16 Filaments tufted, setaceous, straight or curved, soft, pale green ; 
articulations once and a half as long as broad.' 7 (Harvey, 1. c.) 

Rhode Island, Olney. 

C. longiarticulata, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, p. 86, PI. 46 e. 

"Filaments capillary, curved, loosely bundled together, flaccid, soft, 
pale green j articulations 4-6 times as loug as broad, swollen at the 
nodes ; var. ft crassior, filaments more robust." (Harvey, 1. c.) 

In rock-pools, between tide-marks. Ship Anne Point, Mr. Hooper; 
Boston Bay, Mrs. Asa Gray; Little Oompton, Mr. Olney; var. /? in 
brackish ditches at Little Compton, Mr. Olney. 

The two last species are only known from the descriptions in the Nereis. No au- 
thentic specimens exist in the Olney Herbarium, which is now the property of Brown 
University. The specimen of C. Olneyi mentioned in Algm Blwcliacew by Olney was 
determined by the present writer, not by Harvey himself, and a recent examination of 
the specimen, for which we are indebted to the kindness of Professor Bailey, lead us 
to think that the specimen was not correctly determined. 

EHIZOCLOOTUM, Kiitz. 

(From pi£ov, a root, and kIuv, a branch.) 

Filaments decumbent, entangled, branches short and root-like. 

The genus is easily recognized, as a rule, by the root-like character of the branches. 
In some species the branches are frequent j in others, however, they are only occa- 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 49 

sionally found, and in that case the species may easily he mistaken for species of 
Chcetomorpha. 
B. riparium, Roth, Harv. Phyc. Brit., PI. 328. (R. salinum, Kiitz.) 
Filaments decumbent, pale green, forming entangled masses, fur- 
nished with numerous short root-like branches, generally consisting of 
but few cells, but sometimes elongated, filaments from .02 mm to .025 mm 
in diameter, cells about as long as broad, or a little longer. PL III, Fig. 2. 
Eastport, Maine ; Nahant, Wood's Holl, Mass., W. G. F.; New Haven, 
Conn., Prof. D. C. Eaton ; Europe. 

An alga which is probably common all along the coast on wood-work and sandy 
rocks between tide-marks. It forms thin light-green masses on the substance on 
which it is growing. The root-like processes usually consist of not more than three or 
four cells, and not unfrequently they fork. Distinguished at sight from the next by 
its yellowish color. It often covers the ground at the base of Spartina, and it is found 
nearer high-water mark than the next species. 

E. tortuosum, Kiitz. (Conferva implexa and tortnosa, Harv., Phyc. 
Brit., PL 54 a and b. — Chwtomorpha tortuosa, Ner. Am. Bor.) 

Filaments dark green, very much curled and twisted, forming pros- 
trate masses, diameter of filaments, .035 mm to .058 ram , cells about twice 
as long as broad, branches few, short. 

Common all along the New England coast ; Europe. 

The most common species of our coast, recognized by its dark-green color, and by 
the very much twisted filaments which form woolly strata over other algae. Its favor- 
ite habitat is in tide-pools, where it is exposed at dead low water. 

E. Kochianum, Ktitz. (Conferva arenosa, Crouan, Algues Marines du 
Finistere, No. 355. — Conferva implexa, var., Alg. ScancL, No. 187. — 
Rhizoclonium Kochianum, Kiitz., in Le Jolis's Liste des Algues Marines 
de Cherbourg.) 

Filaments pale yellow, forming loose masses of indefinite extent, cells 
.OlO-U 1 "" 1 broad by .036-54 mm long. 

On algse below low-water mark. Summer. 

Gloucester, Mass.; Nahant, Mass., Mr. Collins; Europe. 

Much finer than any of the species previously meutioned, covering alga) with a deli- 
cate pale-yellow fleece. It is apparently less common than our other two species, and 
we have ouly found it once growing over Laminarice just below low-water mark, off 
Niles's Beach, Gloucester. The species agrees with French specimens of E. Kochianum 
in the size and general appearance of the cells, but the root-like processes character- 
istic of the present genus are not evident in our specimens, and the species is here re- 
tained in Rhizoclonium on the authority of Kiitzing, in Le Jolis's Liste des Algues Ma- 
rines de Cherbourg. E. Kocliiamm is considered by Eabenhorst to be a variety of E. 
flavicans, Jiirg., in which he also includes Conferva arenicola of Berk. Our specimens 
agree perfectly with No. 355 of Crouan's Algues Marine du Finistere, but are rather 
smaller than No. 187 of Areschoug's Algse Scandinavicae, which is referred with doubt 
to Conferva arcnosa. The name which we have adopted refers our specimens without 
doubt to French forms, but the identity with the genuine C. arenosa of British botan- 
S. Miss. 59 4 



50 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

ists still remains to be settled. The species does not adhere well to paper, and would 
probably, at first sight, be referred by collectors to Chcetomorplia rather than to BMzo- 
clonium. 

CLADOPHOEA, Kiitz. 

(From nXadog , a branch, and Qopeu, to bear. ) 

Filaments firm, not gelatinous, branching throughout. 

A genus including the greater part of the branching Chlorosporece, which are found 
both in salt and fresh water. It differs from Ulothrix and Chcetomorpha in having 
branching filaments, and from Bhizoclonium in having well-developed branches and 
not mere rhizoidal growths. The species abound on rocks and in tide-pools, as well 
as in ditches and shallow bays along the shore, and usually grow in tufts. Some of 
the species, however, especially those growing in brackish ditches, at maturity form 
dense layers upon the surface of the water or on the bottom. The number of described 
species of the genus is immense, but, in all probability, a great part are not distinct. 
It is at present impossible correctly to refer the New England species to European 
forms, since European botanists by no means agree as to their own species, and there 
has been a tendancy on the part of algologists of different countries to ignore the 
species of other countries in studying their own. The principal specific character is 
the mode of branching, which, in the present genus, is at best an uncertain mark. The 
young and old plants of the same species often differ very much in the appearance of 
the branches, so that the habit varies at different seasons. When old, some species 
are usually torn from their attachments and washed ashore in large masses, and, in 
this battered condition, it is often impossible to recognize the species, or perhaps even to 
distinguish the specimens from Bhizoclonium species. Unfortunately, names have been 
given to the battered forms until there is such a labyrinth of synonyms that one is 
tempted to reject all but a few well-marked species. In the present instance we have 
attempted merely to compare our ' specimens with those in the Algae Danmonienses, 
the Algues Marines du Finistere, the Algae Scandinavicae of Areschoug, and with 
specimens received from Dr. Bornet, M. Le Jolis, Dr. Kjellman, and Dr. Wittrock. It 
is to be hoped that some responsible algologist will undertake the revision of this 
much-abused genus. 

Subgenus SPONGOMORPHA, Kiitz. 

Plants spongy, at least towards the base, owing to the interlacing of 
the branches, some of which are strongly recurved aud rhizoidal. 

0. ARCTA, (Dillw.). (Cladophora arcta, Phyc. Brit., PI. 135.) 

Filaments slender, two to eight inches long, tufted and densely matted 
at base, becoming free and divergent above, color a bright green ; branches 
near the base strongly recurved and interlaced, upper branches erect or 
appressed, numerous, opposite or scattered, apices obtuse ; cells at base 
about twice as long as broad, cells of upper portion several times longer 
than broad, average diameter of cells about .08 mm . 

On rocks between tide-marks. Winter and spring. 

Common along the whole coast; Europe. 

One of the few species which are recognized without difficulty, although it varies 
considerably in aspect at different seasons. When young the filaments are but slightly 
matted together, except at the very base, and the species is then the C. vauchericeformis 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 51 

of Agardh; but when old they become spongy nearly to the tip, and constitute the C. 
centralis of some authors. The species is, as a rule, easily distinguished by its bright- 
green color and erect or appressed branches in the upper portion of the plant. The 
plant preserves its beautiful green color, and adheres to paper except when very 
old and spongy. 

C. LANOSA, (Roth) Kiitz. (C. lanosa, Phyc. Brit., PL 6.) 

Tufts more or less globose; filaments one to three inches long, densely 
matted, color at first bright green, but soon becoming pale yellow; 
branches long, numerous, irregularly placed, often secund, given off at 
wide angles ; cells .03-4 mtn in breadth, as long as broad in lower part, 
becoming in upper part several times loDger than broad. 

On Chondrus crispus and other algse. 

Gloucester, Nahant, Mass. ; common. Europe. Spring and early 
summer. 

Var. UNCIALIS, Thuret. [CI. uncialis, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PL 207.) 

Filaments longer and looser than in the type, and of a lighter color. 

On sandy rocks. 

Long Island Sound ; Nahant and Gloucester, Mass. ; common. Spring. 
Europe. 

An easily recognized species, probably common along the whole coast in spring and 
early summer. It grows attached to sea-weeds or to sand-covered rocks at low tide 
and below, and is often washed ashore in considerable quantities. It forms globose 
tufts, which, when growing, are bright green, but which soon lose their color, and, 
on drying, became pale and silky. The var. uncialis, which is more common in Long 
Island Sound, is less dense and forms looser tufts than the type. It does not adhere 
very well to paper. 

Subgenus EUCLADOPHORA. 

Plants tufted, or, at times, stratose, not united into spongy masses by 
rhizoidal branches or recurved branches. 

C. rtjpestbis, (Linn.) Kiitz., Phyc. Brit., PL 180. 

Filaments five to ten inches long, rigid, dark green, tufted ; branches 
crowded, usually opposite or in fours, ultimate branches given off at an 
acute angle, short, subulate; cells constricted at the joints, average 
diameter of cells .08-lG mm . 

On rocks near low-water mark. 

Common along the whole coast throughout the year; Europe. 

Recognized by its dark green color and rigidity, and by the numerous appressed 
ramuli which are given off two or three at a joint. 

0. albida, (Huds.) Ktitz., Phyc. Brit,, PL 275. 

Filaments slender, silky, forming dense tufts from a few inches to a 

foot long, color a pale green j branches irregular, often opposite, ulti- 



52 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

mate branches long, given off at wide angles $ cells .02-3 mm in diameter, 

cell- wall delicate, terminal cells blunt. 

Staten Island, Beesley's Point, New York Bay, Harvey ; in pools, 

Newport, E. Lj Europe. Summer. 

Not yet observed north of Cape Cod. The species is recognized by forming dense 
tufts of a pale color and almost spongy consistency. The sponginess, however, is not, 
as in the subgenus SpongomorpJia, due to the interlacing of short recurved branches 
and rhizoidal filaments, but to the fineness of the filaments, which are densely twisted 
together. The cells do not vary much in diameter throughout. This species, when 
dried, loses most of its color, and does not adhere well to paper. 

C. refracta, (Both) Areschoug. (Non C. refracta, Alg. Danmon., 
No. 228, nee Phyc. Brit., PI. 24.) 

Filaments rather rigid, forming tufts from 2-8 inches long, color 
a glaucous green 5 branches flexuous, clothed throughout with nearly 
equal, short, frequently opposite branchlets, which are at first patent 
and furnished with erect or corymbose, afterwards reflexed, branchlets j 
cells .03-8 mm in diameter, terminal cells blunt. 

Common in deep tide- pools and on stones and sea- weeds at low- water 
mark throughout our limits. Spring and summer. Northern Europe.. 

We have refrained from quoting any synonyms in the description just given. The 
species, as we understand it, is one common in rocky places where the water is pure. 
It forms rather short tufts of a somewhat glaucous green, which is paler when the 
plant grows exposed to the sun. The branchlets, which are in general short, are at 
first erect, but, as usually found, are somewhat corymbose and ultimately decompound 
and reflexed. It is rather rigid and does not collapse when removed from the water. 
In drying it sometimes retains its color, but usually becomes yellowish and does not 
adhere well to paper. What we have described seems to be the C. refracta of Harvey's 
Nereis, but we have refrained from quoting the localities given by Harvey. The C. 
refracta of the French coast is considered by Le Jolis to be a variety of C. albida. The 
same is not true of our species, which is certainly distinct from C. albida. It may be 
that we have also the refracted variety of C. albida on our coast, but we have never 
met with it. The present species is much coarser and differs in habit and ramification 
from the C. albida of New England, which agrees well with European specimens. The 
American C. refracta is much nearer to, if not identical with, the species published by 
Areschoug in the Algse Scandinavicse, 2d series, No. 338, as C. refracta, (Roth). In 
coarseness it approaches C. Icetevirens, but it certainly is not the same as No. 143, Algse 
Danmonienses, which Harvey considers to be C. laitevirens. In short, we think that 
the C. refracta of New England is not the species to which the French botanists ap- 
ply that name, but probably the species of Areschoug. Whether it is really the Con- 
ferva refracta of Roth is a j>oint on which we can only follow the authority of others. 
At any rate, after the explanation given, the name can be retained without causing 
greater confasion than has hitherto existed. 

0. olatjcescens, (Griff.) Harv. (CI. glaucescens, Phyc. Brit., PI. 196.— 
CI. pseudo-sericea, Orouan, Alg. Finist., No. 367.) 

Filaments loosely tufted, 3-12 inches long, much branched, color light 
green; branches erect, pectinate, ultimate branchlets elongated, erect, 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 53 

given off at an acute angle; cells with delicate cell- wall, .03-G mm in 
diameter, terminal cells acute. 

On stones and wood-work near low- water mark. Summer. 

From Halifax, "S. 8., to Charleston, S. C, Harvey; Newport, E. I.; 
Europe. 

A delicate species which is characterized by its light color, loosely tufted habit, and 
slender branches, which are all given off at uniformly acute angles. When growiug 
in exposed localities the tufts are short, but in quiet bays they become long and loose. 
This species, which has the light color and slender filaments of C. albida, differs from 
that species in not being spongy in consistence and in the length of the ultimate 
branchlets, which are always erect. Our Newport species resemble very closely the 
No. 120 6 of Wittrock and Nordstedt, Alga? Scandinavian, which is considered by them 
a form of C. crystallina, (Roth), but differs from the CI. crijstallina of the algologists 
of Southern Europe. It may be remarked that CI. glaucescens, (Griff.) Harv., has been 
referred to other older species, but not knowing the limits of C. crystallina, (Roth), and 
C. sericea, (Huds.), we have adhered to the latter name, as has also been done by Le 
Jolis and other French algologists. This species generally becomes very pale in drying 
and adheres well to paper. 

The variety (3, pectinella, of this species, mentioned by Harvey in the Nereis Am. 
Bor. as occurring in Charleston Harbor, is not known on our northern coast. In the 
variety the branches are said to be recurved. 

C. l^tevirens, (Dillw.) Harv., Alg. Danmon., No. 142 ; Phyc. Brit., 
PI. 190. 

Filaments much branched, rigid, forming loose tufts 3-6 inches long, 
color a yellowish green; branches fastigiate, erect, often opposite or 
in threes, ultimate branches secund, of few cells, apex obtuse; di- 
ameter of cells .05-.15 mra . 

In tide-pools. 

New York Bay; Boston, Harvey ; Gloucester, Mass., Mrs Davis. 

A rather robust species, recognized by the denseness of the branches, which are 
crowded at the tips. Less robust and differing from C. HutcMimos in having fastigi- 
ate branches. We have only seen one specimen, collected by Mrs. Davis, which cor- 
responded exactly to the C. Icetevirens of Algae Danmonienses and to the C. Icetevirens 
of the Nereis Am. Bor. It is doubtful whether the forms to which the same name has 
been given by French botanists belong to the same species as our own. Some of them, 
at least, appear to belong to a more slender and less densely branching species. The 
species does not adhere well to paper in drying. 

C. HuTcniNSiiE, (Dillw.) Kiitz. (CI Hutehirisicv, Phyc. Brit., PL 
124.— OL diffusa, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 130.) 

Filaments rigid, glaucous green, flexuous, forming loose tufts C-12 
inches long; branches scattered, rather distant; ultimate branches 
few, short, secund ; cells .10-24 mm in diameter. 

In tide-pools. 

Gloucester, Mass., Mrs, Davis. 

A single specimen which seems unmistakably to belong to this species was collected 
by Mrs. Davis. The species, which is one of the coarsest on the coast, is distinguished 



54. REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

by the large size of the filaments and remoteness of the branches, together, -with the 
shortness of the ultimate branches. The Cladopliora diffusa of the* Phycologia Brit- 
tanica is now considered, with good reason, to be a. form of C. Hutchinsice in which 
the branches are very long and nearly destitute of branchlets. Probably the Clado- 
pliora diffusa? of the Nereis Am. Bor., said by Harvey to be found in "New York 
Sound," is to be referred to the present species. Specimens which correspond well 
enough to the C. diffusa of the Algse Danmonienses, No. 144, have been collected by Mrs. 
Davis and Mrs. Bray at Gloucester. 

C. flexuosa, (Griff.) Harv. 

"Filaments very slender, pale green, tufted, flexuous, sparingly and 
distantly branched ; branches elongate, subsimple, of unequal length, 
flexuous, sometimes nearly naked, sometimes ramuliferous 5 the ulti- 
mate ramuli secund or alternate, short or long, curved 5 articulations of 
the branches 3-4 times, of the ramuli twice as long as broad." (Nereis 
Am. Bor., Part III. p. 78.) 

Rocks between tide-marks, &c. 

Hingham and Boston, Mass. ; Jackson Ferry and Hell Gate, N". Y. 

We have quoted from the Nereis Am. Bor. the description given by Harvey of the 
present species, and have purposely refrained from adding any localities of our own. 
Harvey considers C. flexuosa very nearly related to CI. glaucescens, if indeed it is distinct 
from it. On the other hand, the greater part of the French specimens of C. flexuosa 
which we have seen are quite distinct from C. glaucescens, and seem to approach some 
of the forms of C. gracilis. We have frequently seen at Wood's Holl, Newport, and 
Gloucester specimens which correspond pretty well with the C. flexuosa of Alg. Dan- 
mon., No. 227. As we understand the species, it is more rigid than CI. glaucescens, 
and has shorter branches, which are at times refracted. The cells are .02-6 mm in 
diameter and not more than two or three times as long as broad as a rule. Le Jolis 
states that C. flexuosa lines the bottom of pools. The American forms which we would 
refer to this species are found in pools on rather exposed rocky shores. 

0. MoRBism, Harv. 

" Tufts elongate, dense, somewhat interwoven, dark green ; filaments 
very slender, much and irregularly branched; the penultimate branches 
very long, filiform, flexuous, simple, set with alternate or secund, short, 
erecto-patent ramuli, some of which are simple and spine-like, others 
pectinated on their upper side; articulations filled with dense endo- 
chrome, in the branches 2-3 times, in the ramuli about twice as long as 
broad, cylindrical, not contracted at the nodes." (Harvey, Nereis 
Am. Bor., Part III, p. 79, PL 45 b.) 

Elsinborough, Del., Miss Morris. 

We only know this species from the description and plate of Harvey. 

0. RUDOLPHIANA, Ag. 

Filaments very long and gelatinous, forming loose tufts one or two 
feet long, color yellowish green 5 branches opposite or irregular, very 
long and flexuous, given off at wide angles, clothed with long, secund, 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 55 

tapering branchlets; cells .02-S ram in diameter, those of the mam 
branches many times longer than broad. 

On stones and covering algae just below low- water mark. Summer. 

Jackson Ferry, 1ST. Y., Harvey; Wood's Holl, Mass. ; Europe. 

One of the longest but at the same time most delicate of the genus. It forms in- 
tricately branching tufts, one or two feet long, attached to stones, or covers with a soft 
fleece algae and Zmtera growing in still, shallow bays, like the Little Harbor at Wood's 
Holl. It is more or less gelatinous and at once collapses on being removed from the 
water and adheres closely to paper in drying. In drying the cells shrivel very much, 
and the coloring matter is collected art the ends of the cells, which, in the main 
branches, are much longer than broad, and on moistening the cells do not recover 
their shape as readily as in other species. 

C. GRACILIS, (Griff.) Kiitz. 

Filaments loosely tufted, 3-12 inches long, irregularly bent, provided 
at the angles with rather short branches, which are pectinate, with long 
recurved or incurved branchlets j color a yellowish green j cells ,04-16 mm 
in diameter. 

On wharves or in muddy pools. 

New Haven, Prof. Eaton; Wood's Holl, Mass. 

a. Yar. EXP ANSA. 

Very irregularly branched, forming masses one to two feet in extent. 

Muddy pools. 

/3. Gloucester, Nahant, Mass. 

Yar. tenuis, Thuret. (Gl. vadorum, Aresch.) 

Branches remote, filaments more slender than in the type, .04-8 mm in 
diameter. 

Growing over Laminarice. 

Gloucester. ? 

A common and variable species, growing in rather muddy sheltered places and not 
on exposed spots. In its typical form it is recognized by its very irregular branches, 
which are more divergent than in most other species, and by its pectinate branchlets. 
which are at times flabellate. The species, ." .though rather delicate in substance, is 
much stouter than C. albida or C. glaacesccns, and does not adhere well to paper. The 
form which we have referred to, var. tenuis, Thuret, is doubtful. It formed masses of 
indefinite oxtent on Laminarice and other algaj below low-water mark oil* Niles's 
Beach, Gloucester. What wo have called var. expama resembles somewhat C. expanm, 
Kiitz., and like it is found in muddy places. It does not, however, form the dense 
masses of the last-named species, but floats loosely in the water in shallow places. 
The ordinary forms of the species are recognized without much difficulty, but one 
sometimes meets forms which are long and almost denuded of branches, in which caso 
determination is difficult. 

C. EXP ANSA, Kiitz. 

Filaments of a dull-green color, at first tufted, then matted together, 
forming extensive strata; main branches irregularly flexuous, .10-15 n::n 



56 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

in diameter, clothed with secondary branches, which are divaricately 
divided and furnished with secund ultimate branches ; cells several 
times longer than broad. 

In brackish ditches. Summer. 

Wood's Holl; Maiden, Mass. 

To the present species may be referred the greater part of the New England speci- 
mens of brackish w ater referred to C. fracta. It is at first tufted, but soon rises to the 
top of shallow ditches and coves, and forms ah intricately interwoven mass. It is 
distinguished from C. fracla by the greater size of the main branches and the fact that 
the diameter of the secondary branches is always much less than that of the main 
branches, whereas in the true C. fracta the branches gradually diminish in size. In 
some specimens the branches are clothed at intervals with very short fasciculated 
ramuli. The species when in its tufted condition resembles some of the forms of C. 
gracilis. It also approaches the C. fracta of the Algss Danmonienses, said by Harvey 
to be rather C. flavescens. 

0. FRACTA, (Fl. Dan.) Kiitz. 

" Tufts irregular, entangled, often detached, and then forming floating 
strata, dull green ; filaments rather rigid, distantly branched, the lesser 
branches somewhat dichotomous, spreading, with very wide axils; the 
ramuli few, alternate or secund; articulations 3-6 times as long as 
broad, at first cylindrical, then elliptical, with contracted nodes." (Har- 
vey, Nereis Am. Bor., Part III, p. 83.) 

Salt-water ditches and ponds. 

West Point, Prof. Bailey; Beesley's Point, Ashmead; 2sTew York, 
Walters ; Baltimore, Md. 

We 1 have quoted from the Nereis the description given by Harvey. It is doubtful 
whether under the name C. fracta he referred to the species of that name as recognized 
by Scandinavian botanists. The only marine locality of this species which we have 
examined is in the vicinity of the Marine Hospital, Baltimore. As we understand the 
species, it is much finer than C. expansa, the cells being from .02-8 mm in diameter, 
those of the main branches tapering gradually into those of the secondary branches, 
while in the last-named species the transition is sudden. The branches are less 
numerous and more irregular in their mode of branching in C. fracta than in C. ex- 
pansa. 

0. Magdalene, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PL 335 a. 

Filaments one to three inches long, decumbent, entangled, coarse, 
blackish green ; branches given off at obtuse angles, flexuous, with 
very few curved, irregularly-placed branchletsj cells .04-8 ram in diam- 
ter, about 2-4 times as long as broad. 

Napatree Point, R. L, Prof. Eaton. 

This rather unsightly and insignificant species is recognized by its procumbent 
habit and dingy green color, and by having but few branches, which are arranged 
without any definite order, and are given off at very obtuse angles from the main fila- 
ments. It may be doubted whether the species is not a reduced form of some other. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 57 

BULBOCOLEOX, Pringsh. 

(From j3o?fioc., a bulb, and noleov, a sheath.) 

Filaments branching, creeping, composed of two kinds of cells, one 
producing numerous zoospores, the other bulbous at the base but drawn 
out into a tube, from the open extremity of which projects a long flexible 
hair. 

This genus, consisting of a single species, was first described by Pringsheini in the 
Abhandlungen der konigl. Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1862, who founded 
it upon a small alga parasitic in the fronds of Leathesia and other Phwosporew, at 
Helgoland. 

The genus resembles Coleochcete, a fresh-water genus, in the structure of the hairs, 
but in Bulbocoleon no reproductive bodies, except zoospores produced in the ordinary 
cells, have as yet been discovered. It is not impossible that oospores may at some 
time be found, and it will then be necessary to remove the genus from the present 
order. 

B. piliferum, Pringsheim, 1. c, p. 8, PI. I. 
Characters same as those of the genus. 

Parasitic in the fronds of Leathesia tuberiformis and Chordaria divari- 
cata. Summer. 
Newport, Ii. I. ; Wood's Holl, Gloucester, Mass. ; Europe. 

This minute species is found creeping among the cortical cells of Leathesia and 
Chordaria, generally in company with a Streblonema. It forms dark spots on the 
fronds, and, on microscopic examination, the hyaline hairs are seen projecting above 
the surface. The species is studied with difficulty when parasitic on Leathesia, owing 
to the density of the cortical part of the frond, but is more easily examined when it 
grows on Chordaria. It was found by Pringsheim on Chorda fdum, Chordaria flagelli- 
formis, and Mesogloia vermicularis, as well as on Leathesia. It probably will be found 
on several other Phceosporew of our coast, where it appears to be common. 

The following genus described by Reinsch, including a species of which we have 
not been able to examine specimens, should be included in the account of the Chloro~ 
sporece of our coast : 

Acroblaste, new genus of Chroolepidew. 

Plants microscopic, marine, forming densely aggregated tufts attached to stones and 
shells ; threads erect, subsimple, branching from the base, arising from procumbent, 
densely interlaced threads; conceptacles in the upper part of the branches nearly 
spherical, at first unicellular, afterwards producing 20-35 spherical zoospores ; after 
the discharge of zoospores elliptical, with a wide mouth; development of the branches 
aud growth of the threads as in Chroolepus and Cladophora. 

Acroblaste, spec. Contents of cells finely granular, distinctly circumscribed; color 
slightly glaucous green; cell- wall thick, sublamellated, twice as long as broad. 

Height of plant, .33G-.G mm . 

Diameter of filaments, .0050-80 mm . 

Diameter of conceptacles, .01G8-19G mm . 

Diameter of zoospores, .0022 n,m . 

Uab. — Attached to shells aud stones, Buzzard's Bay, Mass. 

Reinsch., in Botanische Zeituug, 1879, No. 23, PI. 3 a. 



58 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Suborder BOTRYDIEJ3. 

Fronds minute green unicellar, spherical or pyriform, with a rhi* 
zoidal process at the base. Globose bodies produced in the cells, from 
which, when discharged, there is formed a large number of zoospores, 
with two cilia, which conjugate. 

A small suborder, of which the development is known only in a single species, B. 
granulatum, of which Rostafinski and Woronin have given a full account. Probably 
the suborder may require to be united with the Sijohonew, a group abundant in the 
trojrics, but not strictly found with us. 

CODIOLUM, A. Br. 

(Named from the resemblance to species of Codium, a genus of marine algae.) 

Frond unicellular, at the base prolonged into a tapering, solid, hya- 
line stalk, above clavate, containing an oval chloropyllaceous mass, 
which ultimately is transformed into a large number of spores, devel- 
opment of spores unknown. 

The present genus was founded by A. Braun on a species found by him at Helgo- 
land in 1852 and described and figured in his work on unicellular algae. A second species 
(C. NordensMoldianum) was described by Kjellman. 

The genus is placed by Braun and Kjellman near Characium, but until the develop- 
ment of the spores has been made out the position of the genus must remain doubtful. 
Braun compares the spores to those of Codium, but states that he had never seen cilia. 
In American specimens we have never seen the spores escape from the mother cell and 
swim about by means of cilia, but, on the other hand, the wall of the mother cell dis- 
solves and the spores thus set free begin to grow at once. It often happens that the 
spores begin to grow inside the mother cell. The spores are oval and have a thick 
wall. Each spore either gives off a projection at one end, which grows into a long 
stalk, or else the contents of the spore become divided into a small number of cells by 
means of cross-partitions at right angles to its lorjger axis, thus forming a short fila- 
ment, each cell of which gives off a stalk as previously described. There results in 
the last case a dense cluster of individuals, which adhere together by their bases. It 
may be that what we have seen was only the hypnosporic condition of the plant, and 
that Braun had examined a stage in which motile spores existed. Occasionally one 
finds two spore-bearing cells on a single stalk, one always being very much smaller 
than the other. The second cell is lateral and may be nearly sessile on the stalk or 
furnished with a short secondary stalk of its own. 

Our plant recalls the hypnosporic condition of Botrydium granulatum, and in the 
Algae Am. Bor. Exs. it was distributed under the name of B. gregarium. As the devel- 
opment is so little known, we have now thought best to retain the name Codiolnm, on 
the suxjposition that our species is the same as that of Braun. The study of the de- 
velopment is rendered difficult because the plant grows inextricably entangled with 
other small algae. 

0. gregarium, A. Br. (O. gregarium, Braun, Alg. Unicell., Gen- 
era nova et minus cognita, p. 20, PL 1. — Botrydium gregarium, Farlow, in 
Alg. Am. Bor. Exs., No. 99.) 

Cells densely aggregated, average length of cells, including stalk, 



THE MARINE ALG^l OF NEW ENGLAND. 59 

,35-60 mm , sporiferous mass .04-8 mm broad by .10-15 mm long. Spores 
.015 mm by 020""". 

On wharves and rocks between tide-marks, mixed with Calothrix scop- 
ulorum and Ulothrix. 

Eastport, Me.; Gloucester, Mass. ; Europe. 

Probably common in the autumn along our northern coast, and at once recognized 
by the long terminal stalk, which appears to be an appendage of the cell-wall. The 
size is so variable that no accurate measurements as to length can be given. Those 
above stated represent the size of fully-grown sporiferous individuals. 

Suborder BRYOPSIDEiE. 

Fronds green, unicellar, filamentous, branching; reproduction by 
zoospores, with two cilia, formed in the occluded branches. 

A small suborder, including with us a single species of Bryopsis and a single species 
of Derbesia, a genus whose position is uncertain and which may prove to be more 
nearly related to Vaucheria than to Bryopsis, although in the present article we have 
placed it with the latter. 

BKYOPSIS, Lam. . 

(From (3pvov, a moss, and oxptg; an appearance.) 

Fronds bright-green, unicellular, branching, usually pinnately di- 
vided; reproduction by spores formed in occluded portions of the 
branches ; spores of two (?) kinds — either green zoospores, furnished 
with two apical cilia, or orange-colored. 

The genus Bryopsis includes perhaps not far from twenty species, which are charac- 
terized by the mode of branching. Most of them are pinnately compouud, and the 
different forms pass so gradually into one another that the species cannot be said to 
be well marked. The fronds are unicellular except at the period of reproduction, 
when some of the smaller branches are separated by partitions from the rest of the 
frond. The position of the genus is still doubtful, as the development is not known. 
The reproductive bodies generally found are green zoospores which have two termi- 
nal cilia. Whether they conjugate or not is not known, although as Thuret reports 
the occurrence of zoospores with four cilia, such is probably the case. A second form 
of reproductive bodies was found by Pringsheim in Bryopsis, orange-colored motile bod- 
ies furnished with two terminal cilia. The development of these bodies has not been 
observed. Janczewski and Rostafinski have expressed the opinion that they may bo 
parasites, but Cornu confirms the statement of Pringsheim that they are really organs 
of the Bryopsis. 

B. plumosa, (Huds.) Ag., Phyc. Brit., PI. 3. PL IV, Fig. 1. 

Fronds 2-6 inches long, often gregarious, 2-4 times pinnate, pinnules 
pyramidal in outline, naked at the base, in the upper part clothed with 
short pinnulae, which are constricted at base. 

On muddy wharves and stones at low- water mark. 

A beautiful species, not uncommon along our whole eastern coast, and also frequently 



60 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

found on tho shores of California. It is very widely diffused, being found in nearly 
all seas. B. hypnoides, which occurs at Key West, passes almost insensibly into B. 
plumosa, but the typical B. hypnoides is not known in New England. 

? DERBESIA, Sol. 
(Named in honor of Prof. Alphonse Derbes, of Marseilles.) 

Fronds green, simple or slightly branching, unicellular, or sometimes 
with cross-partitions at the base of the branches ; fructification con- 
sisting of ovoidal sporangia containing zoospores, which are of large 
size and have a hyaline papilla at one end, at the base of which is a 
circle of cilia ; oospores unknown. 

The genus Derbesia was founded by Solier on two Mediterranean species, D. marina 
and D. Lamourouxii. The position of the genus is doubtful. The Derbesice resemble 
in habit the more delicate species of Vauclieria and Bryopsis, and like them are often 
unicellular, but it is, however, not uncommon to find at the base of some of the sterile 
branches a short cell, separated by a wall both from the branch above and the main 
filament below. A similar cell is always present at the base of the sporangia, and 
the same cell is found in some species of Vaucheria. Derbesia differs from Bryopsis in 
having zoospores provided with a circle of cilia, borne around the base of a terminal 
hyaline papilla as in (Edogonium. It differs from Vauclieria in not having oospores, so 
far as is known. The zoospores of Derbesia, according to Solier, germinate at once 
and are apparently of a non-sexual character, so that we may expect that hereafter 
either oospores or conjugating zoospores will be found. As we have said, the zoospores 
bear a striking resemblance to those of (Edogonium, and perhaps the relationship to 
the last-named genus is closer than has usually been supposed. In this connection 
it should be mentioned that, in the formation of the cells sometimes found at the base 
of the branches, the cell-wall ruptures in the same way as in (Edogonium, and if we 
do not have the same rings forming a cap at the end of the cells as in (Edogonium it 
may be because in Derbesia the formation of new cells is very limited. 

D. TENTJissiMA (De Not.), Crouan. (D. marina, Solier, Ann. Sci. Nat., 
3 serie, Yol. VII, p. 158, PI. 9, Figs. 1-17 .—Bryopsis tenuissima, DeNot, 
Fl. Capr. — D. tenuissima, Grouan, Florule du Finistere, non D. marina, 
Crouan, Algues Marines du Finistere, No. SdS.—CMorodesmis vauclierke* 
formis, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, p. 30, PL 40 c.) PI. IV, Fig. 4. 

Filaments tufted, bright green, one to two inches long, M mm in 
diameter ; branches few, erect, constricted, and often with a cuboidal 
cell at the base; sporangia on short branches, ovoidal or pyriform, 
.09-.12 mm broad by .20-.30 ram long, resting on a cuboidal basal cell; spores 
large, few, about 15 in number. 

Forming tufts on algse. 

Eel Pond Bridge, Wood's Holl, Mass.; Key West; Europe. 

We have found this species but once on our coast, in May, 187G. With us it is 
apparently rare, but the species is not uncommon in some parts of Europe, especially 
on the shores of the Mediterranean. Our form is very well developed and the 
sporangia are rather longer than in the European specimens which we have seen. 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 61 

Suborder PELEOSPORE.E. 

Keproduction by means of olive-brown zoospores which have two 
laterally attached cilia ; sporangia of two kinds — unilocular, containing 
a large number of zoospores, and plurilocular, compound sporangia, each 
cell of which contains a single zoospore; conjugation of zoospores known 
in a few species; marine plants, of an olive-brown color, whose fronds 
vary greatly in structure, but which all agree in reproducing by zoospores. 

A large group, first correctly defined by Thuret. Previous writers had regarded the 
structure of the frond to the exclusion of the organs of reproduction, and the species 
here included were placed in different orders. In the Nereis they were placed partly 
in the Dictyotacece, Sporochnacece, Laminariacece, Chordariacece, and Eciocarpacece. The 
four last orders have been kept as families, but the true Dictyotacece are a distinct order. 
All the olive-brown sea-weeds of New England, except the rock- weeds, belong to the 
present suborder. In no order of plants- do the species vary so widely in habit as in 
the present. A largo number, as the Ectocarpi, are filamentous and resemble in habit 
the Cladophorw. The Laminarice have expanded flat fronds, and in Macrocystis and 
Egregia, the most highly organized of the order, there are stems, distinct le'aves, and 
air-bladders, and in Egregia special fructiferous leaflets. Many of the species are of 
microscopic size, but Macrocystis grows to be several hundred feet long. 

SPILENOSIPHON, Reinsch. 
(From c<J)7)v, a wedge, and mcpuv, a tube.) 

Fronds formed of single cells placed side by side so as to form a more or less cohe- 
rent mass ; cells pyriform-cuneate or oblong-elliptical ; contents of cells transformed 
into a number of very small spherical bodies (zoospores?). 

In the Contributiones ad Algologiam et Fungologiam, Reinsch places the genus 
Spliamosiplwn, of which he describes nine species, in the order Melanophycea. One of 
the species occurs in fresh water and the rest are marine. They all form minute spots 
on other algse, and consist simply of cells placed side by side, the whole forming a thin 
membranous expansion. If the small bodies described and figured by Reinsch in the 
interior of the cells are really zoospores, and if the cells themselves are olive-brown, 
we must regard the genus Spliamosiphon as the lowest of the Phaiosporece. The develop- 
ment of the zoospores has not been observed, and as Reinsch describes the color of 
some of the species as bluish green and rose-colored, we must consider the position 
of the genus to be in doubt. Species of Sphcenosiphon are not unfrequent on our coast, 
but they have not yet been sufficiently studied. Those which we have seen are more 
like the Cyanophycece than the Phceosporece in color. The following descriptions, which 
may apply to some of our species, are taken from Reinsch, 1. c. 

8. 8MARAGDINUS, Reinsch, 1. c, PI. 35, Fig. 4. 

Cells pyriform or broadly cuneiform, rounded at the apex, prolonged at the base 
into a hyaline pedicel; colls .01G8-333 mm long, .0084-112 mm broad at apex, .002 mra at 
base; color bluish green ; base hyaline. 

On Plocaminm coccincum, Labrador. 

On Polysiphonia, Anticosti. 

S. olivaceus, Reinsch, 1. c, PI. 36, Fig. 2 a. 

Cells pyriform or cuneiform, broadly rounded at apex, contracted at base ; color 
olive-green; cells .013-24 mm long, breadth .0096-168 mm . 

On Ceramium ruhrum, Anticosti and Labrador. 

S. roseus, Reinsch. 

Cells broadly ellipsoidal, placed loosely together, and surrounded by a thick hyaline 
mucus ; rose-colored ; .0041-50 mm long, .004-5 mm broad. 

On zoophytes, Labrador. 



62 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

As an account of the families into which the suborder is divided has already been 
given on pp. 15-17, it is unnecessary to repeat them here, but the reader will find 
them briefly described in their order on subsequent pages, together with a synopsis 
of the genera found on our coast belonging to each family. 

Family SCYTOSIPHONE^E. 

Fronds unbranching, either membranous or tubular ; plurilocular spo- 
rangia in short filaments, densely covering the whole surface of the 
fronds ; unilocular sporangia not well known. 

Fronds expanded membranes Phyllitis. 

Fronds tubular Scytosi/phon. 

PHYLLITIS, (Ktttz.) Le Jolis. 

(From QvXXiTTjc, a name given by Dioscorides to an unknown plant.) 

Fronds olive-brown, simple, membranaceous, composed of a cortical 
layer of minute colored cells and an internal layer of larger, oblong, 
colorless cells, which are sometimes prolonged downwards in the form 
of short filaments ; plurilocular sporangia formed from- the cortical cells, 
covering the surface of the fronds, consisting of a few (4-6) cells ar- 
ranged in short filaments, which are closely packed together at right 
angles to the surface of the fronds ; unilocular sporangia and para- 
physes unknown ; growth from the base. 

A genus consisting of two species, formerly placed in the genus Laminaria in conse- 
quence of their membranous habit, but differing essentially from the true Laminaria 
in the structure and disposition of their sporangia. 

P. fascia, Kutz. (Laminaria fascia, Ag.) 

Fronds gregarious from a disk-like base, three to six inches long, a 
quarter to half an inch wide, linear-elongate, contracted at the base 
into a short stipe. 

Yar. c^espitosa. (Phyllitis ccespitosa, Le Jolis, Etudes Phycol., p. 10, 
PI. 4. — Laminaria cmspitosa, Ag. — Laminaria fascia, Harv., in Phyc. 
Brit., PI. 45. — Laminaria debilis, Grouan, Alg. Finist., No. 81.) PL IV, 
Pig. 3. 

Fronds stipitate, cuneiform, often falcate and undulate. 

Yery common on stones between tide-marks ; widely distributed over 
all parts of the world. 

About the limits of the present species there is a diversity of opinion. Le Jolis 
regards the L. fascia and L. cwspitosa of Agardh as distinct species, but by Harvey 
they were considered as merely different forms of the same species. Harvey's opinion 
B eems to us to be correct, for it is impossible to draw the line between the two forms 
as found on our coast. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OP NEW ENGLAND. 63 

SCYTOSIPHON, (Ag.) Thuret. 
(From ckvtoq, a whip, and cicpov, a tube. ) 

Fronds simple, cylindrical, usually constricted at intervals, hollow, 
cortex of small colored cells, inner layer of vertically elongated, color- 
less cells ; sporangia as in Phyllitis ; paraphyses single-celled, oblong- 
obovate, interspersed among the sporangia. 

The present genus is founded on the Chorda lomentaria of older writers. The genus 
Scytosiphon, as proposed by Agardh, included both C. lomentaria and C. filum. The 
latter species, which is still kept in the genus Chorda by most writers, has the surface 
of the frond covered with club-shaped paraphyses, between which are situated the 
oral unilocular sporangia. In 8. lomentarius the bodies called paraphyses are only oc- 
casionally found, and their real nature is a little uncertain. Both Bornet and Ares- 
choug consider them to be paraphyses, and the latter has figured them in Observa- 
tiones Phycologicse, Part III, PI. 2, Fig. 1. As at present understood, Scytosiphon differs 
from Phyllitis only in the fact that the frond is tubular instead of membranous, and in 
the presence of paraphyses, which have not yet been found in Phyllitis. 

S. LOiiENTAKius, Ag. (CJwrda lomentaria, Lyngb.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 
285. — Chorda filum var. lomentaria, Kiitz., Spec. Alg.) 

Fronds gregarious, three to eighteen inches long, attached by a disk- 
like base, shortly stipitate, expanding into a hollow tube, from a quarter 
of an inch to an inch in diameter, at first cylindrical, afterwards con- 
stricted at intervals. 

Very common on stones between tide-marks; found nearly all over 
the world. 

A species easily recognized, except when quite young, by its tubular and constricted 
frond, but chiefly interesting in consequence of the smaller species of algse which grow 
upon it. At Eastport a very large form is found, nearly an inch in diameter, and 
much twisted. 

Family PUNCTARIE^E. 

Fronds unbranching, forming expanded membranes or cylinders; 
fructification in spots (sori) on the surface of the fronds ; plurilocular 
sporangia ellipsoidal, composed of few cells ; unilocular sporangia sphe- 
roidal. 

PUNCTARIA, Grev. 

(From punctum, a point, referring to the dots formed by the sporangia and hairs.) 

Fronds olive-brown, simple, membranaceous, attached by a discoidal 
base, composed of several (2-6) layers of cuboidal cells of about the same 
dimensions in all parts of the fronds ; unilocular sporangia immersed 
in the frond, collected in spots, spherical-cuboid, formed from the su- 
perficial cells; plurilocular sporangia collected in spots, immersed ex- 



64 KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

ccpt at the apex, formed from the superficial cells ; fronds covered with 
clusters of hairs ; paraphyses wanting. 

A small genus, containing probably not more than half a dozen good species, which 
are Avidely diffused. In the Nereis Am. Bor. the genus is placed by Harvey in the 
Dictyotacece. That order is now restricted to a group, not represented, as far as is 
known, on the coast of New England, in which there are quiescent spores, tetraspores, 
and antheridia, but no zoospores, and Punctaria is evidently related to the Phceosporece, 
judging by its sporangia. Litosiplion pusillus, a small parasite on various algse, is closely 
related to Punctaria, but differs in having a filamentous frond and more simple 
sporangia. It probably occurs on our coast, but has not yet been observed. 

P. latifolia, Grev.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 85 Etudes Phycol.,p. 13, PL 5. 

Fronds pale olive-green, gregarious, shortly stipitate, lanceolate or 
obovate, four to twelve inches long, one to five inches broad, substance 
tender. 

Var. zoster^e, Le Jol. (P. tenuissima, Phyc. Brit., PI. 248.) 

Fronds thin, pale, lanceolate at both extremities, narrow, margin un- 
dulated. 

On different algse at and below low-water mark. Spring and summer. 
Europe. 

P. plantaginea, (Roth) Grev.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 128. PL IV., Fig. 5. 

Fronds deep brown, gregarious, broadly lanceolate, attenuated at 
base, one to three inches broad, three inches to a foot long, substance 
somewhat coriaceous. 

Orient, L. 1. 5 Point Judith, E. I., Olney; Wood's Holl, Gloucester, 
Mass. ) Europe. Summer. . 

It is not altogether easy to distinguish our two species in some cases, although as a 
rule they are sufficiently distinct. P. latifolia is much the more delicate of the two, 
and has a greenish tinge. When in fruit it is punctate, the dots being the sori. Both 
forms of sporangia are often found simultaneously on the same frond. In P. planta- 
ginea the frond is decidedly brown and rather coriaceous, and the punctate spots are 
caused by the dense clusters of hairs which are often found to correspond on both 
sides of the frond. Both species are common in spring and summer, and although 
often washed ashore in considerable quantities on exposed beaches, they prefer quiet 
bays. 

Family DESMAEESTTEJS. 

Fronds branching, cylindrical or compressed, with an axis of fila- 
ments composed of elongated cells and a cortex composed of spheroidal 
cells ; unilocular sporangia formed by the direct transformation of the 
cortical cells 5 plurilocular sporangia unknown. 

DESMABESTIA, Lamx. 
(In honor of A. G. Desmarest, a French naturalist.) 
Fronds olive-brown, solid, cylindrical or compressed^ much branched, 
attached by a disk, cortical layer composed of small polygonal cells, 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 65 

internal portion consisting of an axial filament formed of a single row 
of rather large cylindrical cells, surrounded by a mass of oblong cells 
sometimes mixed with smaller winding cells ; in the spring fronds 
covered with branching hairs, which drop off later in the season; 
unilocular sporangia formed directly from the cortical cells, which do 
not undergo any change in shape or size ; growth trichothallic. 

A small genus, consisting of about fifteen described species, a considerable portion 
of which bear a close resemblance to D. aculeata. They are inhabitants of the colder 
seas in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Oar two species are very widely 
diffused, but D. Ugulata, a common species of California as well as of Europe, is want- 
ing on our coast. The genus is easily distinguished from its allies by the axial fila- 
ment and the formation of the zoospores in the unchanged superficial cells. 

D. aculeata, Lamx., Phyc. Brit, PI. 49 ; Ner. Am. Bor., Yol. I, 
PI. 4 b. 

Fronds dark olive-brown, one to six feet long, terete below, com- 
pressed above, naked at the base; branches alternate, numerous, long 
and virgate, lower branches longer than upper, several times pin- 
nate, clothed in spring with hairs, which fall off and leave alternate, 
distichous, spine-like processes. 

Common on exposed shores below low- water mark. Throughout the 

year. Europe. 

A coarse and homely species as usually found ; often washed ashore in large masses. 
Not likely to be confounded with any other of our species. In spring it presents a 
feathery appearance, owing to the tufts of hairs with which the frond is beset. It 
is one of the species used as a fertilizer on the northern coast of New England. 

D. viridis, Lam. (Dlchloria viridis, Grev. — Desmarestia viridis, 
Phyc. Brit., PI. 312.) 

Fronds light olive, one to three feet long, cylindrical or but slightly 
compressed; branches all opposite, distichous, several times pinnate, 
ultimate branches capillary. 

Common on stones at and below low- water mark. Europe. 

A smaller and much more delicate species than the last, for which it can never be 
mistaken, rather resembling in some of its conditions a Dictyosiphon. The name is 
derived from the fact that on decaying or on being placed in fresh water it turns 
quickly to verdigris-green. Harvey mentions that air-cavities are to be seen in cross- 
sections of the filaments. The air-cavities are, however, merely the sections of the 
larger cells which are surrounded by dense masses of smaller cells, whereas in D. 
aculeata a cross-section shows the axial filament surrounded by a mass of cells of 
nearly equal diameter. 

Family DICTYOSIPHONE^E. 

Fronds branching, filiform, axis composed of elongated cuboidal cells, 
the cortex of smaller roundish cells; unilocular sporangia spherical, 
scattered or aggregated, formed from the subcortical cells ; plnrilocular 
sporangia unknown. 

S. Miss. 59 5 



66 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

DICTYOSIPHON, Grey. 

(From ditcTvov, a net, and gkjxov, a tube.) 

Fronds olive-brown, filiform, branching, solid above, becoming hol- 
low below, cortex composed of small, irregularly polygonal cells, inte- 
rior of larger, colorless, longitudinally elongated cells; branches corti- 
cated throughout ; growth from an apical cell (scheitel-zelle) ; unilocu- 
lar sporangia spherical, scattered, immersed in the cortex 5 paraphyses 
and plurilocular sporangia unknown. 

The genus was founded on D. fceniculaceus, a species placed by C. A. Agardh and 
Lyngbye in Scytosiphon. Under D. fceniculaceus were included a number of forms 
which have since been separated by Areschoug and placed in two different genera, 
Phlceospora and Dictyosiplion. In the former the unilocular sporangia are formed 
directly from the cortical cells and cover the surface in dense patches, at maturity 
projecting above the surface of the frond. In the latter genus the sporangia are scat- 
tered and immersed. In Dictyosiplion, moreover, the growth is from an apical cell, 
but in Phlceospora it is trichothallic, and in the former genus the superficial cells are 
polygonal and irregularly placed, while in the latter they are quadrate and arranged 
in regular series. The genus is divided by Areschoug into two subgenera, Dictyosi- 
plion proper and Coilonema, the latter of which is referred by Gobi to Cladosiphon, since 
the cortical layer consists of very short filaments rather than a continuous cellular 
membrane. Our two species belong to Dictyosiplion proper, but species of Coilonema 
and Tlxlozospora are to be expected in the region of Eastport. By Harvey the genus 
was placed in the Dictyotacce, from which order it was necessarily removed when the 
true nature of the sporaugia was discovered. 

D. fceniculaceus, Grev. (Scytosiphon fceniculaceus, Ag. — J), fceni- 
culaceus, Phyc. Brit., PL 326; Areschoug, Phyc. Mar., PI. 7.) 

Fronds yellowish brown, six inches to two feet long, much branched ; 
branches alternate or occasionally opposite; superficial cells angularly 
quadrate. 

Common on stones and algae at low- water mark. Spring and summer. 
Europe. 

A variable species as found on our coast, but one which cannot well be subdivided 
at present. Early in the season the fronds are light colored and delicate in substance, 
but later they become more rigid. Perhaps some of the forms which we have here 
included may properly be placed under var. flaccidus of Areschoug. Such, at least, 
appears to be the case with some of the specimens collected in May at Wood's Holl. 

D. hippurofdes, (Lyngb.) Aresch. ? (Scytosiphon hippuroides, Lyngb., 
Hydr., PI. 14 0. — D. fceniculaceus a, Aresch., Phyc. Mar., PI. 6 a and b. — 
Chordaria flagelliformis var. /? and y, Agardh, Sp. Alg., Vol. I, pp. 66 
and 67.) 

Fronds dark brown, four inches to two feet long ; main branches 
rather densely beset with flagellate, scattered, subequal secondary 
branches; superficial cells in the lower part arranged in horizontal' 
series, above irregular. 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 67 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 95. 

On stones at low tide. 

Eastport, Maine ; Cape Ann, Mass. 

We have referred to the present species a rather large form found abundantly in 
September, 1877, at Eastport, near Dog Island, where it grows with Chordaria flagel- 
liformis, which it somewhat resembles in habit. It is much coarser than D. fcenicu- 
laccus, and of a darker color, and the branches are long and flagellate, and furnished 
with comparatively few secondary branches. The Cape Ann specimens are smaller 
and approach nearer D. fasniculaccu*. The Eastport form can hardly be regarded as 
an extreme state of D. fccniculaceous, but whether it is really the D. Mppuroides of Are- 
schoug admits of some doubt, as Areschoug describes his species as being only six or 
seven inches long. According to Areschoug, the conjugation of zoospores has been ob- 
served in this species. 

Family ECTOCARPE^E. 

Fronds filamentous, monosiphonous or sometimes partly polysipho- 
nous, cortex rudimentary or wanting; sporangia either in the continu- 
ity of the filaments or external, sessile or stalked ; unilocular sporangia 
globose or cuboidal ; plurilocular sporangia muriform (formed of numer- 
ous small rectangular cells densely aggregated in ovoidal or lanceolate 
masses) ; growth trichothallic. 
Fronds polysiphonous above, monosiphonous below, densely beset above 

with very short horizontal branches My r {atrichia. 

Fronds generally monosiphonous throughout, branches free, opposite or 

alternate Ectocarpus. 

MYKIOTKICHIA, Harv. 

(From fivpiog, a thousand, and dpi?, a hair.) 

Fronds olive-brown, filamentous, at first consisting of a single row of 
cells, which by transverse and longitudinal division afterwards form a 
solid axis; branches short, closely approximated, radiating in all direc- 
tions, formed by outgrowths from the superficial cells of the axis ; uni- 
locular sporangia spherical, borne on the axis between the branches ; 
plurilocular sporangia unknown; main axis and branches ending in 
hyaline hairs. 

A genua comprising three species which are hardly distinct. They form small tufts 
or fringes on different Pkccosporecc, especially on Scytosiphon, and are recognized by the 
numerous short branches which in some cases almost cover the main axis and cause 
it to resemble a Stigonema. The development of the frond is given in detail by Nsegoli 
in Die neuern Algensysteme. 

M. CLAViEFORMis, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PL 101. {M. Harvey ana, Nueg. 
partim.) 

Fronds half an inch to an inch in length, club-shaped in outline, axis 
clothed throughout with brandies, upper branches longer than lower 
and bearing secondary branches. 



68 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Var. filiformis. (M. filiformis, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 156. — M. Ear- 
veyana, Nseg. partim.) 

Fronds filiform in outline, axis furnished only at intervals with 
branches. 

On various algae, especially Scytosiphon lomentarius. 

Gloucester, Mass., Mrs. Bray. 

Var. filiformis, Penobscot Bay, Maine, Hooper ; Newport, E. L; Europe. 

A species forming small tufts on different Phceosporew, probably abundant on our 
coast, but as yet only recorded in a few localities. Nsegeli has shown, 1. c, that the 
two species of Harvey are merely forms of a single species, the variety filiformis being 
less fully developed than M. clavceformis, which was first described. 

ECTOCAEPUS, Lyngb. 

(From eKToc, external, and /cap7rof, fruit.) 

Fronds filamentous, monosiphonous or occasionally partly polysi- 
phonous by radial division of some of the cells; plurilocular sporangia 
ovate, cylindrical or siliculose, consisting of numerous small cells ar- 
ranged in regular longitudinal and transverse series; unilocular spo- 
rangia cylindrical or oval, either stalked or formed by the direct trans- 
formation of the cells of the branches. 

The genus is here accepted in an extended sense, and includes a number of genera 
of modern writers which we have preferred to consider subgenera. Perhaps Pylaiclla 
should be kept distinct, as in this subgenus both the unilocular and multilocular 
sporangia are formed by the direct transformation of some of the cells in the con- 
tinuity of the filaments rather than in special branches. But in Capsicarpella we have 
the multilocular sporangia formed in the continuity of the branches as in Pylaiella, 
while the unilocular sporangia are partly emergent and seem to be intermediate be- 
tween those of Pylaiella and Ectocarpus proper. Streblonema,i£ separated from Ecto- 
carpus by its creeping habit, resembles it perfectly in its fruit, and, as the different 
species of Streblonema vary considerably as to their procumbent habit, it seems, on the 
Avhole, better not to retain the genus. The described species of Ectocarpus proper are 
very numerous, but unfortunately they are not well characterized. The greater part of 
the species may be grouped around E. confervoides and E. fasciculatus as types, but 
exactly how far differences in ramification and dimensions of the sporangia are to be 
considered specific rather than mere variations is a matter about which botanists do 
not agree. One thing is certain, that specific analysis has been carried too far in tins 
group, and it is especially true with regard to the species of Kutzing. In describing 
a species of Ectocarpus it is important to have both the unilocular and plurilocular 
conditions. In most of the species,- however, only one form is known. The unilocular 
sporangia are often difficult to determine, because the Ectocarpi, especially those 
growing on dirty wharves, are infested by parasites, Chytridinm, &c, which produce 
globular swellings of the cells, which might then, especially in dried specimens, be 
mistaken for unilocular sporangia. 

Besides the two forms of sporangia, Thuret and Bornet have recorded the existence, 
of bodies to, which they have given the name of antheridia. It has been suggested 
that the antheridia were cells distorted by parasites. We have never seen anthe- 
ridia in American specimens, and are not in a position to express any opinion. The 
fact that a conjugation of the zoospores has been observed by Goebel in E. pusillus 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 69 

would, however, incline one to consider that the antheridia in this genus were not 
proper male bodies. 

Some of the species of Ectocarpus described by Harvey in the Nereis were founded on 
sterile specimens, but, at the present day, algologists agree in thinking that the pres- 
ence of sporangia is necessary for the determination of species of Ectocarpus, and we 
have, accordingly, omitted the Harveyan species founded on sterile plants as being 
inadequate. 

Subgenus STREBLONEMA, Dorb. & Sol. (Entonema, Reinsch).* 

Primary branches procumbent, creeping in or over the substance of 
other algae ; secondary and fructifying ramuli erect. 

E. Chordari^e, n. sp. 

Filaments much branched, irregularly nodose, about .02 ram in diam- 
eter, sunk in the tissue of the host-plant; hairs and fertile branches erect, 
the former projecting above the surface; unilocular sporangia on short 
stalks, solitary or clustered, oval, about .07 mm broad by .14 mra long; 
plurilocular sporangia unknown. 

Parasitic in the fronds of Chordaria divaricata, Leathesia tuberiformiSy 
and other PUwosporew. 

Wood's Holl, Gloucester, Mass. ; Newport, E. I. 

A common but insignificant species which grows in the cortical portion of different 
Pkwosporcce, especially Chordaria divaricata, and usually in company with Bulbocoleon. 
It forms dark-colored spots on the surface of the plant in which it is growing, and, on a 
hasty microscopic examination, would pass unnoticed, so great is the resemblance of the 
sporangia to those of Clwrdaria. Our plant resembles S. sphcericum, Thuret, but differs 
from the Mediterranean forms of that species in having oval, not spherical, sporangia, 
which are often clustered. The filaments, too, are composed of very irregular-shaped 
cells, and are never moniliform as in well-developed specimens of S. sphwricum. It 
may, however, be the case that what we have considered specific marks are only local 
variations. It may also be asked whether the present species is not the form of S. 
fasciculatum, Thuret, which bears unilocular sporangia. At present only the plurilocu- 
lar form of sporangium is known in that species as it occurs in Europe. 

E. reptans, Crouan, Florule du Finistere, p. 161; Kjellman, Bidrag 
till Kann. Skand. Ect. Tilop., p. 52, PI. 2, Fig. 8. 

Filaments forming circular spots on the host-plant, primary branches 
very densely branching, so that they almost form a membrane, fur- 
nished with numerous erect branches, which are .5-7 m,n high and grad- 
ually taper to a hyaline hair; cells at base about .01 mm broad; plurilocular 
sporangia arising from the primary filaments, sessile or on short stalks, 
ovate-acute, .012-20 mrn broad by .038-76 mm long. 

On Phyllitis and Dictyosiphon, Summer. 

Newport, R. I. ; Europe. 

A larger species than the preeeding and growing more superficially, so that the fila- 
ments may be said to creep over the surface rather than in the substance of the host- 
plant. Owing to the dense branching of the prostrate filameuts and the abundance 



70 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

of the erect branches, this species forms a connecting link between Ectocarpus and 
Myrionema. 

Subgenus EUECTOCARPUS. 

Filaments monosiphonus, erect, occasionally corticated by the growth 
of descending filaments which are given off from some of the cells; both 
unilocular and plurilocular sporangia formed by the transformation of 
special branches. 

E. tomentosus, (Huds.) Lyngb., Phyc. Brit., PL 182. (Spongonema 
tomentosum, Kiitz., Spec. Alg., p. 461; Tab. Phyc, Vol. Y, PL 83 a.) 

Filaments erect, two to four inches .long, densely interwoven into 
rope-like, spongy masses, irregularly much branched; primary branches 
scarcely distinct; cells .008-12 mrn broad by .012-70 mm long; plurilocular 
sporangia linear-o i )long, straight or incurved, .010-15 mm broad by 
.025-75 mm long, sessile or on short pedicels, which are given off at right 
angles to the branches; unilocular sporangia "subovate on short 
pedicels' 7 (Areschoug). 

On Fucus and other plants. 

Boston Bay, Harvey; Magnolia, Mass.; Europe. 

This species, which is easily recognizable by its spongy, rope-like habit, and by the 
microscopic characters above enumerated, seems to be rather scarce on our coast. It 
is not rare, however, on the shores of Europe. The species is to be sought in summer, 
and it grows attached to the larger algse. Only the plurilocular sporangia are known 
on our coast. 

E. granulosus, (Eng. Bot.) Ag.; Phyc. Brit., PL 200. 

Filaments tufted, rather rigid, two to four inches long, main branches 
opposite or whorled, corticating filaments often numerous; cells .07-10 ram 
in diameter ; secondary branches short, opposite, given off at very wide 
angles, often re volute at the tip ; ultimate branches secund, short, acute ; 
plurilocular sporangia broadly ovate, obliquely truncate on the inner 
side, .01-6 mm broad by .06-3 mra long, sessile on the ultimate and penulti- 
mate branches ; unilocular sporangia ? 

Yar. tenuis. (Ectocarpus Durkeei, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Yol. I, p. 
142, PL 12/.) 

Filaments more slender than in the type; cells .05-8 mm broad; 
branches usually alternate; plurilocular sporangia ovate or ellipsoidal , 
but slightly truncate at the base. 

Boston, Harvey ; Newport, E. I. 

Yar. tenuis, Portsmouth, IS". H. ; Nantucket, Mass., Harvey ; Wood's 
Holl, Mass. 

A species not rare in Europe and apparently common on the coast of California, but 
not often found with us. The species occurs in summer, and forms small tufts on 






THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 71 

other algae. It is distinguished from our other species by the short, broad, and sessile 
sporangia. la the type the branching is opposite and compact, and the corticating 
filaments are sometimes so numerous, especially in the Newport specimens, as to lead 
one to admit the validity of Kiitzing's genus Corticularia. But in other cases the cor- 
ticating filaments are few in number. 

E. confervoides, (Roth) Le Jolis. (Ectocarpus siliculosus, Pkyc. 
Brit, PI. 1G2 ; Ner. Am. Bor., Vol. I, p. 139.) 

Filaments erect, two to twenty inches long, loosely entangled at the 
base, becoming free and feathery above; branches alternate or secund, 
gradually tapering; cells of larger branches .04-5 ,nm in diameter; pluri- 
locular sporangia ovate-acute or acuminate, sessile or stalked, sometimes 
rostrate average size of sporangia .025-40 mm broad by .15-40 mm long; 
unilocular sporangia oval or ellipsoidal, .023-30 mm broad by .035-50 mm 
long. 

a, var. siliculosus, Kjellman. (Ectocarpus viridis, Harv., Ner. Am. 
Bor., Vol I, p. 140, PL 12 b and c.) 

Plurilocular sporangia subulate or linear-subulate, sessile or sub- 
sessile, frequently rostrate. 

/?, var. hiemalts, Kjellman. (Ectocarpus hiemalis y Crouan.) 

Plurilocular sporangia elongated, conical or subacuminate, .08-15 ram 
long by .02-3 mm broad, generally rostrate. 

Very common on algae and wood work along the whole coast. 

Var. «, most common south of Cape Cod. 

Var. /5, Wood's Holl, Mass.? 

The largest, most variable, and most common summer species of our coast, and 
found in nearly all parts of the world. It has been subdivided by Kiitzing into a 
large number of species, which are scarcely to be recognized from his descriptions 
and plates. Formerly some of the different forms of E. littoralis were referred to 
the present species, but the true E. littoralis is now recognized as belonging to the 
subgenus Pylaiella. Those interested in tracing the synonymy of E. confervoides 
should consult Kjellman's Bidrag till Kiinnedomen om Skandiuaviens Ectocarpeer 
och Tilopterider, Stockholm, 1872. As seen on our own coast, what we have called the 
typical /;. confervoides forms tufts of indefinite extent on wharves, and especially on 
the larger algffi, varying in length from a few inches to a foot and a half long. It 
frequently fringes the fronds of Chorda filum with its soft, silky tufts. In the type 
the plurilocular sporangia, which arc much more common than the unilocular, are 
ovate-acuminate, and only occasionally rostrate. In the variety siliculosus the pluri 
locnlar sporangia are long and comparatively very narrow. The variety Mcmalis is 
found in the winter and spring, and has plurilocular sporangia, which are almost 
always rostrate and somewhat cylindrical in form, so that they may be said to resem- 
ble those, of the subgenus Pijlaiella. The color of the present species when growing 
|8 a light brown approaching yellowish, which in drying often turns to a yellowish- 
green, especially in the variety siliculosus, of which herbarium specimens might be 
mistaken for CladophorcB. The winter forms aro deeper brown than those found in 
Bummer. E. amphibiw, mentioned in the supplement to the Nereis as occurring near 
New York in brackish water, is a form of the present species. 



72 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

E. fasciculatus, Harv. 

Filaments one to eight inches long, erect, tufted, entangled below 
but free and feathery above; cells of main branches .05 mra in diameter, 
about as long as broad; secondary branches alternate, short, given off 
at an obtuse angle; ultimate branches very numerous, secund, ending in 
a hair; plurilocular sporangia ovate- acuminate or subulate, sessile or 
on short stalks, borne principally on the upper side of the penultimate 
branches, very variable in size, but averaging from .0LS-25 ram broad by 
.070-150 mm long; unilocular sporangia sessile, oval, .04-6 nlm by .03-45 mm . 

Very common on the larger algae along the whole coast; Europe. 

When found in its typical form the present species is easily recognized, but it varies 
considerably, so that the extreme forms are not easily determined. It is very common 
on fronds of Lam'maria and other large Phceospoi'cw, on which it forms a dense fringe 
one or two inches high. The larger forms are much looser and feathery and the tips 
of the branches are fasciculate when seen with the naked eye. When long and slender 
it becomes the var. drapamaldioides of Crouan. The most puzzling forms are those in 
which the filaments are short and thick and the rather stout plurilocular sporangia 
are arranged without order on the branches. In this species the unilocular and pluri- 
locular sporangia are more frequently found growing together on the same individual 
than in any of the other species found on our coast. 

E. lutosus, Harv., Ker. Am. Bor., Yol. I, p. 140, PI. 12 a. 

Filaments tufted, two to four inches long, densely interwoven in 
spongy masses ; lower branches opposite, .03-4 ,nm broad; upper branches 
irregular, ending in long hairs; plurilocular sporangia .04-5 mm broad 
by .15-20 mm long, cylindrical in outline, ending in very long hairs, which 
occasionally fork ; unilocular sporangia ? 

Greenport, L. I., Harvey; Wood's Holl, Mass. 

The above description is taken from a species common on Fucus at Wood's Holl, in 
May, 1876, which corresponds very well to the E. lutosus of the Nereis Am. Bor., a 
species which Harvey states is not clearly defined. It differs from the description 
given by Harvey in the fact that the sporangia are not very long, and it is not im- 
possible that our plant may not be the same as that described by Harvey. The present 
species, as we understand it, is short and tufted and the filaments are densely inter, 
woven into rope like masses as in E. tomeiitosus,. The species seem to connect 
Pylaiella with Euectocarpus, resembling on the one hand E. siliculosus var. hiemalis, 
and on 1he other E. firmus. From the former it differs in the branching and the 
shape of the plurilocular sporangia, which are strictly cylindrical, never being in the 
least acuminate. From the latter it differs in being more slender and in having the 
sporangia always at the base of very long hairs, which sometimes "branch, and not in 
the continuity of the branches themselves. The ramification is very like that of 
E. firmus. In drying the species becomes decidedly yellow. 

E. Mitchells, Harv., E'er. Am. Bor., Yol. I, p. 142, PI. 12 g. 

" Tufts feathery ; filaments very slender, decompoundly much branched ; 
the branches and their lesser divisions alternate ; the ultimate ramuli 
approximated ; angles wide, and branches and ramuli patent ; ramuli 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 73 

attenuate; articulations of the branches twice or thrice as long as broad, 
of the raniuli once and a half as long; propagula elliptic-oblong or 
linear, quite sessile aud very obtuse, transversely striate, several to 
gether." (Harvey, 1. c.) 

Nantucket, Miss Mitchell. 

Only known from the description and plate in the Nereis. 

Subgenus PYLAIELLA, Bory. 

Both forms of sporangia formed from the cells in the continuity of 
the branches, and not by a transformation of special branches. 

In the present subgenus one might, at first sight, be inclined to inclnde E. siliculosus 
var. hiemalis and E. lutosus, but in those species the sporangia are rather situated at 
the end of branches, which are prolonged beyond the sporangia in the form of hairs, 
than in i he continuity of the branches themselves. 

E. LiTTORALis, Lyngb. (Uetocarpus firmus, Ag. — Pilayella littoralis, 
Kjellman.) 

Filaments tufted or irregularly expanded at the base,, two to ten 
inches long; branches numerous, usually opposite, given off at wide 
angles, erect; cells .02-4 mtr - broad; plurilocular sporangia irregularly 
cylindrical, very variable in size; unilocular sporangia formed of from 
two to thirty contiguous cells, .02-3 mm broad ; fertile branches monili- 
forin. 

Var. robustus. (Ectocarpus Farloivii, Thuret, in Farlow's List of 
the Marine Algse of the United States, 1876.) 

Filaments three or four inches long, densely branching; branches 
robust, opposite or irregular ; cells .03-5 m,n in breadth ; fertile branches 
short aud rigid, often transformed through nearly their whole length 
into unilocular sporangia, which are stout and cylindrical, only slightly 
moniliform at maturity ; cells .04 mm broad and .03-4 mm in length. 

Very common along the whole coast. 

Var. robustus in exposed places from Nahant northward. 

A very conmion species on our coast, which, although offering numerous forms, can- 
not, as it seems to us, be well specifically divided. When growing on wharves, where 
it is very common, or on other wood work, it forms expansions of indefinite extent 
from which rise tufts several inches long. The basal or prostrate portions branch 
very irregularly, and the cells are infested with Chytridia aud other parasites. If 
species of Ectooarpus could be formed from sterile specimens, the basal portions of E. 
Uttoralis would offer a rich field to the species-maker. What is called var. robustus 
lias not yet been found south of Capo Cod, but is common on the northern coast on 
Fuci and other alga) exposed to the action of the waves. The original E. Farlowii was 
founded on specimens collected by Mr. Higbee, at Salem, in November, 1874, and pro- 
nounced by the late M. Thuret, iu a letter dated April 26, 1875, to be distinct from E, 
littoralis. In the Contributioncs ad Algologiam et Fungologiam, PI. 20, Reinsch 
figures, under the name of Ectocarpus anticostiensis, a form which, as far as can be 



74 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISII AND FISHERIES. 

judged from the figure, is the same as E. Farloivii. Although in the present instance 
we have considered E. Farloivii to be a variety of E. littoralis, it must he admitted 
that it diilers considerably from the form of E. littoralis common on the coast of 
France and England. Our reason for not considering it distinct is that we have large 
sets of specimens in which wo have been unable to say with certainty whether they 
should be referred to E. littoralis or E. Farloivii, and with so many connecting links it 
seems best to regard E. Farloivii as an extreme form found in northern localities. 
Should the variety be eventually considered distinct the name of E. anticostiensis should 
be adopted, as no description of E. Farloivii has been published, and the species would 
be characterized by the robustness of the filaments and by the unilocular sporangia, 
whieh are broader than long, and borne in short, stout, patent branches. It is of fre- 
quent occurrence that some of the unilocular sporangia are binate. The plurilocular 
sporangia are common in spring and early summer, and the unilocular in the autumn. 

E. BRACHIATUS, Harv. 

" Finely- tufted, feathery, much branched ; the branches free, opposite 
or quarternate ; rainuli opposite, very patent; propagula forming ob- 
long or elliptical swellings in the smaller branches, or at the point 
where two opposite rainuli issue." (Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Yol. I, p. 138.) 

South Boston, Lynn, Mass., Harvey. 

We have never found this species, which is only known on our coast from Harvey's 
description. Le Jolis considers that the E. brachiatus of the Phyc. Brit., PI. 4, is not 
the true Conferva brachiata, Engl. Bot., and he gives to the former the name of E. 
Griffith sianus. Never having seen American specimens, we cannot tell whether the 
American form mentioned by Harvey belongs to the E. Griffithsianus or not. 

Subgenus CAPS1CARPELLA, Kjellman. 

Filaments erect, monosiphonous or in part polysiphonous; unilocular 
sporangia partly immersed in the frond ; plurilocular sporangia formed 
by direct transformation of the cells of the branches. 

E. sph^erophorus, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PL 126. (Capsicarpella splice- 
rophora, Kjellman, Bidrag, p. 20, PL 1, Fig. 2.) 

Filaments one to three inches long, tufted, densely branching ; main 
branches opposite or whorled, often polysiphonous ; secondary branches 
opposite or alternate, monosiphonous ; unilocular sporangia spherical, 
about .04 m,n in diameter, solitary, often binate, sometimes whorled, the 
cell from which the sporangia are formed dividing into at €east three 
cells ; plurilocular sporangia $ 

On Ptilota elegans. May. 

Nahant, Mr. Collins ; Europe. 

A rare species which has only been collected by Mr. Collins. The mam filaments 
are at intervals polysiphonous, and remind one of a Sphacelaria. In Mr. Collins's speci- 
mens the sporangia were numerous and in some cases whorled, as is occasionally seen 
in European specimens. The species is to be sought in spring and early summer, and 
may be commoner than is now supposed, having escaped the observation of collectors 
on account of its small size. 



THE MARINE ALGJE OP NEW ENGLAND. 75 

INSUFFICIENTLY DESCRIBED SPECIES. 

E. Landsburgii, Harvey, Ner, Am. Bor., Vol. I, PL 12 d, 

Halifax, 1ST. S. 

E. Hooperi, Harvey, 1. c., PI. 12 e. 

Greenport, L. I. (?) 

E. Dietzije, Harvey, 1. c., p. 144. 

Greenport. 

Family SPHACELARIE.E, 

Fronds branching, polysiphonons, terminating in a large apical cell, 
often with a cortex formed of densely interwoven rhizoidal filaments ; 
fructification same as in Ectocarpece. 

Corticating cells wanting or confined to the base of the frond. 

Sphacelaria. 
Main branches corticated throughout. 

Branches opposite, distichous Chcetopteris. 

Branches whorled Cladostephns. 

SPHACELAKIA, Lyngb. 

(From c<paK.eloc, gangrene, referring to the tips of the branches, which are black and 

shriveled when dried.) 

Fronds olive-brown, filamentous, branching; axis and branches ter- 
minated by a large apical cell, from which, by transverse, longitudinal, 
and oblique divisions, a solid frond is formed whose external surface is 
composed of rectangular cells arranged in regular transverse bands ; 
hairs slightly developed or wanting; rhizoidal filaments few, rarely 
interwoven so as to form a false cortex; unilocular and plurilocular 
sporangia spherical or ellipsoidal, on short pedicels ; non-sexual repro- 
production by peculiarly modified branches called propagula. 

The old genns Spliacelaria was divided by Kiitzing into a number of genera, and his 
views have been adopted by many recent writers, especially in Germany. In Stypo- 
caulon and Halopteris the branches arise from lateral divisions of the apical cell itself, 
while in Spliacelaria proper, Chcetopteris and Cladostephns, the branches arise from cells 
below the apex. Whether this diiference in the apical growth can be considered a 
generic mark is not altogether certain, and there hardly seems to be sufficient ground 
for separating Halopteris from Spliacelaria, and a number of writers, among whom 
may be named Harvey and Le Jolis, even include Stypocaulon. Cladostephus is mark- 
edly distinct ; and Chcetopteris, which differs from Spliacelaria principally in the corti- 

Giraudia sphacelarioides, Derb. & Sol., a common Mediterranean alga, which 
occasionally occurs as far north as the Scandinavian coast, may perhaps be found on 
our shore. It resembles a small Spliacelaria, but its growth is trichothallic, not from 
an apical cell, and the small unilocular sporangia cover the frond in dense patches. 
The plurilocular sporangia resemble those of some Ectocarpi, and are found at the base 
of the plant according to Areschoug. 



76 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

cation of the main branches, is kept distinct by most Writers. We have but a very 
imperfect representation of the Sphacelarioid group in this country. Stypocaulon and 
Halopteris are entirely wanting, and of Sphacelaria we have only S. cirrhosa and S. 
radicans on the northeastern coast, 8. tribuloides in Florida, and what is supposed to 
be S. J'usca in California. The species of Sphacelaria are variable, and the determina- 
tion sometimes uncertain. The apical cells of our Sphacelaria) are frequently attacked 
by the unicellular parasite, Chytridium sphacelarum, Kny. 

S. CIRRHOSA, (Roth) Ag. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 178. 

Fronds olive-brown, densely tufted half an inch to two inches high; 
main filaments erect, several times pinnate with opposite or irregularly 
spreading branches; rhizoidal filaments few or wanting; unilocular 
sporangia .0G-7 mm long, globose ; plurilocular sporangia .05 mm broad by 
.08 mm long, broadly ellipsoidal, secund on lateral branches, with unicellu- 
lar pedicels; propagula rather stout, three (2-4) rayed, usually borne 
on distinct plants. 

Common on Fucus, on which it forms dense globose tufts. Europe. 

A variable species, sometimes with regularly opposite, branches, at times with 
irregularly placed long branches. The propagula vary very much in size, and are 
generally found on plants which do not bear sporangia. With us they are much more 
common than the sporangia. An excellent account of the propagula is given by 
Janczewski in the Annales des Sciences, Series 5, Vol. XVII. In the Nereis Am. Bor. 
the word propagulum is used by Harvey to signify the contents of the apical cells, and 
this use of the word should not be confounded with its present application. The word 
propagulum as used in the Nereis is rather equivalent to the term sphacela of other 
writers. Sporangia are more common in the winter months, but are found occasion- 
ally in summer. 

S. radicans, (Dillw.) Harv. (8. olivacea^YSiT., Ag.; Pringsheim, 1. c, 
Pis. 9 and 10.— & radicans, Phyc. Brit., PI. 189.) 

Fronds olive-brown, half an inch to an inch high, forming dense turfs; 
filaments erect or prostrate, branches few, somewhat appressed, rhi- 
zoidal filaments often numerous; unilocular sporangia globose, .04-5 mm 
in diameter, numerous on the branches, on very short unicellular pedi- 
cels; plurilocular sporangia unknown; propagula slender, elongated. 

On mud-covered rocks between tide-marks. 

Newport, E. I. ; Wood's Holl, Mass., and common from Nahant north- 
wards; Europe. 

The present species is smaller than the last, and forms small, indefinitely expanded 
turfs, especially on the under side of mud-covered rocks, often in company with Gera- 
nium Hooperi. Numerous rhizoidal filaments are sometimes found at the base, so that 
different plants are bound together, but the species is without a false cortex. The 
name originally proposed for the species by Dillwyn was S. radicans. Agardh adopts 
Dillwyn's later name, S. olivacea, making of the form with numerous rhizoidal fila- 
ments a variety, radicans. Apart from their different habit and place of growth, it is 
difficult to assign exact marks by which to distinguish in all cases S. cirrhosa and S. 
radicans. In the latter the secondary branches are few and appressed, irregularly 
placed, never opposite/ while in the former they are numerous, given off at wide 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 77 

angles, and frequently opposite. In S. cirrhosa the sporangia are generally scattered 
on the secondary branches, while in S. radicans they are often clustered on the main 
branches. In both cases the pedicels are usually one-celled. In both species the 
propagula are so variable in outline that they cannot be described in few words, but 
those of S. cirrhosa are more robust than those of S. radicans. 

Sphacelaria dedalea, Reinsch, Contrib. ad Alg. et Fung., p. 22, PI. 30, described from 
the coast of Labrador, does not correspond to any form known to us from New England. 

CELETOPTEKIS, Kiitz. 

(From x aiT V, a hair, and Trrepic, a fern.') 

Fronds olive-brown, filamentous, branching ; branches opposite, dis- 
tichous, apical growth as in Sphacelaria ; rhizoidal filaments very numer- 
ous, densely interwoven, so as to form a false cortex ; plurilocular spor- 
angia borne on the branches, shortly pedicillate, unilocular sporangia 
11 globose on the tips of short special filaments" (Areschoug). 

A genus founded on the old Sphacelaria plumosa of Lyngbye. It differs from Spha- 
celaria in the false cortication of the main branches by the interlacing of rhizoidal 
filaments, and from Cladostephus by the opposite, not whorled branches. The genus 
does not rest on a firm basis, for it occasionally happens in some of the species of Spha- 
celaria that the rhizoidal filaments form a rudimentary cortex. Chcetopteris squamulosa, 
Kiitz., is made by Geyler the type of a new genus, Phloiocaulon. 

C. plumosa, (Lyngb.) Kiitz. (Sphacelaria plumosa, Lyngb., Phyc. 
Brit., PL 87. — Chcetopteris plumosa, Kiitz., Phyc. Gen., p. 293; Tab. Phyc, 
Vol. 6, PL 6, Fig. 1 ; Areschoug, Obser. Phyc, Part III, PL 2, Figs. 4 
and 5.) 

Fronds two to six inches long, tufted, rigid, attached by a small disk, 
main branches sparingly branched, secondary branches plumose ; pluri- 
locular sporangia numerous, secund on the upper side of short special 
branches, shortly stipitate, elliptical in outline ; unilocular sporangia 
globose, terminal on short branches. (Areschoug, 1. c) 

Prince Edward's Island, Mrs. Davis, and northward j Northern Eu- 
rope. 

A beautiful species, common in Northern Europe and Greenland, but not yet found 
farther south than Prince Edward's Island on the American coast. It may, however, 
be expected at Eastport and our northern border. 

CLADOSTEPHUS, Ag. 
(From k\ doc, a branch, and gte^oc, a crown.) 

Fronds olive-brown, branching, secondary branches (leaves) whorled, 
apical growth as in Sphacelaria; main stems densely corticated by 
growth of rhizoidal filaments, secondary branches (leaves) naked, hairs 
borne in tufts just below the apex of branches ; unilocular and pluri- 
locular sporangia on special branches (leaves), stipitate. 



78 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

A genus comprising eight described species, several of which are undoubtedly merely 
forms of the common and widely diffused C. verticillatus, whose structure is minutely 
described by Pringsheim, 1. c. The term leaves is applied by Pringsheim to the sec- 
ondary branches. He considers the branching of the axis to be monopodia!. The 
sporangia are produced in the winter months, the two kinds on separate plants or 
sometimes together. 

0. verticillatus, Ag. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 33 ; Pringsheim, I. c, Pis. 1-7. 

Fronds four to ten inches high, slender, subdichotomous, secondary 
branches distinctly whorled, falcate, acute at apex, attenuate at base, 
furnished externally with a few spine-like branchlets ; hairs numerous ; 
unilocular sporangia globose, plurilocular sporangia irregularly ellip- 
soidal, borne on short pedicels on small special branches, which grow 
from the axis between the insertions of the secondary branches. 

Var. spongiosus. (Gladostephus spongiosis, Ag.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 38.) 

Fronds more compact, whorls approximate, indistinct, secondary 
branches usually destitute of hairs and spine-like branchlets. 

On stones in pools and below low-water mark. 

Newport, E. I. ; Orient, L. L; Martha's Vineyard; Cape Ann, Mass.; 
Europe. 

A plant at once recognized by its resemblance to a small Ceratopliyllum. Rather 
common in several places south of Cape Cod, but seldom seen on the northern coast. 
It prefers somewhat exposed shores, and occurs at considerable depths. Although the 
close resemblance between C. verticillatus and C. spongiosus has long been noticed, the 
two species have generally been considered distinct. Geyler says that C. spongiosis is 
characterized by the absence of hairs and the external spines on the branches. Al- 
though this is in general true, one not unfrequently finds hairs and small spines on 
some of the branches, and C. spongiosus is evidently merely a variety of C. verticillatus. 
Nor is it the case, as some have supposed, that the verticillate form is confined to 
deeper water, while the spongiose form is found in tide-pools and near low-water mark. 

Family MYRIONEMEJE. 

Fronds minute, forming spots or thin expansions on other algre, con- 
sisting of prostrate filaments united into a horizontal membrane, from 
which rise short vertical filaments, between which are borne the sporan- 
gia; unilocular and pluriocular sporangia as in Ectocarpcce. 

MYEIONEMA, Grev. 

(From /LLvptog, numberless, and vrj/ia, a thread.) 

Fronds olive-brown, forming thin expansions on other algae, composed 
of a horizontal layer of cells lying on the substratum, from which arise 
very numerous vertical filaments, closely packed together ; unilocular 
and plurilocular sporangia between the vertical filaments, either sessile 
on the horizontal layer or on short pedicels y hairs arising from hori- 
zontal layer j growth peripheral. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 79 

A genus of minute algje which form small brown spots on other plants. The species 
are ubiquitous, but the specific characters are not well defined, and a good share of the 
described species are merely different forms of the very common M. vulgare. The two 
different kinds of sporangia are sometimes found together, but are usually on different 
plants. The genus is most nearly related to Balfsia, which may be said to be a Myri- 
onema in which the horizontal layer has become much thickened, and the vertical fila- 
ments, with the interspersed sporangia, instead of covering the surface uniformly, have 
been confined to certain circumscribed portions. The two genera are closely con- 
nected by Balfsia clavata, Crn., which was first described as a Myrionema by Carmichael. 
In Balfsia the vertical filaments must be considered to be paraphyses, and perhaps 
those of Myrionema should also be so considered. 

M. vulgare, Thur. {M. strangulanSj Grev.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 280. — 
M. punctiforme, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 41 b. — M. maculiforme, Kiitz., 
Tab. Phyc, Yol. YII, PI. 93, Fig. 2.) 

Fronds .04-8 mm in thickness, vertical filaments (paraphyses) slightly 
club-shaped and moniliforin, unilocular sporangia oval, .019-27 mm broad 
by .03-4 mra long, sessile or borne on short pedicels. 

Everywhere common on various algae. 

In Le Jolis's Liste des Algues Marines de Cherbourg, Thuret is quoted as authority 
for uniting several of the species of Myrionema of Harvey and Kutzing. The alleged 
specific distinctions are plainly nothing but modifications of the same species, dependent 
on the place of growth. When found on small cylindrical frouds, as in some Entero- 
morphce, tike Myrionema surrounds the frond and constitutes the M. Strang ulans of Grevillo, 
and when growing on flat surfaces the form known as M. punctiforme is found. In 
this country the unilocular sporangia are very common, but we have never seen the 
pluril ocular sporangia, while in the next species the plurilocular sporangia are more 
numerous, although both kinds are found. 

M. Leclancherii, (Chauv.) Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 41 a. PI. 6, Fig. 5. 

Fronds .06-10 mm in thickness, vertical filaments (paraphyses) cylin- 
drical, unilocular sporangia oval, plurilocular sporangia .008-10 mm broad 
by .023-30 mm long, ovate, oblong, sessile or on very short pedicels. 

On Ehodymenia palmata. 

Gay Head, Mass. ; Europe. 

This species forms rather larger spots than the last on the common dulse. That it 
is really distinct from H. vulgare admits of doubt. There appears to be a difference 
in the paraphyses of the two, but such differences cannot be considered of much value. 
We have found both unilocular and plurilocular sporangia in the present species, 
but unfortunately have not preserved measurements of the latter. The plurilocular 
sporangia are sometimes very numerous and stand side by side without intervening 
paraphyses. 

Family LEATHESIE^E. 

Fronds lubricous or gelatinous, indefinitely expanded or irregularly 
globose, consisting of a basal portion, composed of irregularly branch- 
ing filaments formed of large, colorless cells, and a cortical portion of 
closely packed, short, colored filaments ; paraphyses often present; 



80 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Fructification borne at the base of cortical filaments ; plurilocular spo- 
rangia cylindrical, composed of few cells in a row 5 unilocular sporan- 
gia globose. 

Fronds forming small tufts on other algae. 

Cortex with a series of exserted colored filaments Elachistea. 

Cortex destitute of exserted filaments Myriactis. 

Fronds irregularly globose, hollow at maturity Leatliesia. 

ELACHISTEA, Duby. 

(From eXuxtGra, very small.) 

Fronds olive-brown, tufted or pulvinate, basal portion solid, some- 
what parenchymatous, composed of densely packed branching fila- 
ments, which become free at the surface and branch corymbosely so as 
to form a layer of short filaments (paraphyses), at the base of which are 
borne the sporangia of both kinds and a series of long exserted fila- 
ments ; hairs formed at the base of the paraphyses, exserted ; uniloc- 
ular sporangia rhombic-ovoid, plurilocular sporangia cylindrical, com- 
posed of a few cells in a linear series. 

A, genus consisting of a few species, all of which form small tufts on other algse, 
especially on Fucacece. They may be recognized by the double series of filaments 
borne on the surface of the solid and but slightly developed basal portion. The 
longer filaments and hairs float freely in the water, but the shorter paraphyses are 
packed rather closely together, forming as it were a definite cortical layer over the 
basal portion. The unilocular sporangia are common. The more or less solid basal 
portion of the fronds in some of the species gives off filaments which penetrate 
into the substance of the algse on which they are growing, and by the growth and 
persistence of these filaments it may be that the species are propagated from year to 
year, as happens in the case of certain fungi. In other species no penetrating basal 
filaments have as yet been found. 

The limits of the species are pretty well defined except in the case of E. fucicola, E. 
lubrica, and E. flaccida, where it must be confessed the species show a tendency to run 
into one another. In the present case we have included in Elachistea only the species 
in which, besides the paraphyses which cover the surface, there are long projecting 
colored filaments as in E. scutulata, on which Duby founded his genus Elachistea in the' 
Botanicon Gallicon. Here undoubtedly belong E. fucicola and its allies, but the same 
cau hardly be said of E. pulvinata, which was made by Kiitzing the type of his genus 
Myriactis. In this species the surface of the frond is covered by the paraphyses, but 
there is not in addition a series of elongated filaments as in E, fucicola, for the exserted 
hairs in E. pulvinata are of a quite different nature. We have referred E. pulvinata to 
the genus Myriactis, not, however, limiting the genus as Kiitzing has done, for some of 
the forms placed by him in Phycophila should be referred to Myriactis, although the 
greater part of them are correctly placed by algologists in Elachistea. It may be that 
there exist forms intermediate between the true Elachisiece and Myriactis, but, from the 
study of dried specimens, we have not been able to come to such a conclusion. It 
should be remarked that M. pulvinata is placed in ElacMstea by the most prominent 
algologists, as Thuret and Bornet, Agardh, Harvey, Le Jolis, and others. The uni- 
locular sporangia are most common in summer, and the plurilocular sj>orangia are more 
frequent early in the season. 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 81 

E. fucicola, Fries ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 240; Ner. Am. Bor., Vol. I, PI. 
1 1 b. (PhycophUa fucorum and P. Agardhii, Kiitz., Tab. Phyc, Vol. VIII, 
PI. 95, Fig. 2, and PL 96, Fig. 1.) PI. 7, Fig. 3. 

Fronds tufted, half an inch to an inch in thickness, basal portion dis- 
tinct, subglobose, exserted filaments about .05 m,n broad, attenuated at 
base, obtuse at apex, cells of lower portion broader than long, becoming 
longer in the upper portion ; paraphyses recurved, clavate, submonili- 
form; unilocular sporangia .07-S mm broad by .15-20'™ long, pyriform or 
obovate-rhombic. 

Common on Fuci along the whole coast. 

On submerged wood work, Eastport, Peak's Island, Maine. 

A common parasite, forming small tnfts on Fuci. There seems to be but one species 
on the coast of New England, although E. lubrica, Rupr., may be expected on Halo- 
saccion. According to Areschoug, E. lubrica differs from E. fucicola in the shorter cells 
and the decidedly elongated base of the free filaments, but in these respects Euro- 
pean specimens of E. fucicola vary greatly. Possibly the form occurring on wood at 
Eastport may be rather referred to E. lubrica. Rupreoht, in Phycologia Ochotensis, 
mentions an Elachistea from Canada parasitic on Halosaccion, which he considers dis- 
tinct from both E. lubrica and E. fucicola, to which he gives the provisional name ot 
E. canadensis. It is distinguished from E. fucicola "by the thicker filaments, which 
never give oil free branches at the base, by the dense, indistinctly filamentous structure 
of the basal layer, and by the greater number of shori filaments and few long filaments." 
From Ruprecht's description it is hardly likely that the species will ever bo recog- 
nized by American collectors. The views of Ruprecht with regard to development 
in alga? arc curiously shown in his remarks on Elachista, Myrioncma, and Lcathcsia. 
He thinks it very probable that the genera named were u originally organs of fructifi- 
cation of Halidrys, Cystosrira, &c, which in course of time have not developed, and 
have in this way formed what appear to be stereotyped species." Although the fact 
is not as Ruprecht supposed, this pronounced tendency to Darwinism is remarkable 
•when wo think that Ruprecht wrote in 1850. 

MYEIACTIS, Kiitz., emend. 

(From fxvpLoc, countless, and cktic, a ray.) 

Fronds as in Elachistea, but destitute of exserted colored filaments. 

A comparison of the two admirable plates of Elachistea scutulata and Elachistea (My- 
riactis) pulvinata in the Etudes Phycologiques of Thuret and Bornet will give a clear 
notion of the difference of the two genera. 

M. pulvinata, Kiitz. Yar. minor. {ElacMstea pulvinata, Harv., in 
Etudes Phycologiques, p. 18, PI. 7 — ElacMstea attenuata, Harv., Phyc. 
Brit., PL 28.) 

Fronds forming minute tufts, basal portion slightly developed, giv- 
ing off lateral filaments, which penetrate the substratum; paraphyses 
slightly curved, fusiform, attenuated at base, somewhat- moniliform; 
cells .0075-1 80 mm broad, two or three times as long; plurilocular spo- 
rangia very numerous, clustered at the base of the paraphyses, cylindri- 
S. Miss. 50 6 



82 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

cal, 007G mm broad by about .057 mm long, composed of 8-10 cells in a row . 
unilocular sporangia. 

Parasitic in the cryptostom ata of Sargassum vulgare. Summer. 

Wood's Holl, Mass. 

This species forms minute tufts on Sargassum, and is so small as easily to escape de- 
tection. It is furthermore likely to be mistaken for the hairs normally found at cer- 
tain seasons iu the cryptostomata. The description given above applies to the plant 
found at Wood's Holl, which is smaller than the typical 31. pulvinat a of Europe, which 
grows in the cryptostomata of various Cystoseirce. In the European specimens ex- 
amined the paraphyses were decidedly stouter, rarely being less than .018 mm in breadth, 
whereas with us they are seldom more than .010-12 mm broad. Our plant is through- 
but smaller than the European, but, in proportion, the paraphyses are longer and 
slenderer. It remains to be seen whether we are correct in considering our form a 
mere variety, or whether it should be kept distinct. Perhaps it may be the Phycophila 
arabica of Kiitzing, Tab. Phyc, Vol. 8, PI. 1, Fig. 2, which grows on Cystoscira 
myrica. The species is not uncommon in summer at Wood's Holl, and both forms of 
sporangia occur together, the unilocular being much less abundant than the pluri- 
locular. 

LEATHESIA, S. F. Gray. 

(Named in honor of Rev. G. B. Lcathcs, a British naturalist.) 

Fronds olive-brown, gelatino-carnose, forming irregularly globose 
masses, solid when young, but soon becoming hollow ; internal portion 
composed of radiating, dichotomous filaments, formed of large, irregular, 
colorless cells, the terminal ones bearing a series of short, simple, col- 
ored filaments (paraphyses), which are densely packed together, consti- 
tuting the cortical layer of the frond ; sporangia and hairs borne a.t the 
base of the paraphyses ; plurilocular sporangia cylindrical, composed of 
few cells in a single row; unilocular sporangia pyriform or ovoid. 

A small genus, comprising not more than half a dozen species, of which L. difformis 
is common in the North Atlantic. Leathcsia Berkcleyi, Harv., now placed in the genus 
Petrospongium, Naeg., although found not rarely in Europe and apparently tolerably 
common on the coast of California, has not yet been detected in New England, but 
may be expected. It forms rather leathery expansions on rocks at low-water mark. 

L. difformis, (Linn.) Aresch. (Tremclla difformis, Linn., Syst. — 
Rivularia tuberifor mis^ngl. Bot., PI. 1956. — CorynepJwra marina, Ag., 
Syst. — Leathesia tuber if or mis, Gray, in Phyc. Brit., PI. 324, and ]S"er. Am. 
Bor., Yol. I, PI. 10 c ; Thuret, in Ann. des Sciences, Ser. 3, Vol. XIV, PI. 
26, Figs. 5-12.) (PI. V, Fig. 1.) 

Fronds from half an inch to two inches in diameter, solitary or 
aggregated, at first globose and solid, becoming irregularly lobed and 
hollow; plurilocular sporangia produced early in the season, unilocular 
sporangia in summer. 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 83 

Common on algae and on sand-covered rocks at low water along the 
whole coast. 

Not to be mistaken for any other alga on our coast. The gelatinous balls which 
this species forms are found growing in large quantities at low- water mark, and are 
sometimes called potatoes by the unromantic dwellers on the shore. 

Family CHORDARIE^. 

Fronds cylindrical, branching, usually gelatinous, with an axis of 
longitudinal filaments formed of long slender cells, and a cortex com- 
posed of short, densely packed horizontal filaments formed of subspheri- 
cal cells ; sporangia borne among the cortical filaments or formed directly 
from them. 

Fronds tough and elastic, cortical filaments densely united to one an- 
other Chordaria. 

Fronds gelatinous, cortical filaments only adhering loosely to one an- 
other. 
Upper cells of the cortical filaments producing the plurilocular 

sporangia Castagnea. 

Upper cells of cortical filaments not producing sporangia. 

Mesogloia. 

CHOKDAKIA, Ag. 

(From chorda, a chord.) 

Fronds olive-brown, cartilaginous, filiform, branching; axial layer 
composed of longitudinally elongated cylindrical cells and smaller wind- 
ing cells packed closely together in a solid mass; peripheral layer 
composed of short, simple, horizontal filaments, densely packed together; 
unilocular sporangia oblong, borne at the base of the peripheral fila- 
ments (paraphyses), plurilocular sporangia unknown. 

The distinction between the genera Chordaria and Mesogloia, in the absence of a 
knowledge of the development of the fronds, must be quite arbitrary. In the present 
instance Ave have considered that the genus Chordaria should be limited to the forms 
having a tough cartilaginous substance and solid axis, of which we have only one 
representative, C. flagelUformis. C. divaricata, both in its consistency and the devel- 
opment of the frond, seems to belong to Mesogloia, accepting that genus in an- 
extended sense as we have done. 

0. flagelliformis, Ag. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 3. PL V, Fig. 2. 

Fronds blackish, solitary or gregarious, attached by a disk, coriaceous, 
lubricous, one to two feet long, filiform, solid, main axis usually undi- 
vided, furnished with numerous long, subequal, flagelliform branches, 
which are given off at wide angles, simple or with few, irregular, sec- 
ondary branches; peripheral filaments (paraphyses) few-celled, cylin- 
drical or slightly club-shaped; unilocular sporangia ovoid or pyriform. 



84 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Var. DENSA. 

Fronds six to eight inches long, main axis densely clothed with very 
numerous short branches. 

Common on stones near low-water mark along the whole coast. 
The var. densa at Gloucester, Mass., Mrs. Davis. 

A common species, recognized by its tough, somewhat elastic substance, and 
reminding one of bunches of small leather shoe-strings. When soaked in water it 
gives out a large amount of slime, and is not easily naounted. To the naked eye it 
resembles some of the forms of Dictyosiphon, but the microscopic structure is very dif- 
ferent. The variety has been collected several times at Gloucester, but has not been 
received from other localities. 

MESOGLOIA, Ag. 

(From fieaog, the middle, and yloioe, slimy.) 

Fronds olive brown, gelatinous, filiform, branching 5 axial layer 
composed of filaments rather loosely united into a solid mass, which 
soon becomes fistulose; peripheral layer of short horizontal filaments, 
packed in a gelatinous substance; unilocular sporangia oval, borne at 
the base of peripheral filaments; plurilocular sporangia unknown. 

The old genus Mesogloia has been divided by modern algologists into a number of 
genera. In the present instance we have kept in Mesogloia the species in which 
the peripheral filaments are not transformed into plurilocular sporangia, and 
have placed in Castagnea the species in which they are so transformed. The distinc- 
tion between Mesogloia and Castagnea is artificial, because the plurilocular spo- 
rangia of Mesogloia proper are unknown, and it is not impossible that they may be 
formed from the peripheral filaments themselves, as in Castagnea. The development 
of the fronds is not well known, and the genera founded upon the variations in the 
mature fronds in the present group are plainly artificial. As regards its develop- 
ment, M. divaricata resembles very closely C. virescens. From a disk-like expansion, 
composed of a single layer of cells, which form spots on the substance upon which it 
is growing, arise vertical filaments, which end in a hair such as is found in Ectocarpus 
and other Phceosporece. The vertical filaments produce, usually only on one side, 
fasciculated branches terminated by a hair, beneath which is a cluster of short 
moniliform filaments. Besides these there arise, at a later period, rhizoidal filaments. 
The mature fronds of the two species above named may be regarded as a collection of 
filaments with a trichothallic growth, which have become twisted together and par- 
tially united by means of the rhizoidal filaments, and whose fasciculated branches 
constitute what, in the mature plant, seems to be a distinct cortical layer. In Cas- 
tagnea virescens the separate filaments, with their lateral fasciculate branches, can easily 
be isolated by dissecting the smaller branches, and the same thing can also be accom- 
plished with Chordaria divaricata, although not so easily.- The species of Mesogloia and 
Castagnea should not be dried under too heavy pressure, and alcoholic specimens are 
mueh better for study than those mounted on paper. 

M. divaricata, Kiitz. (Chordaria divaricata, Ag.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 
17; Ker. Am. Bor., Yol. I, PI. 11 a.) 

Fronds tufted, lubricous, six inches to two feet long, branching very 
irregular, generally without a definite main axis; branches flexuous, ul- 
timate branches very numerous, short, and divaricate, at first solid, 



THE MARINE ALGiE OE NEW ENGLAND. 85 

afterwards becoming fistulose and tabular; peripheral filaments short, 
fewr-celled, the last cell obovate and several times larger than the other 
cells ; unilocular sporangia ovoid. 

On algae and stones near low- water mark. 

Very common from Cape Cod southward; Xiles Beach, Gloucester, 
Mass.; Europe. 

A characteristic species of Long Island Sound, where it is probably more abundant 
than in any other part of the world. It abounds in still, shallow bays. North of 
Cape Cod it is of small size, and is only occasionally met with. It assumes a number 
of different forms, none of which, however, can be considered as distinct varieties. It 
first appears in May, and reaches perfection in August and September. At first the 
fronds are small and solid, but they grow to be two feet long, or even longer, and the 
main branches become hollow and finally collapsed. Except that they are more lux- 
uriant, our forms agree well with Norwegian specimens. 

M. vermiculaihs, Ag. ; Phyc. Brit., PL 31. 

Fronds tufted, gelatinous, one to two feet long, branches long, irregu- 
larly pinnate, thick, vermiform, flexuous ; peripheral filaments clavate, 
somewhat incurved, moniliform cells spheroidal ; unilocular sporangia 
ovoid. 

On stones and algse between tide-marks. 

Halifax, N. S., Harvey; Europe. 

A rather common plant of Europe, and probably occurring within our limits, but as 
yet only reported at Halifax on the American coast. The species is rather thick' and 
clumsy, and very gelatinous ; not at all likely to be confounded with M. divaricata, 
which is less gelatinous, has a different mode of branching, and whose peripheral fila- 
ments are terminated by a cell much larger than the others. Dried specimens may be 
mistaken for Castagnea viresceus, a more slender plant, with longer and more slender 
peripheral filaments, the upper cells of which, are transformed into plurilocular spo- 
rangia. We have only examined dried specimens of this species. 

CASTAGNEA, (Derb. & Sol.) Thuret, emend. 

(In honor of Louis Castagne, a French botanist.) 

Fronds and unilocular sporangia as in Mesogloia ; plurilocular spo- 
rangia formed by outgrowths from the uppermost cells of the peripheral 
filaments. 

G. virescens, (Carm.) Thuret. (Mesogloia virescens, Carm., in Phyc. 
Brit.; Ner. Am. Bor., Vol. 1, PI. 10 b; Ann. Sci. Nat., Ser. 3, Yol. 14, 
PI. 27.) PI. 7, Fig. 1. 

Fronds filiform, gelatinous, three inches to a foot and a half long, axis 
clothed with numerous, irregular, flexuous branches, ultimate branches 
short, given off at wide angles ; fronds at first solid, becoming fistu- 
lous ; peripheral filaments slender, clustered, recurved or incurved, cyl- 
indrical or only slightly moniliform, cells ellipsoidal, .015-20 mm in diam 
eter; unilocular sporangia ovoidal or rhombic- ovate; plurilocular spo- 



86 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

rangia siliculose, composed of three to six cells, formed from the terminal 
cells of peripheral filaments, often secund on the upper side. 

On sand-covered rocks and algse at and below low-water mark. 

Wood's Holl, Nahant, G-loucester, Mass. ; Portland, Maine, Mr. Fuller; 
Europe. 

A species which, is rather coimnon in the spring months, but which disappears with 
us about the 1st of July. The fronds are more slender thau in M. vermicularis, but 
when dried under too great pressure, or when allowed to remain some time in fresh 
water, they somewhat resemble that species. The distinction is best seen in the periph- 
eral filaments. Those of M. vermicularis are shorter, decidedly clavate, less curved, 
and are formed of spheroidal cells In C. virescens they are longer, more nearly cylin- 
drical, recurved, and formed of ellipsoidal cells. The number and size of the pluri- 
locular sporangia vary very much. 

0. Zosterjs, (Mohr.) Thuret. (Myriocladia zosterce, Ag. — Mesogloia 
vermicularis, var. zosterce, Kiitz., Spec. Alg. — M. virescens, var. zosteri- 
cola, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 82. — M. zosterce, Aresch., in Ner. Am. Bor., 
Vol. I, p. 127, PI. 10 a.) PI. 7, Fig. 2. 

Fronds filiform, gelatinous, three to eight inches long, subsimple, fur- 
nished with a few short, remote branches, given off at wide angles ; 
peripheral filaments erect, rather rigid, cylindrical below, moniliform 
above; cells spheroidal, .02-4 mm in diameter ; unilocular sporangia ovate; 
plurilocular sporangia siliculose, composed of three to six cells, usually 
forming dense tufts on the upper part of the peripheral filaments. 

On eel- grass. 

Wood's Holl, Gloucester, Mass. ; Europe. 

A small species with very few branches, which, although it has been by some con- 
sidered a variety of C. virescens, is sufficiently distinct both in its microscopic structure 
and the season of growth. C. virescens is a spring form, which disappears in early 
summer, while C. Zosterat, at least on our coast, occurs in summer and autumn. The 
appearance of the peripheral filaments is different in the two species. In C. virescens 
they are slender and curved and in C. zosterce rather stout and erect and more densely 
packed together, in this respect resembling M. vermicularis, in which, however, the 
filaments are distinctly clavate and moniliform, and do not produce plurilocular spo- 
rangia at the extremity. A section of the frond of a well-developed C. virescens shows 
a circle of roundish cells around a central cavity and on the outside a series of branch- 
ing filaments, which end in the proper peripheral filaments and sporangia. In C. Zos- 
terce there is also a circle of cells surrounding a central cavity, but the peripheral fila- 
ments seem to be given off directly from the circle of cells. The figure in the Nereis 
Am. Bor. does not correctly represent the structure of /7. Zosterce, for the clusters of 
peripheral filaments are not outgrowths from special colored filaments, but from the 
uncolored cells. American specimens agree perfectly with the specimens of Mesogloia 
zosterce, No. 100, of Areschoug's Alg. Scand. 

Family KALFSIEiE. 

Fronds horizontally expanded, sometimes crustaceous ; fructification 
in raised spots (sori), composed of few-celled club-shaped paraphyses 
and spheroidal unilocular sporangia. 



THE MARINE ALGJ2 OF NEW ENGLAND. 87 

RALFSIA, Berkeley. 

(In honor of John Half 8, an English botanist.) 

Fronds olive-brown, forming flat coriaceous or crustaceous expansions 
of indefinite extent, composed of a single horizontal layer, from which 
arise short vertical filaments, which are firmly united to one another so 
as to form a solid parenchymatous structure ; fruit scattered over the 
surface of the fronds in spots (sori), which are composed of club-shaped, 
several-celled paraphyses, at whose base are borne the unilocular spo- 
rangia $ hairs arising from crypts in the frond ; plurilocular sporangia 
unknown ; growth peripheral. 

A genus containing only about half a dozen species. In its mode of growth the 
frond resembles that of Myrionema, but the Tertical filaments are not free, as in that 
genus, but united so as to form a solid mass. E. verucosa, the typical species, has a 
well-develo*ped frond, but in R. clavata the frond is minute and the fruit-dots are usu- 
ally confluent, so that the species has by some been placed in Myrionema. 

E. verrucosa, Aresch. (R. deusta, Berk. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 98.) 
Fronds licheniform, adherent throughout, crustaceous or membrana- 
ceous, at first orbicular, at length becoming indefinite in outline, one to 
six inches in diameter, zoned and irregularly tuberculated, the newer 
lobes overlapping the older ; sori scattered ; paraphyses .06-12 mm long, 
clavate, few-celled ; unilocular sporangia ovoid or pyriform, .038 mm long 
by .019 mm broad. 

Common on rocks in pools at half-tide from Nahant northward ; Eu- 
rope. 

A homely, dark-colored species, which has more the habit of a lichen than an alga. 
It abounds on the northern coast in shallow exposed pools, and is found at all seasons. 
At first the crusts are of small size and adhere closely to the rocks, but afterwards, as 
they increase in size, they become lobulated and rough and are easily detached. The 
species, contrary to the statement of Janczewski, is furnished with tufts of hairs at 
certain seasons of the year. It may occur also south of Cape Cod, but, if so, it must 
bo in a reduced form. 

K. DEUSTA, J. Ag. 

Fronds licheniform, membranaceous, attached at center, margin free, 
irregularly orbicular, with overlapping marginal lobes, marked with 
concentric zones and with radiating striae 5 spores? 

At low water mark. 

Eastport, Maine. 

A larger and more foliaceous species than the preceding, being about .*25-30 mm in 
thickness. Both the concentric zones and radiating stria) are well marked, and the 
specios is comparatively loosely attached to the substratum. On sectioning the fronds 
of R. deusta, the cells are seen to be arranged in lines which curved upwards and down- 
wards from a medial plane, while a section of the frond of B. verrucosa shows the 
cells arranged in lines which curve upwards from the attached base. 



88 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

E. clavata, (Oarin.) Crouan, Florule du Finistere. {Myrionema clava- 
turn, (Jarin., in Phyc. Brit., PI. 348.) 

Fronds thin, forming closely adherent crusts or coriaceous expansions, 
at first orbicular and afterwards irregular ; paraphyses clavate, rather 
uniformly diffused over the frond; unilocular sporangia pyriform, 
.06-7 mm broad by .15-.18 mm long, attached to the base of the paraphyses. 

On stones and wood work 

Eastport, Maine ; Wood's Holl, Maiden, Mass. ; Europe. 

A small species, wliose position is doubtful. It was placed by Harvey in Myrionema, 
from the typical species of which it differs in having a frond composed of several 
layers of horizontal cells. By Crouan it was placed in Ealfsia, but the erect fila- 
ments rather resemble the paraphyses in Myrionema. In short, the species may be said 
to be a Ealfsia with diif use fructification and slightly developed frond, or a Myrionema 
with an excessively developed basal portion. American specimens resemble perfectly 
the No. 56 of Crouan's Algues Marines du Finistere. The alga described by Areschoug 
under the name of Lithoderma fatiscens bears a striking resemblence to the present 
species. The species is much smaller and thinner than E. verrucosa, not exceeding on 
the average .15 mm in thickness, and covers stones and wood work at Eastport, some- 
times in company with E. verrucosa. Further inquiry will i>robably show that the 
plant is common along the whole coast. 

Family ASPEROCOCCE^E. 

Fronds tubular or compressed, usually simple, occasionally branched; 
fructification in external scattered sori, composed of cylindrical few- 
celled paraphyses and spherical unilocular sporangia. 

ASPEEOCOCOUS, Lam. 

(From asper, rough, and kokkoc, a berry.) 

Fronds olive-brown, simple or branched, hollow, composed of a few 
layers of cells, those of the interior being larger and colorless, those of 
the surface smaller and colored ; fruit external, scattered in spots (sori) 
over the fronds ; sori composed of paraphyses and unilocular sporangia, 
which are formed from the superficial cells of the fronds; paraphyses 
numerous, cylindrical or club-shaped ; unilocular sporangia globose, ses- 
sile between the paraphyses ; plurilocular sporangia unknown ; hairs 
tufted, arising from the superficial cells ; growth of fronds basal. 

The genus Asperococcus is distinguished by the external scattered fruit, consisting of 
paraphyses and unilocular sporangia. In the Nereis Am. Bor. it was placed by Harvey 
in the order Dictyotacece, but the fructification in that order is now known to be very 
different. The genus comprises a small number of species, which are widely diffused, 
although as yet only one has been found on the New England coast. The Asperococci 
resemble, to a certain extent, siiecies of Ehylliiis and Scytosiphon,hiit are easily dis- 
tinguished by the fruit, which is almost always present. Plurilocular sporangia are 
unknown in the true Asperococci, and the old A. sinuosus, which is found in Florida 
and California; is considered by Bornet to belong to the genus Hydroclatlirus, which 
has plurilocular sporangia of the same type as Phyllitis and Scytosiphon. A. compressus 



THE MARINE ALGJE. OF NEW ENGLAND. 89 

and A. bullosas are to be expected to occur with us. The A. compressus of the List of the 
Marine Alga} of the United States, in the Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sciences of March, 
1875, is an error. The ouly specimen seen was collected at Gloucester by Mrs. Lusk, 
and proves to be a bleached aud brownish fragment of Halosaccion. 

A. echinatus, Grew; Phyc. Brit., PL 194. (PI. V, Fig. 3.) 

Fronds gregarious, simple, attached by a small disk from two inches 
to a foot and a half long, about half an inch in diameter, tapering at 
base, often twisted but not constricted, color a dingy brown, spotted with 
the very numerous sori. 

Attached to algce between tide-marks. 

Common along the whole coast ; Europe. 

A homely species, usually found in tufts four or five inches long, and of about the 
substance of Scyfosiphonlomentarius, but usually spotted with the numerous fruit-dots. 
The diameter, which is nearly uniform throughout, is about that of a clay pipe-stem. 
A. bullosus is much larger and more sack-like and often decidedly constricted. 

Family SPOROCHNE^. 

Fronds cylindrical or tubular, branching, composed within of elon- 
gated cuboidal cells, which become smaller and roundish at the surface; 
fructification in external scattered sori, composed of club-shaped fila- 
mentous paraphyses and sporangia ; unilocular sporangia spheroidal ; 
plurilocular sporangia cylindrical formed of a single row of cells. 

Fronds solid, sori irregularly scattered Stilophora. 

Fronds hollow, sori arranged in transverse lines Striaria f 

STILOPHORA, Ag. 

(From ctiXtj, a point, and Qopeu, to bear.) 

Fronds olive-brown, filiform, branching, solid, becoming hollow, com- 
posed internally of elongated colorless cells, which become smaller and 
colored towards the surface; fruit external, scattered in spots (sori) 
over the surface; sori hemispherical, consisting of club-shaped fila- 
mentous paraphyses, at whose base are borne the sporangia; uni- 
locular sporangia ovoidal ; plurilocular sporangia cylindrical, formed of 
a single row of cells. 

A genus placed by Agardh and Harvey in the Dictyotacece, but by other algologists 
considered more nearly related to the Sporoclmem. It includes only a small number of 
species, probably not more than eight, and is readily recognized by the external fruit 
in which the sporangia are borne at the base of clavato few-celled paraphyses. The 
development of the frond has not been made out, but at the tips of the branches is a 
complicated mass of filaments ending in hairs like those of Ectocarpus, at whoso base 
are borne a few short, incurved, moniliform filaments. At a short distance below the 
apex of the frond the moniliform filaments disappear and the surface appears to con- 
sist of roundish cells where not interrupted by the numerous sori. It is probable that, 



90 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

as has been suggested by Janczewski in speaking of Sporochnus, the frond of Stilophora 
grows in a maimer similar to that of Culleria, which may be said to belong to the com. 
pound trichothallic type. 

S. rhizodes, Ag. (Sporochnus rJiizodes, Ag., Spec. — Spermatochnus 
rhizodes, Kutz., Spec. — Stilophora rhizodes, J. Agardh; Phyc. Brit., PI. 
70 ; Ann. Sci. Nat., Ser. 3, Yol. XIV, PI. 28.) (PL V, Fig. 4, PL VI, Fig. 2.) 

Fronds attached by a disk, filiform, solid, becoming somewhat fistu. 
lous, six inches to two feet long, branching s^bdichotomously, destitute 
of distinct axis, branches becoming attenuated, ultimate divisions erect ; 
sori very numerous, scattered irregularly over the frond; paraphyses 
few celled, clavate, somewhat incurved; unilocular sporangia oval; plu- 
rilocular cylindrical. 

Not uncommon at various points in Vineyard Sound and Long Island 
Sound on algse and eel -grass below low- water mark. 

The present species is sometimes found at the base of eel-grass and the larger algse, 
but it is more commonly found in entangled masses a foot or two long washed ashore 
ju sheltered bays after a heavy blow. The determination is not altogether satisfactory, 
for our plants are generally coarser than the European forms of the species. Nor do 
they correspond to S. Lyngbyei, which is coarser and more tubular, and has finer ulti- 
mate branches and sori which are somewhat remote and arranged in transverse bands, 
if we follow Harvey's description. Another species, hardly coming within our limits, 
was found by Bailey in the Chesapeake and referred by Harvey, with considerable 
doubt, to S. papillosa, Ag. 

STBIARIA, Grev. 
(From stria, a ridge, referring to the arrangement of the sporangia in transverse lines.) 
Fronds attached by a disk, tubular, branched, cells of the interior 
large, roundish, of the exterior smaller and subrectangular ; fruit con- 
consisting of sporangia (or spores?), arranged in transverse lines. 

A genus whose position is very doubtful, because the structure of the fruit is not 
sufficiently well known. By most writers it is placed in the Dictyotacece, but it is 
not certain that the typical species, S. attenuata, possesses the peculiar antheridia 
and tetraspores of that order. According to Areschoug, there are two forms of fruit, 
one immersed, as in Punctaria, the other external, as in Asperococcus. 

S. attenuata, Grev., Phyc. Brit., PI. 25 ; Eer. Am. Bor., Vol. Ill, 
Suppl., p. 123. 

Fronds a few inches to a foot long 5 branches usually opposite, attenu- 
ated to a fine point. 

Flushing, L. I., Bailey. 

The only American specimen known is that mentioned by Harvey in the Supplement 
to the Nereis Am. Bor. as having been found at Flushing, L. I. 

Family LAMINARIEJE. 

Fronds large and coarse; species on our coast usually attached by 
root-like processes, and with a stipe and expanded lamina, in one genus 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 91 

cylindrical; fructification in broad bands or large irregular spots, or 
occasionally covering the whole surface of frond, composed of large 
broadly clavate or wedge-shaped paraphyses and oval unilocular spo- 
rangia. 

Fronds cylindrical Chorda. 

Fronds with a midrib. 

Fronds perforated with holes Agarum. 

Fronds entire, with lateral leaflets at the base of lamina Alaria. 

Fronds destitute of midrib. 

Cryptostomata present Saccorhiza. 

Cryptostomata wanting Laminaria. 

CHORDA, Stack. 

(From chorda, a string.) 

Fronds olive-brown, attached by a disk, simple, cylindrical, hollow, 
with diaphragms at intervals ; cells of tubular portion elongated, hex- 
agonal in section, lined on the inside with filaments, which at intervals 
are woven together so as to form the diaphragms; whole surface of 
the frond clothed with cuneate-clavate cells (paraphyses), which form a 
cortical layer; unilocular sporangia ellipsoidal, situated between the 
paraphyses, growth basal; plurilocular sporangia unknown. 

A small genus, consisting of three or four species, wliich aro by some writers placed 
in the ChordaHacece and by others in the Laminariaccce. The typical species, C. filum, 
may be regarded as the lowest representative of the Laminar iacece, inasmuch as it has 
the basal mode of growth and the unicellular paraphyses of that order, but a simple 
frond in which there is no distinction of stipe and lamina. See, also, remarks under 
Scyiosiphon. 

C. filum, Linn. (Scytosiphon filum, Ag. — Chorda filum, Phyc. Brit., 
PI. 107; Annales des Sciences, Ser. 3, Yol. XIV, PI. 29, Figs. 5-10.) 
PI, VI, Fig. 1. 

Fronds gregarious, cartilaginous-lubricous, quarter of an inch in diam- 
eter, from one to twelve feet long, attenuate at base, densely clothed 
with hyaline hairs ; paraphyses cuneate-clavate, slightly longer than the 
sporangia and overlapping them. 

On stones at low- water mark and below. 

Common along the whole coast ; Europe. 

At once recognized by its cord-like appearance. The early form, which is densely 
covered with hairs, constitutes the C. tomentosa of some writers. Areschoug, however, 
considers that the true C. tomentosa of Lyngbye is distinct, and characterized by its 
elongated linear paraphyses, which are scarcely as long as the sporangia, which ripen 
early in the season, while those of C. filum ripen in the latter part of summer and 
autumn. 



92 ItEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH # AND FISHERIES. 

LAMINABIA, Lanix. — DeviVs Aprons. 

(From lamina, a plate.) 

Fronds attached by a branching base,* stipitate, stipe expanding into 
a ribless entire or laciniate lamina ; fruit forming bands or sori in the 
central part of the lamina, consisting of unicellular paraphyses and uni- 
locular sporangia densely packed together ; cryptostomata wanting. 

A genus comprising not far from twenty-five species, which inhabit principally seas 
in high latitudes. They all grow in pools at low-water mark and in deep water, and 
some attain a very large size. The limits of the genus are well fixed, but the same 
can by no means be said of the species, with regard to which writers differ very 
much. The difficulty arises partly from the fact that the species lose some of their 
characteristic marks in drying, so that the study of herbarium specimens is unsatis- 
factory, but still more from the fact that the species vary greatly in outline and habit 
according to the season and the place of growth, whether at an exposed or sheltered 
coast or whether submerged or partly exposed at low tide. In general, the species 
may be classed in two groups, those in which the frond is ribbon-like, that is, long in 
proportion to the breadth and not split up into segments, and those in which the frond 
is proportionately broader and fan-shaped and, except when young, laciniate. To the 
former group belongs the L. saccharina of older writers, to the latter L. digitata, and 
it is with regard to the extent to which subdivision shall be carried in the two cases 
mentioned that recent writers differ very widely. Our species have not been suffi- 
ci«rtly studied in situ to warrant us in giving the determinations with any degree of 
confidence. More information with regard to their winter condition is very much 
needed. The most detailed account of the Laminariw of the eastern coast is to be 
found in the paper of De la Pylaie in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Ser. 1, 
Vol. IV, 1321, entitled " Quelques observations sur les productions de File de Terre- 
Neuve, et sur quelques algues de la cote de France appartenant au genre Laminaire." 
The article is accompanied by a plate in which is sufficiently well shown the habit of 
our common species. The same writer in 1829 gave a more extended account of his 
collections in the "Flore de Terre-Neuve etdes iles Saint Pierre et Miclon," an incom- 
plete work comprehending the LamiriariacecB and Fucacece, of which, however, the plates 
were never published. The species of De la Pylaie have not been accepted without 
question by algologists, and all agree that he was too liberal in the formation of new 
species. Harvey ignores the greater part of them in the Nereis. Agardh and Le Jolis 
give them a more respectful consideration, and the former especially is inclined, in his 
paper on the Laminariacece and. Fucacece of Greenland, to admit several of De la Pylaie's 
species. In the present case we do not feel at liberty to make use of the notes with 
regard to American forms which have been kindly furnished by European correspond- 
ents, bus must content ourselves with a superficial account of the perplexing forms of 
this exasperating genus, adding that the identity of our forms with those of Europe is 
not in all cases proved. 

Of the species of Laminaria given in the Nereis, L. fascia in now placed in PJiyllitis ; 
L. lorea and L. dermatodea refer to the same plant, which is now placed in Saccorhiza ; 
L. longicruris is still kept as in the Nereis ; L. saccharina and L. digitata are kept with 
limitations ; and L. trilaminata is, as Harvey suspected, merely an abnormal winged 
form of some other species, corresponding to the trilaminate condition mentioned under 
Agarum Turneri. 

The marks used in distinguishing the species are the arrangment of the root-fibers ; 
the structure of the stipe, whether solid or hollow, whether provided with distinct 
cavities containing mucus (muciparous glands) the shape of the lamina, more particu- 

* A few species, asi. solidungula, Ag., have a disk-like base, and L. sess'dis, Ag., in- 
cluding L. apoda, Harv., found on our west coast, has no stipe properly speaking. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 93 

larly of its "basal portion; the presence or absence of a series of alternate depressiors 
and elevations within the margin ; and the position of the fruit. The growing portion 
of the Laminance is at the base of the lamina, and the apex of the stipe and the old 
fronds are pushed off by the newly formed ones below. The fruit is perfected in autumn 
and winter. 

L. longicruris, De la Pyl. (L. lo7igicruris, Ann. Sci., 1. c, PI. 9 a 
and b; Phyc. Brit., p. 339; Ker. Am. Bor., Yol. I, PL 6.) 

Exs. — Algae Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 117. 

Fronds solitary or gregarious, attached by numerous long, slender, 
branching fibers ; stipe six to twelve feet long, one to two inches thick, 
slender and solid at the base, becoming hollow and inflated at the middle 
and upper part, contracted at the apex; lamina ovate-lanceolate, five to 
twenty feet long, two to three feet broad ; margin very wavy, within the 
margin two rows of depressed spots ; fruit forming a continuous band 
in the center of the frond ; color lightish brown ; substance rather 
delicate. 

Common in deep water, and at Eastport at low-water mark. 

From Nahant, Mass., northward ; North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. 

A striking species, easily recognized when in typical condition, but unfortunately 
variable, though not so much so as our other species. The root-fibers are long, rather 
slender, and much branched. The stipe is slender at the base, but expands gradually 
upwards until it is at times two inches in diameter. The greatest diameter is about 
two-thirds of the way up the stipe, which is then contracted, sometimes quite suddenly. 
When young and only a few inches long, the center of the stipe is filled with a solid 
mass of delicate filaments, but it soon becomes hollow. When torn from their attach- 
ments by storms, largo specimens, in consequence of the hollow stipes, float in a pecu- 
liar way, the upper part of the stipe projecting above the water like an elbow and the 
lamina dipping below the surface. The lamina is, in comparison with the stipe, 
shorter and broader than in our other species. This is especially the case in young 
specimens, where the stipe may bo several times longer than the lamina. In mature 
plants, however, the comparative length of the lamina varies very much with the 
place of growth. The present species has never been certainly known to occur south 
of Cape Cod. Specimens resembling L. saccharina, but with hollow stipes, have been 
collected in Long Island Sound. Whether really belonging to L. longicruris is doubt- 
ful, and the subject requires farther investigation. 

L. saccharina, (Linn.) Lam.x.? 

Frond attached by numerous branching fibers ; stipe solid throughout, 
terete, somewhat swollen in the middle, three inches to four feet long ; 
lamina elongated, lanceolate, fusiform or cuneate at base, three to thirty 
feet long, six to eighteen inches wide ; margin wavy, a row of depressions 
on each side of lamina ; fruit forming a central baud. 

Yar. PHTLLITIS, Le Jol. (L. phyllitis, Phyc. Brit., PI. 192.) 

Fronds small, lamina thin, margin slightly wavy, base of lamina fusi- 
form. 



94 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Var. caperata, (De la Pyl.)- (■£• caperata, Ann. Sci., 1. c, PL 9 c.) 
Stipe long in proportion to the lamina ; lamina thick, one to two feet 

broad, cuneate at base. 
Common on stones at low- water mark along the whole coast; var. 

caperata common north of Cape Cod. 

In the preseut species we include all the New England forms which have a solid 
stipe and undivided lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate frond. It is very probable that 
two, or possibly three, really distinct species are thus united, and it is also doubtful 
whether any of our forms are the same as L. saccharina of Europe, as limited by recent 
writers. Clearly to distinguish them is, however, at present out of the question. In 
goiug northward the forms here included become broader, and the base of the lamina 
is more frequently obtuse, and possibly the extreme forms should be referred to 
L. latifolia, Ag. The exact determination of the New England forms referred to 
L. saccharina cannot be successfully undertaken without an examination of European 
herbaria. Probably we have most of the forms described by De la Pylaie in the 
Flore de Terre-Neuve, but that writer has not displayed a commendable caution in 
the description of new species ; and as European botanists differ as to what species 
the forms of De la Pylaie are to be referred, American botanists wtuld not help the 
matter by pretending to give accurate determinations. De la Pylaie says that at 
Newfoundand L. saccharina does not occur, but is replaced by L. longicruris. The 
statement is singular, since, from De la Pylaie's own description, L. caperata closely 
resembles L. saccharina ; and if any species may be said to replace L. saccharina, it is 
L. caperata, rather than the abundantly distinct L. longicruris. 

L. DIGITATA, (Turn.) Lamx. (L. digitata, Ner. Am. Bor.— Z. steno- 
loba, De la Pyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1. c, PI. 9 1c.) 

Exs. — Algse Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 119, snb. 
nom. L. flexlcaulis. 

Fronds attached by fibers, which are often arranged in whorls j stipe 
solid, stont, one to five feet long, more or less round below, compressed 
above, destitute of muciparous glands ; lamina at first oval or lanceolate, 
afterwards split into digitate segments, two to six feet long, one to 
three feet wide; base fusiform or ovate; fruit in dispersed patches on the 
segments. 

Montauk, L. I. ; Gay Head, Mass. ; and common north of Cape Cod. 

"With regard to the limits of L. digitata a difference of opinion prevails; and in tho 
present case we' have retained, without criticism, the older name to designate the 
common digitate form of our coast. Of the two species described by Le Jolis it is 
probable that we have L. fiexicaulis comprehended in the present form. The species 
is common with us in pools at low- water mark and below. The stipe varies consid- 
erably in length, according to the place of growth, and when well developed is stout 
and much compressed above, so that it projects rigidly above the surface of the water 
at low tide. The lamina is usually more or less fusiform at the base, but is sometimes 
oval, and the segments vary considerably, sometimes being very numerous. 

L. platymeris, De la Pyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1. c. PI. 9 i. 
Fronds attached by stout, irregularly placed fibers ; stipe six inches to 
a foot long, solid, roundish, compressed, provided with muciparous 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 95 

glands, passing abruptly into a broadly ovate or cordate lamina, which 
splits up into a few broad segments ; substance thick, color blackish. 

Deep water. 

Peak's Island, Maine ; Gloucester, Mass. 

Distinguished from the last by its short, thick stipe, which is furnished with 
muciparous glands, and which terminates abruptly in a broad, thick lamina, which is 
usually decidedly cordate at the base. It is an inhabitant of deep water, and is occa- 
sionally found washed ashore in the autumn, but is always much less common than 
the last species. Le Jolis considers that L. plalymeris is, at least in part, the same as 
his L. flcxicaulis ; but what seems to us to be the true L. platymcris differs from L. flexi- 
caulis in having muciparous glands in the stipe, a peculiarity which, according to Le 
Jolis, is found in L. Cloustoni, but not in L. flexicaulis. 

SACCOKHIZA, De la Pyl. 

(From catcKog, a sack, and pi$a, a root.) 

Fronds attached at first by a disk-like base, from which are given off 
later a few short root-like fibers; stipe compressed, plane, gradually 
passing into a ribless lamina ; cryptostomata scattered on both sides of 
the frond; fruit as in Laminaria. 

A genus differing from Laminaria principally in the form of the ba:al attachment 
and in the presence of cryptostomata on both surfaces of the frond. The typical 
species, S. bullosa, not found on our coast, is attached by a sack-like base, and the 
fruit is borne on the marginal upper portion of the stipe. In the present genus ware 
at one time included all the Laminaria; whose attachment is discoidal rather than by 
branching root-like fibers. There arc, however, forms still retained in the genus 
Laminaria, as L. solidungula, in which the base is a disk, and our own species S. derma- 
todea, although in its younger stages attached by a disk, soon has a series of short 
fibers, which, as the plant increases in size, become branched. The cryptostomata are 
small pits sunk in the surface of the frond, from which arise groups of hairs, as in 
the Fucaccce. They are visible to tho naked eye in the young plants, but disappear 
with age. 

S. dermatodea, De la Pyl. (Laminaria dermatodea, De la Pyl., Ann. 
Sciences, 1. c, PI. 9 g, non Agardh nee Harvey. — L. lorca, Ag. Spec. ; 
Harvey, in Ner. Am. Bor.) 

Exs. — Alg?e Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, ISo. 120. 

Fronds usually gregarious, base at first discoidal, afterwards with a 
whorl of short, thick, usually simple fibers; stipe six inches to two feet 
long, compressed, gradually expanding into a thick, coriaceous-lanceo- 
late or lance-ovate lamina, one to six feet long, six to eighteen inches 
wide, at first entire, but afterwards torn above into several segments; 
fruit in scattered sori, which become confluent at the base of the frond; 
paraphyses narrowly club-shaped, about. 15 mm long; sporangia .12 nm long 
by .02 mm broad. 

From Marblehead, Mass., northward. 

A characteristic species of the North Atlantic. Its southernmost Limit is Marblehead, 
where only one specimen has been collected. It is less rare at Gloucester, and is rather 



96 KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

common on tlio coast of Maine, but much less abundant than other Laminarice. It is 
the most easily recognized of our Laminarice, in spite of its great variability in outline. 
The substance is more tough and leathery than any of our other species and the mar- 
gin is thick and never wavy. At Eastport it is found in deep pools, but elsewhere it is 
an inhabitant of deep water. As usually seen washed ashore it resembles one of the 
digitate forms of Laminaria, for it is usually torn into segments, and not rarely split to 
the very base. It is at once distinguished from our digitate Laminarice by its uniformly 
flat stipe, very short root-fibers, and cryptostomata. In most cases the stipe expands 
very gradually into the blade, but occasionally in old specimens the base is cordate. 
The fruit is found in the autumn and winter. In the specimens which we have ex- 
amined the paraphyses were very narrowly club-shaped aud colored to the tip, being 
destitute of the hyaline tip found in Laminaria. 

AGABUM, (Bory) Post. & Eupr. 

(From agar-agar, a Malayan word referring to some edible sea- weed.) 

Fronds stipitate, attached by a branching root-like base ; lamina per- 
forated with ronndisli holes; stipe prolonged into a midrib; frnit scat- 
tered in patches (sori) over the fronds, consisting of club-shaped, one- 
celled paraphyses and ellipsoidal unilocular sporangia; plurilocular 
sporangia unknown. 

A genus differing from Laminaria in having the lamina perforated with round holes 
and furnished with a distinct midrib. It includes four described species, which differ 
in the size of the perforations, in the shape of the lamina, and the prominence of the 
midrib, characters which an observation of our common species shows to be very vari- 
able. The species inhabit the Arctic Ocean, the northwestern shore of the Atlantic, 
and the North Paciiic. The New England form, A. Tameri, also occurs in the Pacific- 
extending as far south as Japan, and, on the west coast, A.fimbriatum, Harv., considered 
by Agardh to be the same as Fucus pertusus, Mertens, extends as far south as Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 

A. Ttjrneri, Post. & Eupr. — Sea Colander. (Fucus cribrosus, Mer- 
tens. — F. agar urn, Turner, Hist. Puc, PI. 75. — Laminaria agarum and L. 
Boryi, De la Pyl., Flore de Terre-Neuve. — Agarum Turneri, Post. & 
Eupr., Illustr. Alg., PI. 22; Ner. Am. Bor., Yol. I, PI. 5.) 

Exs. — Algce Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 112. 

Base much branched, stipe two inches to afoot long, cylindrical below, 
flattened above and prolonged into a distinctly marked midrib ; lamina 
menbranaceous, one to four feet long, ovate-oblong, cordate and much 
crisped at base, margin wavy ; perforations very numerous, orbicular, 
irregularly scattered with a smooth or wavy margin ; fruit in irregular 
patches in the central part of the frond ; sori .05-6 mm in thickness ; 
paraphyses club-shaped, colored below, expanded and hyaline at the top; 
sporangia narrow, ellipsoidal, .035 mm long by .012 mra broad. 

Common from Nahant northward in deep Water and at Eastport in 
pools ; North Pacific. 

One of the curiosities of our marine flora, which is washed ashore from deep water 
at the southern limit of its growth, but farther north grows in pools at low- water mark. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 97 

. The plant is perennial and young specimens are entirely without perforations until 
they have attained a length of two or three inches. The perforations, which are 
supposed by the fishermen to be the work of animals, are formed in the lower part of the 
frond and increase in size as they grow older, so that the perforations are larger in 
the upper and central parts of the frond. New holes are also formed between those 
already formed, so that there is a difference in size depending upon the age of the holes 
in all parts of the frond except the base. The formation of the holes begins by an 
elevation of small portions of the frond, which appears as if somo small point like that 
of a peucil had been pressed against it ; at length the frond ruptures circularly and- 
the hole formed is minute and above the plane of the frond. The margins of the large 
holes are often wavy, and when dried with a slight pressure the waviness becomes so 
marked as to lead one to suppose that the specimens belong to a distinct species. The 
midrib varies considerably in breadth and occasionaly it grows out, forming a lamina 
at right angles to the frond. The usual perforations are found in the additional 
lamina, which sometimes grows to be as large as the original lamina. The fruit of 
Agarum, which is incorrectly figured in the Nereis as having a form of tetraspores, 
resembles veiy closely that of Laminaria. The species apparently does not bear fruit 
on the Massachusetts coast, at least we have never been able to find any ; but at East 
port the frait is formed as early as September. The sori are scattered irregularly over 
the central part of the frond and are most easily seen after the frond has been out of 
the water a short time. The sori are not so thick as in- Alarla aud Laminaria and the 
paraphyses do not have so prominent a hyaline extremity as in those genera. Harvey 
states that the lamina are sometimes ten or twelve feet long, but this is probably an 
overestimate. 

ALARIA, Grev. 

(From ala, a wing.) 

•Fronds attached by a branching root-like base, stipitate, membrana- < 
ceous, with a distinct midrib ; fruit borne in special lateral leaflets below 
the lamina, consisting of club shaped, one celled paraphyses and ellip- 
soidal unilocular sporangia ; plurilocular sporangia unknown. 

A genus readily known by the small, ribless leaflets given off from the stipe below 
the lamina, in which the the fruit is borne in the autumu. The genus inhabits the 
colder waters of the northern hemisphere and the species sometimes attain a length of 
fifty feet. The number of species does not exceed half a dozen, and the specific marks, 
such as the shape of the midrib, the lateral leaflets, and the base of the lamina, are 
variable, so that all the species cannot be said to be well marked. 

A. esculent A, Grev. (A. esculenta, Phyc. Brit., PI. 79. — Laminaria 
musatfolia, De la Pyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ser. 1, Yol. IY, PL 9 d. — L. linearis, 
DelaPyl., 1. c, PI. 9/.) 

Stipe cylindrical-compressed, from four inches to a foot long, a quarter 
to half an inch wide 5 midrib solid, scarcely wider than the stipe; lam- 
ina one to ten feet long or even longer, two to ten inches from side to 
side, decurrent on the stipe, margin wavy ; fructiferous leaflets numer- 
ouse, shortly stipitate, three to eight inches long, half an inch to two 
inches broad, linear-ovate or linear- spathulate. 

Yar. latifolia, Post. & Eupr. {Laminaria Pylaii, Bory, in Flore 
S. Miss. 59 7 



98 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

de Terre-Keuve.— Alaria Pylaii, Ner. Am. Bor. — A. esculenta, var. 7 Post. 
& Bupr., Illustr. Alg., PI. 18.) 

Base of lamina cuneate, fructiferous leaflets obovate-spathulate. 

Common on exposed coasts at low- water mark and below, from Nahant 
northward. The variety at Eastport, Maine, Northern Europe, and 
Pacific coast. 

As yet no species of Alaria has been found south, of Cape Cod, although it is prob- 
able that they occur at exposed points like Gay Head and Montauk. In the Annales 
des Sciences, De la Pylaie mentions three varieties of A. esculenta— platypliylla, tceniata, 
and remotifolia — as occurring at Newfoundland, and in the Flore de Terre-Neuve he 
makes two new species— Laminaria muscefolia, including L. esculenta, var. platyphylla 
and var. remotifolia, and L. linearis, including L. esculenta var. tceniata. These species 
are characterized by the different forms and position of the fructiferous leaflets, which, 
it must be admitted, are so variable and so constantly pass into one another, that De 
la Pylaie would have done better in retaining them all as forms of one species. Lam- 
inaria Pylaii, Bory, founded on a single specimen brought by De la Pylaie from New- 
foundland, also seems to be merely a variety of L. esculenta, in which the lamina is 
cuneate at the base. At Eastport the broader forms are common, and one sees all 
stage« from decurrent to cuneate lamiose. Agardh refers to L. Pylaii, Bory, the Alaria 
,€s$ulent,a var. latifolia, of Postels and Ruprecht, whose plate represents excellently 
the extreme forms found at Eastport. The present species is used as food in Scotland 
, and Ireland, where it is called badder-locks, henware, murlins, and also in Iceland, 
tmt it : is not eaten with us. 

Order III. OOSPORES, Sachs. 

Male organs (antheridia) composed of sacks borne on simple or branch- 
ing filaments, sometimes sessile, containing motile antherozoids ; female 
organ (oogonium) in the form of a sack, whose contents change into one 
or more spherical masses (oospheres), which are directly fertilized by the 
antherozoids .and become oospores. 

In the order Conjugates there was a direct union of similar bodies called zoospores, 
and no clear distinction of male and female cells. In the Oospores the males are small- 
motile bodies (in .algie), which directly impregnate the spherical masses of proto- 
plasm, called oospheres, either before or after they have escaped from the mother-cell, 
the oogonium. As a result of the impregnation, a wall of cellulose is formed round 
what was before merely a mass of protoplasm, and the so-called oosphere becomes an 
oospore and capable of germinating. The marine plants of the order may be divided 
into two suborders, as follows : 

a. Large olive-green plants, having the antheridia and oogonia in nearly 

closed sacks borne in a definite part of the plant ; fronds foliaceous, 
often provided with air-bladders Fucace^e. 

b. Minute grass-green plants forming turfs or tufts; antheridia and 

oogonia naked, sessile, or pedicellate, borne laterally on the uni- 
cellular branching frond Vatjcherie^e. 



THE MARINE ALGJ3 OF NEW ENGLAND. 99 

Suborder FUCACE.E, C. Ag. 

Plants dioecious or hermaphrodite, fructifying organs borne in con- 
ceptacles or cavities lined with sterile filaments and opening outwards by 
a narrow pore ; antheridia in ovoid sacks borne on branching threads 
and filled with minute antherozoids having two lateral cilia ; oospores 
spherical, borne 1-8 in a mother-cell. Marine plants of an olive-green 
color, attached by a disk-like base, fronds usually branching dichoto- 
mously, rarely indefinitely expanded, often provided with air-bladders 
and with cryptostomata. 

An order characterized by the presence of antherozoids borne in sacks and by 
oospores, varying in the different genera from one to eight in a mother-cell, both an- 
theridia and oospores being contained in hollow conceptacles, which are produced 
either in definite parts of the frond or on special branches or rarely indefinitely scat- 
tered over the frond. The fertilization in this order was first described by Thuret in 
the Annales des Sciences, Ser. 4, Vol. 2. The fronds vary very much in the different 
genera. In Durvillcea the frond resembles a large Lamlnaria, and from this simple 
form there are all degrees of complication, until in Sargassum, the most highly devel- 
oped genus, there are distinct stems, leaves, air-bladders, and branching fructiferous 
receptacles. In high latitudes the order is chiefly represented by the common rock- 
weeds, Fuci, which line the rocks between tide-marks, while in low latitudes the 
gulf weeds, species of Sargassum, abound. The Southern Ocean abounds in curious 
and varied forms of this order, Australia being particularly rich in species. The New 
England coast is especially poor in representatives of the order, the genera Halidrys, 
Hlmanthalia, Pelvetia, and Cystoseira, common on the coast of Europe, being entirely 
wanting with us. The fronds are dotted with small pits, called cryptostomata, from 
which grow tufts of hairs. 

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA. 

Fronds with distinct stems and leaves Sargassum. 

Fronds without distinct stems and leaves — 

Lamina provided with a midrib, receptacles terminal, continuous with 
the frond Fucus. 

Midrib wanting, receptacles on special lateral branches. .Ascophyllum. 

ASCOPHYLLUM, (Stackh.) Le Jolis, emend. 

(From aanog, a sack, and <f>v%2,ov, a leaf.) 

Fronds attached by a disk, linear, compressed, destitute of a midrib, 
irregularly dichotomous, furnished with air-bladders ; receptacles on dis- 
tinct, simple, lateral branches ; spores four in a mother- cell. 

A genus including the Fucus nodosus of older writers, which differs from the true Fuci 
in having a linear frond destitute of a midrib and spores in fours instead of in eights. 
The generic name Ozothallia proposed by Decaisne and Thuret, who were the first to 
give a detailed account of the conceptacles of F. nodosus, was referred by Le Jolis to 
the older genus Ascophylla of Stackhouse. 

A. nodosum, Le Jolis. (Fucus nodosus, L. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 158 j Ner. 



100 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Am. Bor., Yol. I, p. 68. — Fucodium nodosum, J. Ag. — Ozothallia nodosa, 
Dene. & Thuret. — Ascophyllum nodosum, Le Jolis; Etudes Phycolo- 
giques, Pis. 18-20.) 

Fronds dioecious, one to five feet long, coriaceous, compressed, sub- 
dichotomous, margin distantly toothed; air-bladders oblong, broader 
than the frond; receptacles ovoid or ellipsoidal, terminating short lat- 
eral branches, which are borne either solitary or clustered in the axils 
of the teeth. 

Common between tide-marks from New Jersey northward ; Europe; 
Arctic Ocean. 

One of our most common species, easily recognized by the large bladders in the con- 
tinuity of the frond, which is thick and narrow and entirely destitute of a midrib. 
The fruit is found in lateral branches in winter and spring, and in June the receptacles 
fall off and are sometimes found in immense quantities covering the bottoms of tide- 
pools. 

FUCUS, (L.) Dene. & Thuret. 

(From <pvnoe, a sea- weed.) 

Fronds dioecious or hermaphrodite, attached by a disk, plane, costate, 
dichotomous, margin entire or serrate, often furnished with air-blad- 
ders; receptacles terminal, continuous with the frond; spores eight in 
a mother-cell. 

In the beginning of the present century the name Fucus was used not only to desig- 
nate all the plants included in the present order, but was applied to all marine algre. 
Since that date the word has been used in a more and more restricted sense, and is 
now only applied to those members of the Fucacece in which the spores are in eights 
and in which the frond is plane and costate. In some of the species, however, the 
midrib is rather indistinct. Most of our species are very abundant and very variable, 
and older writers have described as species a good many forms which are now con- 
sidered to be merely varieties. Hence the synonymy of the species is in confusion, 
although our species, none of which are peculiar to America, can be referred to definite 
European forms. The species described by De la Pylaie in the Flore de Terre-Neuve 
are most of them to be referred to older species. The New England species naturally 
fall into two different groups. In the first, of which F. vesiculosus is the type, the fronds 
are dioecious and the midrib distinct throughout. In the second, represented by F. 
evanescens, they are hermaphrodite and the midrib indistinct. 

F. vesiculosus, L.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 204; Etudes Phycol., PI. 15. 

Fronds dioecious, six inches to three feet long, stipitate, midrib dis- 
tinct throughout, margin entire, often wavy; bladders spherical or 
slightly elongated, usually in pairs ; receptacles swollen, ellipsoidal or 
oval, often forked. 

Exs. — Algae Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 109. 

Yar. laterifructus, Grev. 

Lateral branches, which bear the receptacles, narrow and densely 
dichotomously flabellate. 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 101 

Var. sph^ro carpus, Ag. 

Ultimate divisions of frond repeatedly forked, bearing very numerous 
small receptacles. 
Var. spiralis. 

Fronds short and spirally twisted. 
Everywhere common between tide-marks. 

The varieties of this very common species are so numerous that it is useless to de- 
scribe the greater part of them. The southernmost limit of the species on the eastern 
coast is, as far as known, the coast of North Carolina, where it is reported to have been 
collected by Rev. E. M. Forbes in Curtis's account of the botany in the Geological and 
Natural History Survey of North Carolina. Fucus bicornis&n&F. microphyllus of De la 
Pylaie appear to be merely forms of F. vesiculosus. The species with which the present 
is likely to be confounded along our northern coast is F. evanescens, a broad plant, whose 
midrib is only distinct in the lower part of the frond, and whose conceptacles are her- 
maphrodite, not dioecious, as in the present species. It fruits most abundantly in autumn 
and winter, but the fructification can be seen at any season of the year. 

F. CERANOIDES, L. 5 Phyc. Brit., PI. 271. 

"Frond plane, coriaceo-membranaceous, liuear-dichotomous, mid- 
ribbed, without vesicles, margin very entire 5 lateral. branches narrower 
than the principal divisions, repeatedly forked, level topped, bearing 
fruit at their apices ; receptacles spindle-shaped or bifid, acute." (Ker. 
Am. Bor., Vol. I, p. 70.) 

New York, Agardh; Europe. 

The authority for the existence of this species on our coast is Agardh. Harvey had 
never seen American specimens, nor have we ever found any. The species, judging 
from herbarium specimens, resembles very closely L. vesiculosus, especially var. lateri- 
fructus, but is said to be thinner and to be destitute of air-bladders. It inhabits rather 
brackish waters. 

F. serratus, L.5 Phyc. Brit., PI. 47 5 Etudes Phycol., Pis. 11-14. 

Fronds dioecious, two to six feet long, midrib distinct throughout, 
margin serrate ; bladders wanting $ receptacles serrate, flattish, pointed. 

Newburyport, Mass., Captain Pike; Pictou, 1ST. S., Rev. J. Fowler; 
Europe. 

A very common species of Europe, but very rare on our coast, being known in only 
two localities. In the supplement to the Nereis it is reported from Newburyport, hav- 
ing been once detected by Captain Pike, but not seen there since. The only other 
locality is Pictou, where it was detected by Rev. J. Fowler, who sent specimens to 
Professor Eaton in 1869. The species is easily recognized by its serrated margin, and 
grows lower down in the water than F. vesiculosus. 

F. evanescens, Ag., Icon. Ined., PI. 13. (Fucus platy carpus, in Far- 
low's List of the Marine Algae of the United States.) 

Fronds hermaphrodite, one to two feet long, stipitate, midrib distinct 
below, but widening and scarcely visible in the upper part, margin broad, 
entire, somewhat wavy $ bladders usually wanting, when present much 



102 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

elongated ; receptacles swollen, broad, usually united in pairs, and some- 
times with a small margin formed of the unchanged frond. 

Exs. — Algae Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 107. 

Eastport, Maine ; coast of Massachusetts; Northern Europe; Arctic 
Ocean . 

A species apparently common north of Cape Cod, and at Eastport quite as common 
as F. vesiculosus, for which it might be mistaken. As found with us, it is broader than 
the last-named species and is usually without bladders, and when these occur they 
seem more like irregularly inflated portions of the frond than spherical cavities. The 
receptacles contain both antheridia and oospores, the latter occupying the base and 
the former the upper part of the conceptacle. The receptacles are broader and less 
swollen than in F. vesiculosus and are often in pairs, the pairs being united below. 
The whole plant is shorter, stouter, and more foliaceous than F. vesiculosus. The spe- 
cies as found in the Arctic regions is variable, and several forms have been described. 
The form which occurs at Eastport comes very near the typical form. F. miclonensis 
of De la Pylaie is probably a small form of the present. 

F. furcatus, Ag., Icon. Ined., PI. 14. 

Fronds hermaphrodite, branching very regularly dichotomous, stipi- 
tate, one to three feet long, midrib distinct below, scarcely visible above, 
margin narrow, rigid, entire ; bladders wanting ; receptacles flat, nar- 
row, linear-fusiform, sometimes forking. 

Exs. — Algae Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 108. 

Peak's Island, Maine ; coast of Massachusetts north of Boston ; North- 
ern Europe; Arctic Ocean; North Pacific. 

A common and beautiful species on exposed coasts north of Boston. It is found 
lower down than F. vesiculosus, at the limit of low-water mark. The frond is narrow, 
tough, and destitute of bladders, and the branching very regular, almost flabellate. 
It is easily distinguished by the receptacles, which are not in the least swollen and are 
narrow and longer than in any other species, being sometimes four inches long. The 
color is dark. Our form corresponds perfectly to specimens from Spitzbergen. The] 
species is less variable than most of the genus and is found at all seasons of the year. 

F. filiformis, Gmelin. (F. distichus, L., in Farlow's List of the Ma- 
rine Algae of the United States.) 

Fronds hermaphrodite, three to six inches long, flabellately dichoto- 
mous, stipitate below, midrib present but indistinct ; air-bladders want- 
ing ; receptacles linear-oblong, swollen, borne in pairs, sometimes forking. 

In pools near high-water mark. 

Nahant, Marblehead, Mass. 

Our smallest species, found only in spring and in pools where the water is not very 
pure. Our form is the same as No. 201 of Areschoug's AlgsB Scandinavicae, from Fin- 
mark, which Agardh refers to F. filiformis. Whether F. distichus, L., is not the same as 
F. filiformis, Gmelin, admits of doubt. The present form seems to be the F. filiformis of 
the Flore de Terre-Neuve, mentioned under F. distichus in the Nereis Am. Bor. 






THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 103 

SAKGASSUM, Ag. 

(From aargazo, the Spanish name for the gulf-weed) 

Fronds attached by a disk having branching stems, leaves with a 
midrib and distinctly stalked air-bladders; fruit in special compound 
branches ; conceptacles hermaphrodite ; spores single in the mother-cell. 

The most highly organized and by far the largest genus of the Fucacece, of which at 
least 150 species have been described. They inhabit the warmer waters of the globe, 
where they replace the Fuel. Australia, Japan, and the adjacent coast of Asia are 
particularly rich in species. We have one species which does not come north of Cape 
Cod, but which is common southward. The genus has been subdivided by Kutzing, 
but even wiih his limitation the species of Sargassum are very numerous. 

S. vulgare, Ag. (Fucus natans, Turner's Hist. Fuc., PI. 46, non 
Linn.— S. vulgare, Phyc. Brit., PI. 343.) 

Fronds two to five feet long, stem filiform, smooth, irregularly 
branching, leaves shortly petiolate, linear-lanceolate or oblong-lanceo- 
late, one to three inches long, a quarter to half an inch wide, sharply 
serrate, midrib distinct, cryptostomata numerous on both sides of the 
midrib; air-bladders spherical, quarter of an inch in diameter, stalked, 
arising from a transformed leaf, the upper part of which often remains 
as an appendage ; stalks naked or slightly winged ; receptacles filiform, 
branching cymosely, one to two inches long. 

Var. Montagnei. (S. Montagnei, Bailey, in Ner. Am. Bor., Vol. I, 
PI. 1 a.) 

Leaves narrowly linear, elongated, receptacles two to four inches long. 

Below low- water mark in warm, shallow bays from Cape Cod south- 
ward. 

In spite of its variations, with the exception of S. bacciferum, which is sometimes 
washed ashore, we have but one species of Sargassum on our coast.' As usually found, 
it is more slender in all its parts than the typical S. vulgare of the West Indies, but it 
is occasionally found of the typical form. In var. Montagnei, which is common, we 
have an extreme form, in which the fructifying branches are much elongated, but one 
sees all variations from short to long. 

S. bacciferum, Ag. — Gulf-weed. (Fucus natans, L.; Turner's Hist. 
Fuc, PI. 47.— 8. bacciferum, Phyc. Brit., PI. 109.) 

Fronds six inches to a foot and a half long, stems filiform, smooth, 
leaves linear-lanceolate, two to four inches long, midrib distinct, crypto- 
stomata usually wanting; air-bladders stalked, spherical, tipped with a 
filiform point ; receptacles short, cylindrical, forked. 

Washed ashore at Bath, L. I., Mr. A. B. Young, and found floating off 
the coast near the Gulf Stream; West Indies, and floating in the 
Atlantic. 

The common Gulf-weed, which grows attached in the West Indies, where it fruits,. 






104 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

and which is found floating and infertile in the course of the Gulf Stream and in the 
so-called Sargasso Sea, between 20° and 45° N. and 40° W. It is rarely washed ashore 
in New England, but is frequently brought in by fishing vessels. It is said that there 
is a large mass of this sea-weed in the ocean not far from Nantucket, but there is no 
definite information on the subject. The species in its floating form is distinguished 
from the last by its narrower leaves, destitute of cryptostomata, its darker color, and 
denser habit. 

Suborder VAUCHERIE^. 

Comprising a single genus, Vaucheria, whose characters are given 
below. 






VAUCHERIA, D. C. 

(Named in honor of Jean Pierre Vauclm', of Geneva. ) 

Fronds green, unicellular, composed of long, irregularly or falsely 
dichotomously branching filaments, monoecious or dioecious; oogonia 
sessile or stalked, containing a single oospore ; antheridia either short 
ovoid sacks or formed at the tips of branches, which are frequently 
spirally twisted; antherozoids very small, with two cilia; non-sexual 
reproduction by very large zoospores, which are covered with cilia, or by 
motionless spores formed at the ends of short branches. 

The Vaucherice abound both on our coast and in inland waters, and some species 
grow upon damp ground in gardens and meadows. They either form thick turfs of a 
dark-green color when growing in places which are not constantly submerged, or else 
extend in indefinite-shaped masses when growing where there is plenty of water. 
They are generally easily recognized at sight, and are known under the microscope 
by the long branching filaments of a deep-green color, destitute of cross-partitions 
except when the fruit is forming. Although very abundant on our shore, the species 
are little known, because the specific characters depend upon the fruit. The deter- 
mination of sterile specimens is out of the question, and , even when fruiting, dried 
specimens are of comparatively little value. A considerable number of species of 
Vaucheria have been described, but as a great part of them have been described from 
individuals bearing the non-sexual spores only, recent writers, as Walz and Nordstedt, 
have reduced the number of species very much by omitting imperfectly characterized 
forms. Nordstedt admits nineteen species in Europe. The American species have 
never been critically studied. Specimens should be kept in fluid rather than mounted 
•on paper, and sketches of the fruit should be made at the time of gathering. It 
should not be forgotten by the collector that some of the species are dioecious, and 
also that a species is not perfectly known unless the non-sexual spores are described 
.as well as the oospores. 

Y. Thuretii, Woronin, Beit, zur Kenntniss der Yaucherien, in Bot. 
Zeit., Yol. XXYII, p. 157, PL 2, Figs. 30-32. 

Monoecious ; filaments .03-8 mm in diameter, forming short, dense turfs; 
antheridia sessile, oval, .05-7 mm broad by .10-14 mm long ; contents of 
antheridia colorless ; oogonia either sessile or on short lateral branches, 
obovoid or pyriform, inclined, .25-30 mm long by 20 mm wide ; oospores 
spherical, .15-18 mm in diameter, yellowish brown; cell-wall rather thin; 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 105 

non-sexual spores (?) .08 mm broad by .10-12 mi * long, motionless, borne on 
short branches, which are at right angles to the main filaments, from 
which they break off, allowing the spores to escape from the ruptured 
end. 

Exs.— Wittrock & Nordstedt, Alg. Scand., No. 228. 

On muddy shores and sides of ditches, where it forms large patches 
of a dark velvety green. Summer. 

, Wood's Holl, Mass. 5 Eastport, Maine ; Perth Amboy, K J., Wolle; 
Europe. 

This species, which is apparently common on muddy shores of New England, agrees 
bo well with the description and figure of Woronin, 1. c, that there can be no doubt 
about the identity of our plant with that of the European coast. The non-sexual 
fruit was unknown to Woronin. At Wood's Holl we found what appeared to be the 
non-sexual fruit of the species. It consisted of oval spores, smaller than the oospores, 
borne at the tips of short branches, which were given off at right angles to.the main 
filaments. The branches with the spores fall off, and the latter, after some time, 
escape from the ruptured end of the cell. The spores are motionless and destitute of 
cilia, reminding one of the non-sexual spores in V. geminata, Walz. During the four 
or five days which we were able to watch them they underwent no change. In tha 
specimen of Wolle, above mentioned, similar bodies are found, but Nordstedt thinks 
it probable that they belong to a species different from V. Tkuretii. He is led to this 
conclusion apparently from the fact that the filaments bearing the non-sexual spores 
are rather smaller than those which bear the oospores and antheridia. In the Wood's 
Holl specimens the filaments were, as a rule, somewhat smaller than those bearing 
the oospores ; but the difference is very slight, and one sometimes finds oosporiferous 
filaments measuring only .03 nim in diameter, while the non-sexual spore-bearing fila- 
ments average from .04-5 mm in diameter. In one case we found an antheridium on the 
non-sexual spore-bearing filament, which resembled precisely the antheridia of V. 
Thuretii. Wo conclude then that the non-sexual spores probably belong to the present 
species, but the question requires further examination. A specimen of what appears 
to be the same species exists in the collection of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory. It was collected by Prof. J. W. Bailey from some locality near New York, and 
is labelled, in his own handwriting, V. velutina. 

V. litorea, Nordstedt (Ag., Spec. Alg., p. 463. — V. clavata, Lyngb., 
Hydrophyt. Dan., p. 78, PI. 21 d.— V. litorea, Nordstedt, in Botan. No- 
tiser., 1879, p. 180, PI. 2, Figs. 1-6.— V. piloboloides, Farlow, List of 
Marine Algae, 1876.) 

Dioecious ; filaments densely tufted, rather rigid, .10 mm in diameter ; 
antheridia? j oogonia club-shaped, borne on a short sterile cell at the tips 
of short recurved branches, .20 mm broad by about .35 ram long ; oospores 
filling the upper part of oogonium, spheroidal, .18-19 mm broad by .23- 
25 mra long; cell- wall dense, .02 mra in thickness; non-sexual spores? 

At low-water mark in the gravel. 

Parker's Point, Wood's Holl, Mass.; Europe. 

We refer to the present species a Vaucheria much coarser than the species last 
described, which forms rather bristly tufts of a dingy green, from two to four inches 
high, in gravelly places. Only one specimen, collected in August, 187G, was in fruit, 



106 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

and at the time, as there were no antheridia, we hastily inferred that the spores were 
non-sexual. It now seems prohable that the plant is the V. litorea of Nordstedt, 1. c.» 
a dioecious species. The species was common at Wood's Holl in August, 1879, but con- 
stantly sterile. The antheridia of V. Utorea, Nordstedt, are long and cylindrical and 
borne on a short sterile cell at the tips of the branches. The antherozoids are discharged 
by openings at the apes and sides of the antheridium. Our plant will be easily recog- 
aized by its habit and the recurved branches bearing the oogonia. 

Order IV. FLORIDE^J. 

Algae of a red or purple color ; antheridia containing spherical, hya- 
line antherozoids, which are without cilia ; sexual fruit or cystocarps 
developed from a procarp, which consists of a trichogyne, at whose base 
is a trichophore, the spores formed either from the trichophore or the ad- 
jacent cells which compose the carpogenic system ; spores at maturity 
either naked or inclosed in a pericarp; non-sexual reproduction by 
tetraspores, bispores, and seirospores ; fronds filamentous, crustaceous, 
membranaceous, or irregularly expanded, varying from gelatinous to 
cartilaginous in substance, occasionally calcareous. Principally marine. 

The Floridece, which are the same as the Bhodospermece of Harvey, include a large 
number of species, all of which have some shade of red, although it may be nearly 
black on the one hand or approach shades of green on the other. In decay, however, 
the color becomes orange and finally green. It is not to be inferred, however, that 
all red algoe belong to the Floridece. There are a few Cyanophycece in which the color 
is pink, but in these species the frond is merely an agglomeration of red cells, each of 
which is practically a distinct individual, whereas in the Floridece the cells are organ- 
ically united, and constitute a single plant. The structure of the frond in this order 
varies in the different genera, and we have forms which correspond closely to the 
fronds of the Phceosporew, as, for instance, in Nemalion we have a frond which, apart 
from its color, is undistinguishable from that of Mesogloia, and so on. The non-sexual 
reproduction is by tetraspores, cells which divide into four parts — rarely by bispores 
or two-parted cells — and seirospores, or chains of oblong cells formed directly from the 
branches. The sexual fruit, known as the cystocarp, is developed from a procarp, as 
has already been explained. The division into suborders is founded principally on 
the diiferences in the cystocarp ic fruit, the full development of which is not known ia. 
many cases. Differences in the fronds and tetraspores serve to mark the genera. 
Agardh and Harvey divide the Floridece into two series — the Desmiospermece, in which 
the spores are arranged in a definite series with regard to a placenta or common point 
of attachment, and Gongylospermece, where the spores are heaped together without 
order. A study of the development, however, shows that this distinction has not the 
value which it was formerly supposed to have, and certain suborders with differently 
arranged spores are by those who lay stress upon the development placed in proxim- 
ity to others in which the spores are irregularly grouped. Although, owing to mod- 
ern researches, we know much more about the real nature of the cystocarps than was 
known a few years ago, it must be admitted that the suborders of Floridece are far 
from satisfactory. As a matter of fact, the order is a very natural one, and, as is the 
case with most natural orders, the species and genera pass so gradually into one an- 
other that sharply marked divisions are out of the question. At the base of the order 
is a small number of genera whose position is doubtful, owing to our lack of informa- 
tion about the fructification. Then come the Porphyrece, in which we have fronds of 
a single layer of cells (Porphyra) and certain cells grow out so as to form a very short 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 107 

trichogyne. After fertilization, the contents of the cell at the base of the trichogyne 
divide, quadrant fashion, and we have a number of spores produced at once from the 
original cell. In Nemalion the trichophore, or swollen base of the trichogyne, divides, 
and the divisions grow out laterally and form short filaments, each cell of which becomes 
a spore, so that at maturity the cystocarpic fruit consists of a dense tuft of radiating, 
moniliform filaments. In the Ceramiece we have favellw, or cystocarps, in which the 
carpogenic cells bud out and produce several lobes, each of which divides into a num- 
ber of very short filaments, which do not separate from one another, but remain ad- 
herent. The cells of the filaments are changed into spores, which form irregular 
groups, but are still held together by the mass of jelly which surrounds them. In the 
more highly developed suborders the spores either radiate in filaments from a sort of 
placenta which is produced from the carpogenic cells or else are terminal on short 
stalks. The pericarps are special sacks or conceptacles, inclosing the spores and 
developed from the cells below the procarp, or we may have the cystocarps borne in 
the interior of solid fronds, whose external portion may then be said to form a pericarp 
around them. It will be seen that the structure of the Ftoridece is more complicated 
than that of the other orders of algse, and the student cannot expect to obtain a clear 
idea of the different suborders without considerable study. The following key will aid 
somewhat, and the reader should consult, the plates appended to this paper : 

1. Spores formed in the cells of the frond itself Porphyrece. 

2. Spores (cystocarps) not formed directly from the cells of the frond, 

but from a special procarp 3 

3. Spores without a special covering or pericarp 4 

Spores with a special covering 10 

4. Spores naked •. 5 

Spores immersed in the frond , 7 

Spores immersed in external warts 6 

5. Spores free on the surface of a lobulated mass Spermothamniece. 

Spores irregularly grouped in masses which are surrounded by a 

gelatinous envelope Ceramiece. 

6. Fronds erect, cylindrical . . . , Spongiocarpece. 

Fronds horizontally expanded Squamariece. 

7. Spores arranged in dense tufts of radiating moniliform fila- 

ments Nemaliece. 

Spores on an axile placenta in swollen branches Gelidiecc. 

Spores in numerous radiating tufts around a central placenta or 

carpogenic cell Solieriece. 

Spores arranged without order 8 

8. Spores forming a single mass or nucleus and entirety buried in the 

frond 9 

Spores in several masses, separated by the tissue of the internal part of 
the frond and rising in swellings above the surface. . . Gigartineev. 

9. Fronds hollow and tubular Dumontiece. 

Fronds solid Cryptonemiew. 

10. Spores arranged without regular order 11 

Spores iu small, scattered tufts, borne on branching filaments — 

Eypnece. 
Spores in radiating moniliform filaments 12 



108 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Spores pyriform, on simple or branching stalks from a basal pla. 
centa 13 

11. Wall of the conceptacle thin, composed of the divisions of an in- 

volucre united by jelly Spyridiece. 

Wall of conceptacle thick, sporiferous masses arranged around a 
placenta Bhodymenieas. 

12. Filaments arising from a single cell at the base of a thin membrana- 

ceous conceptacle which is sunk in the frond. . . Scinaia (N~emaliece). 
Filaments arising from a distinct basal placenta, conceptacles ex- 
ternal ftpkcerococcoidece. 

13. Fronds coated with a calcareous incrustation Corallinece. 

Fronds without incrustation «. Ehodomelece. 



FLOKIDE.E INCERT^E SEDIS. 

TRENTEPOHLIA, (Ag.) Prings. 
(Named in honor of Johann Friederich Trentepohl, of Oldenburg.) 

Fronds arising from a cellular base, filamentous, branching, composed 
of short cells placed end to end, branches ending in a hair ; spores single, 
borne in oval cells terminating lateral branches ; antheridia and tetra- 
spores unknown. 

A genus which in the present paper comprises a number of small marine species 
placed by some writers in Callithamnion and by others in Chantransia. In the Nereis 
Am. Bor., Harvey placed T. Daviesii and T. virgatula in Callithamnion. But cystocarps 
and antheridia are wanting, and according to Thuret and Bornet, Areschoug, and 
Pringsheiin, the sj)ores are undivided, although, on the other hand, Agardh and Harvey 
state that they are tripartite tetraspores. We have never seen any indication of divis- 
ion in American specimens. The genus Chantransia as limited by Thuret included not 
only marine species, but a number of fresh-water forms. Sirodot, however, in his fitude 
sur la Famille des L6man6acees, Annales des Sciences, 5th Series, Vol. XVI, has shown 
that at least some of the fresh- water species of Chantransia are nothing but the initial 
stage of different species of Lemanece. On the other hand, Chantransia investiens, Lenor., 
a minute fresh-water alga which grows on different species of Batracliospermum, and 
which is made the type of the genus Balbiania by Sirodot, has distinct antheridia, 
trichogynes, and cystocarps, and this is also the case with the marine species C. corym- 
hifera described by Bornet and Thuret in Notes Algologiques. The species of Chantransia, 
then, may be divided into two sets. In the first, including C. investiens of fresh water 
and the marine C. corymbifera, we have autonomous species related to Callithamnion, 
and differing in the simpler procarp and cystocarp and in the undivided non-sexual 
spores. In the second set we have the numerous fresh-water Chantransia, in which 
there are no cystocarps, in which the species are not autonomous, but merely prothalloid 
stages of other species. 

The question remains as to the relations of the marine Chantransiae in which no 
cystocarps nor antheridia have been found. Judging from analogy, if they are 
initial stages of other plants, those plants must be members of the Nemalieas. But 
the habitat seems to forbid such an assumption, since the marine Chantransice abound 
on Zostera, Iihodymenia, and other alga} on which certainly no species of Nemalion or 
other related genera occur on our coast. We have thought best, in the absence of 
direct information with regard to cystocarps and antheridia in the species here included, 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 109 

to retain the name Trentepohlia which was once adopted by Harvey, and at a later 
date also by Pringsheim, since it sufficiently indicates that the species in question 
should be kept distinct from Callithamnion , and at the same time does not assume the 
existence of cystocarps like those described by Thuret and Bornet in C. corymbifera. 

T. virgatula, ( Harv.). {Callithamnion virgatulum, Harv., Phyc. Brit., 
PL 313 j Xer. Am. Bor., Part II, p. 243.) PI. X, Fig. 3. 

Fronds minute, tufted, branches erect, straight, alternate or secund ; 
spores sessile or on short stalks, borne either singly or in twos and 
threes along the branches. 

Var. secundatA. (Callithamnion luxurians, STer. Am. Bor. — C. secun- 
datum, Lyngb.) 

Branches patent, with attenuated, naked, secund, secondary branches. 

On Ceraminm, Laminaria stems, and other algae. The variety espe- 
cially on Zostera. 

Common in Long Island Sound ; Gloucester, Mass. ; Peak's Island, 
Maine. 

A common species found in summer on different algse. On the filamentous species 
it forms small tufts, and on Zostera it fringes the margins of the leaves with a fine 
plush scarcely more than a quarter or half an inch high. The synonymy of the species 
is very complicated, it having been confused with the next by some writers. The 
variety is common on Zostera, and is usually found in American herbaria bearing the 
name of C. luxurians. There is little doubt that it is the C. luxurians of the Nereis Am. 
Bor., but whether it is the species described under that name by Agardh is doubtful. 

T. Daviesit, Harv. (Conferva Baviesii, Engl. Bot., PI. 2329. — Cal- 
lithamnion Daviesiij Phyc. Brit., PI. 314.) 

Fronds minute, tufted, branches scattered, patent, bearing in their 
axils fasciculated ramuli, at whose tips are borne the spores. 

On Rhodymcnia. 

Gloucester, Mass. 

The limits of the species are not well marked. The extreme form is found in C. 
efflorcscens, Thuret, kept as a distinct species by most writers, in which the branches 
are few, long, and given off at wide angles, and the spores borne in dense corymbs or 
heads in the axils. This form has been found on Cystoclonium purpurascens at Gay 
Head. 

Among the genera whoso relations to the Floridece must be considered doubtful are 
Choreocolax and Pseudoblaste, described by Reinsch in Contributiones ad. Algologiam et 
Fungologiam. Of the last-named gonus a single species, of tho former fivo species, are 
attributed to the eastern coast of America. Tho species of Choreocolax consist merely 
Of rose-eolored filaments, which are parasitic in tho fronds of different Florideai, upon 
tho surface of which they produce irregularly swollen masses, composed in part of the 
threads of tho Choreocolax and in part of the distorted tissues of the host-plant. The 
species of I'sviiilohlastc consist of aggregations of cells arranged in longitudinal series, 
which form hemispherical masses on the surface of different /•' loridrrp. In neither gen as 
is any form of reproduction known, and. for this reason, the descriptions of Reinsoh 

must be regarded as inadequate, Binoe it by do means follows that plants consisting of 

rose-colored lilauients belong to the Floridece. Ono often linds on our coast Floridece whose 



110 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OP FISH AND FISHERIES. 



Suborder PORPHYREvE. 

Fronds brownish purple, composed of cells imbedded in a gelatinous 
net-work, arranged in filaments or in membranes formed of a single 
layer of cells ; spores formed by the division of a mother-cell into eight 
cells, arranged by fours in two layers ; antherozoids spherical, color- 
less, destitute of proper motion, formed by division of a mother-cell into 
32-64 parts. 

The present suborder comprises the genera PorpTiyra and Bangia, and perhaps also 
Erythrotrichia and Goniotrichum. In Porpliyra the frond consists of a single layer of cells, 
of which those near the base send downwards root-like appendages, by means of which 
the fronds are attached to the substratum. The spores are formed at the marginal 
portion of the frond by the division of the vegetative cells, at first into two cells by a 
vertical partition, and the subsequent division of the two cells into four by cruciate 
partitions. Thus, when mature and seen from above, the eight spores seem to be 
arranged in two superimposed series of four. The spores escape by the dissolution of 
the outer part of the frond, leaving behind the empty gelatinous net-work. When 
free they are found to consist of protoplasm without a cellulose wall, and they move 
about for a short time with an amcBboid motion. The antherozoids are also formed 
by the division of the vegetative cells, but the division is carried farther than in the 
production of the spores, for, in add ition to the vertical and cruciate partitions de- 
scribed in the latter case, a second vertical and cruciate division takes place, so that 
the original vegetative cell is divided into 32-64 cells. Janczewski applies the name 
antheridium to the collective mass of antherozoids formed from a single vegetative cell. 
As the division takes place the antherozoids lose their color. When mature they are 
spherical and escape in a manner similar to that of the spores. Bornet and Janczewski 
state that the antherozoids are destitute of any proper motion, and we can confirm 

fronds are distorted by parasites, which produce deformities like those described by 
Reinsch as due to species of Choreocolax. Such distortions are perhaps most frequently 
found on Cystoclonium purpuraseens. In our present ignorance of the fructification, 
specific identification is out of the question, and, in this connection, it is only necessary 
to quote the generic descriptions of Reinsch, 1. c, with an enumeration of the species 
attributed to our coast : 

CHOREOCOLAX. True vegetable parasites; fronds consisting of two portions, one 
of which extends through the tissue of the infected plant, the other of which swells 
above the surface of the infected plant, forming a convex mass, which is hemispherical 
or spherical, semi-ellipsoidal or irregular in outline ; the cells which are contained in 
the infected plant either more slender than the others or of the same shape, cells of ex- 
ternal portion equal or unequal, arranged without order in densely intricate subramose 
threads, terminal cells sometimes longer and more slender ; fructification ? ; polysporan- 
gia? 

C. Rabenhorsti. On Delesseria sinuosa, Anticosti ; Gloucester, Mass. 

C. polysiphonle. On P. fasligiata, Atlantic shore of North America. 

C. mirabilis. On Bhodomela subfusca, Atlantic sbore of North America. 

C. Americanus. On Lophura Boyana, &c, Atlantic shore of North America. 

C. tumldus. On Ceramium involutum, West Gloucester, Mass. 

PSEUDOBLASTE. False vegetable parasites ; frond convex, more or less regular in 
outline, formed of similarly shaped cells, generally arranged in longitudinal series, 
arising from a densely appressed base (the cells without any organic connection with 
the cells of the infected plant) ; propagation ? 

P. irregularis. On Lophura Boyana, Atlantic coast of North America. 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. Ill 

this statement by our own observations, although Koschtsug maintains the contrary. 
The genus Bangia, except that the cells composing the frond are arranged in cylindri- 
cal filaments instead of expanded membranes, differs in no essential respect from Por- 
phyra and the production of spores and antherozoids is the same. 

The development and structure of the species of this order have formed the subject of 
a number of important papers, viz : Porphyra laciniata, in Etudes Phycologiques, by Bor- 
net and Thuret; fitndes Anatomiquessur les Porphyra, by Janczewski, in Annalesdes Sci- 
ences, Ser. 5, Vol. XVII; and Ueberdie Geschlechtspflanzen von Bangia fusco- purpurea, in 
Pringsheim's Jahrbiicher, Vol. II. In the Nereis. Am. Bor., Harvey placed Porphyra 
and Bangia with the Ulvaceod, which they resemble in so far as they consist of simpls 
membranes and filaments some of whose cells change directly into spores. The sporee 
of the Porphyreoe, however, are motionless bodies, not zoospores as in the Ulvacece, and 
their color is not green, but brownish red. The systematic position of the order has 
been in doubt, because, although there were well-known spores and bodies to which 
the name of antheridia was applied, no one had succeeded in detecting trichogynes 
and procarps, which must necessarily exist if the Porphyreoe are to be classed with the 
Flor ideas. Dr. G. Berthold, however, has recently published in the Mittheilungen aus 
der zoologischen Station zu Neapel a communication in which he claims to have discov- 
ered trichogynes in species of Bangia and Porphyra. According to him, the cells pro- 
duce short trichogynes to which the antherozoids adhere, and as a result the contents 
of the cell divide and produce the spores at once. In other words, the Porphyreoe are 
the simplest of the Floridece; a vegetative cell produces a trichogyne and is itself the 
carpogenic cell from which the spores are formed. Dr. Berthold goes further and says 
that some of the spores are nonsexual and are true tetraspores, but his article is not 
accompanied by illustrations. Bornet, to a certain extent following Cohn, suggests a 
possible connection of the Floridece with the Phycochromacece by means of the Porphy- 
rece. Admitting that Erythrotrichia and Goniotrichum are related to Porphyra and 
Bangia, wo have in Goniotrichum algse composed of rose-colored discoid al cells packed 
'in a thick gelatinous tube, from which they escape much as in some of the Phycochrom- 
acece. 

POKPHYKA, Ag. 

(From nopyvpa, a purple dye.) 

Fronds gelatinous, membranaceous, composed of a single layer of 
brownish-red cells, those near the base sending out root-like processes ; 
spores borne near the margin of frond, eight arising from a single mother- 
cell ; antheridia marginal, consisting of 32-04 spherical, colorless an- 
therozoids. . 

A small genus, the species of which are characterized by the relative position of the 
spores and antheridia and by the shape of the frond. Most of the species have been 
founded on variations in the outline of the frond, and recent writers agree in uniting 
many of the species of the older algologists. 

P. laciniata, Ag.— Laver. (P. linearis, Grew; Phyc. Brit., PI. 211, 
Tig. 2. — P. vulgaris, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 211, Fig. 1. — P. laciniata, 
Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 92 ; Etudes Phycol., PI. 31.) 

Fronds three inches to a foot and a half long, persistent throughout 
the year, color livid purple, substance gelatinous but firm, at first 
linear, but becoming widely expanded and finally much lobed and 
laciniate j antheridia and spores forming a marginal zone, usually borne 



112 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

on different individuals, or when borne on the same individual not inter- 
mixed, but on separate portions of the frond. 

Common on stones near low- water mark. 

Found in all parts of the world. 

This common species abounds on rather smooth stones and pebbles, and when the 
tide falls covers them with slimy films, which make walking over them difficult. 
The shape of the fronds is very variable, but as generally found they are much folded 
and laciniate. The species is used for making soups in Europe, but is not used in this 
country, except by the Chinese, who import it from China, not knowing that it occurs 
abundantly on our own coast. P. leucosticta probably occurs in New England, but haa 
not yet certainly been observed. It is a spring species, softer and brighter colored 
than P. laciniata, and the antheridia and spores are found on the same individual, 
forming spots within the margin rather than a marginal zone. 

BANGIA, Lyngb. 

(Named in honor of Niels Hofmann Bang, of Copenhagen. ) 

Fronds gelatinous, simple, filamentous, cylindrical, densely tufted, 

composed below of a single row of cells, which, by repeated vertical 

division, become densely cellular above; antheridia and spores formed 

by transformation of the cells of the upper part of the filaments. 

A small genus, of which most of the species are marine, but some are found in fresh 
water. The species are not well characterized, for the differences in the length of the 
filaments, color, and number of cells seen in cross-section, marks upon which most 
writers have relied, depend to a great extent upon the age of the plant and its place 
of growth. 

B. fusco-purpurea, Lyngb.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 96; Eeinke, 1. c, 
Pis. 12, 13. 

Filaments blackish purple, two to six inches long, clustered in dense 
masses, lubricous ; antheridia and spores usually on different individ- 
uals. 

On wharves and rocks between tide-marks. 

Rather common along the whole coast. 

Easily recognized by the fine, soft, dark-purple filaments, which cover rocks and 
wood work in patches of considerable size with a dense gelatinous fleece. Although 
found on wharves in sheltered localities, it also occurs on rocks exposed to the waves. 

EKYTHKOTKICHIA, Aresch. 

(From epv&Qog, red, and rpixiov, a small hair.) 

Fronds rose-colored, simple, filamentous, composed of a single row of 
similar cells placed end to end ; cell contents discharged in a spherical 
mass, which forms a spore. 

A small genus, whose principal representative, E. ceramicola, is by many writers 
placed in Bangia. As we understand the genus, it differs from Bangia in that there 
are no antheridia or tetraspores, the reproduction being accomplished by the discharge 
of the cell contents in a single mass or spore. If Bangia ciliaris of the Nereis, which 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 113 

occurs at Charleston but is Dot known farther north, is also to be included in the 
present genus, then the definition given above will have to be modified so as to include 
plants having more than one row of cells, an extension of the genus apparently 
adopted by Thuret, but not originally adopted by Areschoug. 

E. ceramicola, (Lyngb.) Aresch. (Bangia ceramicola, Chauvin; 
Phyc. Brit., PL 317. — E. ceramicola, Le Jobs, Liste des Algues Marines 
de Cherbourg, PL 3, Figs. 1, 2.) 

Filaments diffuse, forming a web or fringe on algae, cells about as long 
as broad. 

On alga?, especially the smaller Floridew, in tide-pools. Late summer 
and autumn. 

Gloucester, Mass., Mrs. Davis, Mrs. Cochrane ; Peak's Island, Maine, 
W. G. F; Europe. 

In examining with the microscope the filamentous Floridece one often meets with a 
few filaments of this species. It is not, however, common to find it in such abundance 
on the shore as to attract the eye of the collector who is not especially in search of it. 
It attains its full size in the month of September. 

! GOKIOTEICHUM, Kiitz. 

(From yuvta, an angle, and rpixiov, a small hair.) 

Fronds filamentous, branching, composed of rose-colored, disk-shaped 
cells, embedded in jelly. 

A genus composed of only two or three species. Kiitzing describes two species, but 
his limitation of them is not now kept by algologists. Zanardini describes and figures 
a G. ccerulescens, which is not red in any sense. The systematic position of the genus 
is very doubtful, and were it not for the color of the cells, G. elegans would probably 
be placed iu the Xostochinece. The only reproduction known consists in the escape of 
the cells from the gelatinous sheath and a division into two new cells, then into four, 
. and so on until a new filament is formed. 

G. elegans, Zanard. (Bangia elegans, Cnauv. ; Phyc. Brit., PL 246.) 

Filaments about .02 mm in diameter j cells cuboidal or ovate, about 

.009-10™ in diameter. 

On Ihtsya elegans. 

Cotuit Port, Mass., Mrs. J. T. Luslc ; Europe. 

A small and rare plant, growing in tufts scarcely a tenth of an inch high. We have 
only one American specimen, collected by Mrs. Lusk, of Gloucester. Tho locality was 
incorrectly given in the List of the Marine Algae of the United States, Proc. Am. 
Acad., 1875, the specimen not having been found by Mrs. Lusk at Gloucester, but at 
Cotuit, Mass. 

Suborder SQUAMARIE^. 

Fronds forming horizontally expanded crusts, usually membrana- 
ceous, occasionally somewhat incrusted with lime, composed of closely 
packed vertical filaments arising from a horizontal stratum of cells • 

fructification either in external protuberances composed of parallel lila- 
S. Miss. 59 8 



114 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

ments or immersed in the frond : antherozoids formed from the cells of 
the protuberances or the superficial cells of the frond ; cystocarps com- 
posed of few spores arranged end to end in a few rows, or in filaments 
which branch slightly ; tetraspores zonate or cruciate, stalked or 
attached laterally to the filaments of the frond or protuberances. 

A small order, more abundant in tropical seas than on our coast, comprising species 
which in habit resemble lichens rather than algse. A few species, as Peyssonnelia 
squamaria and P. australis, attain a considerable size, and are distinctly foliaceous. 
The greater part of the species, however, form closely adherent crusts, which are 
sometimes more or less gelatinous and sometimes slightly calcareous. The structure 
of the fronds is simple. From a horizontal base, composed of a single layer or a few 
layers of cells, arise vertical filaments, which in some genera are densely united so as 
to form a parenchymatous frond, or in others are only slightly held together by a 
gelatinous intercellular substance. The fructification is found either in external 
raised spots or sitok in the frond. The antheridia are either formed .directly from 
the cells of the filaments which constitute the protuberances or from the external 
cells of the fronds themselves. The tetraspores are either cruciate or zonate, and 
their position constitutes an important generic mark. The development of the sys- 
tocarps is known in only a few species. In Peyssonnelia, according to Dr. Bornet, 
the procarp is formed from the cells of the filaments, which form the protuberances. 
The upper cell elongates and forms the trichogyne, and the fertilization consists 
merely in the change of the cells of the procarp into spores, thus constituting a very 
simple form of cystocarp, to which Zanardini has given the name of cystidie. Ac- 
cording to Prof. Fr. Schmitz, in Cruoriopsis cruciata, Dufour, there are winding fila- 
ments like those described by Thuret and Bornet in Dudresnaya. We have but few 
Squamariece on our coast, and the study of the suborder cannot easily be pursued 
^witli us. 

PEYSSONNELIA, Decaisne. 

(Named in honor of J. A. Peyssonnel.) 

Fronds horizontally expanded, attached by the under surface ; sub- 
stance parenchymatous throughout ; fructification in external convex 
protuberances (nemathecia) composed of slender parallel filaments, on 
which are borne the antheridia, cystocarps, and tetraspores ; anthero- 
zoids produced in all the cells of the nemathecial filaments ; tetraspores 
cruciate, oblong, sessile or shortly stalked ; cystocarps composed of few 
spores, placed one over another in one or two rows or in short, branch- 
ing filaments. 

A small genus, comprising probably not more than, twelve or fifteen good species. 
P. squamaria, common in Southern Europe, is not known with us. It may be that 
several of the species described by Crouan in the Annales des Sciences and the Florule 
du Finistere occur with us ; but it must be confessed that from the description given 
by Crouan it would be by no means an easy matter to recognize them. Those who 
have, an opportunity for dredging on shelly bottoms at localities like Gay Head, Block 
Island, Montauk, or Eastport should make a careful search for species of the present 
genus. 



THE MARINE ALG2E OF NEW ENGLAND. 115 

P. Ditbyi, Crouan; Phyc. Brit., PL 71 • Morale dii Finistere, PL 19, 
Fig. 130; Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sciences, 1877, p. 239. 

Fronds dark purple, thin, completely adherent to the substratum, 
somewhat calcareous beneath ; cystocarpie spores few in number (4-6), 
arranged in one or two rows. 

I On shells and stones at low-water mark and in deep water. 
Eastport, Maine ; Magnolia, Mass. ; Europe $ California. 
As yet only found in a sterile condition, apparently not common. The species 
might possibly be mistaken for Petrocelis cruenta at first sight. It is, however, more 
decidedly reddish and thicker. Under the microscope the structure of the frond is 
seen to be parenchymatous throughout, while in Petrocelis the vertical filaments are 
nearly free from one another. P. imbricata, Ktitz., Tab. Phyc., PI. 90, from Newfound- 
land, is a doubtful species, which is not likely to be recognized by future botanists. 

PETROCELIS, J. Ag. 

(From TveTpog; a stone, and ktjmz, a stain.) 
Fronds gelatino-coriaceous, horizontally expanded, indefinite in out- 
line, adhering closely to the substratum, vertical filaments united below, 
but above rather loosely held together by a gelatinous substance ; 
antheridia and cystocarps unknown; tetraspores spherical, cruciate, 
formed directly from some of the cells of the vertical filaments. 

A genus represented by a single species, which is widely diffused in the North At- 
lantic. At once recognized by the peculiar position of the cruciate tetraspores, which 
are in the continuity of the vertical filaments. There is usually only a single tetra- 
8pore in each filament, but Ruprecht, in Phycologia Ochotensis, figures a form in which 
several contiguous cells are transformed into tetraspores. 

P. cruenta, J. Ag. (Gruoria pellita, Harv., in Phyc. Brit., PI. 117, 
non C. pellita, Lyngb.) PL 14, fig. 1. 

Covering rocks and stones near low-water mark with a dark purple, 
velvety stain. 
' Common from Nahant northward; Europe. 

The present species often accompanies Hildeiibrandtia rosea, from which it is dis- 
tinguished at sight by its darker color and velvety gloss when moist, It is also de- 
cidedly thicker aud more easily scraped from the rocks. The species is not yet known 
south of Cape Cod, but may be expected. The fronds of the present species are 
infested by a green unicellular parasite, which is frequently seen in the shape of ovoid 
sacks, drawn out at the lower end into a slender stalk amongst the vertical filaments. 
It is, in all probability, the parasite mentioned by Cohn, in Ueber einige Algen von 
Helgoland, as occurring in Cruoria pellita, to which, as far as we know, no name has 
as yet been given. 

HILDENBRASTDTIA, Xardo. 

(Named in honor of Prof. Franz Edlcr Hildenbrandt, of Vienna.) 

Fronds crustaceous, without calcareous deposit, forming thin, reddish, 
horizontal expansions of indefinite extent, composed of cuboidal cells 
arranged in vertical lines and arising from a horizontal basal layer ; 



116 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

tetraspores lining the walls of immersed conceptacles, zonate, cruciate, 

or irregularly placed ; cystocarps unknown. 

A small genus, comprising half a dozen species, which form thin crusts on rocks and 
stones both in salt and fresh water. The systematic position of the genus is doubtful, 
and must remain so until the cystocarps are kDown. Since the tetraspores are borne 
in special conceptacles, the genus has been placed by some writers with the Coral- 
lines, although the species are not strictly calcareous. By others it is placed with 
the Squamariece. Antheridia are only known in H. rivularis, where they are said by 
Borzi to be long cylindrical cells formed from the superficial cells of the thallus, each 
cell containing a number of spherical antherozoids arranged one above another. 

H. rosea, Kiitz. (R. rubra, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 250 ; Farlow, in 
Eeport of U. S. Fish Comm. for 1871.) 

Fronds thin, closely adherent to the substratum, cells of nearly the 
same size in all parts of the frond ; conceptacles numerous, completely 
immersed, spherical ; tetraspores either zonate or irregularly divided, 
lining the walls of the conceptacles and mixed with filiform, slender 
paraphyses. 

On stones and rocks near low- water mark. 

Everywhere common. 

One of our commonest species, which forms continuous thin crusts, often of consid- 
erable extent, tinging the rocks with a pinkish or somewhat brownish color; not 
easily mistaken for any other alga on our coast, except possibly young forms of 
Petrocelis, which is, however, thicker, more velvety in appearance, and darker in color. 

Suborder NEMALIE^. 

(Helminthocladieae, Agardh & Harvey.) 

Fronds more or less gelatinous or occasionally coated with a calca- 
reous deposit, filamentous, branching, formed of an axial portion com- 
posed of elongated longitudinal filaments, which give off short, corym- 
bose, horizontal branches, which constitute the cortical portion; anthe- 
ridia in tufts on the superficial cells ; cystocarps immersed in the frond, 
borne on the peripheral filaments, composed of densely packed chains 
of spores radiating from a central cell, either without any proper enve- 
lope, or with a filamentous involucre or surrounded by a proper mem- 
branous pericarp ; tetraspores ? 

A comparatively small suborder, comprising species whose fronds, except in color, 
resemble the fronds of the Chordariece in the Phceosporece, since they consist of an axis 
composed of longitudinal filaments and a cortex of short, much-branched horizontal 
filaments. All our species are soft and somewhat gelatinous, but the species of Lia- 
gora, which abound in the tropics and are found in Southern Europe and in this 
country in Florida and California, have a more or less distinct coating of carbonate 
of lime. The procarps and cystocarps in this suborder are very simple. There are a few 
species belonging to the genus Batrachospermum which occur in fresh water. In that 
genus the formation of the cystocarps is very simple. The trichogyne and trichopore 
are represented by a single large cell, constircted near the base. After fertilization 
the chains of spores are formed directly from the part below the constriction. la 



MARINE ALG.E OF # NEW ENGLAND. 117 

Nemalion theprocarp consists of a short branch composed of a few cells, the upper of 
which enlarges and bears a hair-like trichogyne. The fruit in Nemalion has no special 
covering, but in Relminthora and Helminthocladia the lower cells of the procarp pro- 
duce whorls of filaments which form an involucre around the spores, and in Scinaia 
they produce a membranous sack which opens at the apex, so that when ripe the fruit 
consists of a conceptacle opening outwards, at whose base is borne a tuft of spores 
arranged in filaments. With regard to the tetraspores in the present suborder, a dif- 
ference of opinion exists. Contrary to what is found in other Floridece, the cysto- 
barpic individuals are common, whereas tetrasporic individuals are unknown except 
in Nemalion, in which genus, on the authority of Agardh, they are borne in the super- 
ficial cells and are tripartite. 

NEMALION, Duby. 

(From vpa, a thread.) 
Fronds gelatinous, cylindrical, solid, repeatedly dicbotonious, cortical 
filaments corymbose, giving off descending branches, which unite with 
the axial filaments; antheridiain tufts on the superficial cells; procarps 
borne at the base of the corymbose branches, consisting of few cells ; 
cystocarps immersed, without special covering, sporiferous filaments 
radiating from the trichophore ; "tetraspores tripartite in the superfi- 
cial" cells. (Agardh.) 

A small genus, comprising seven or eight species, only one of which, JV. multifidum, is 
"widely diffused. 

N. multifidum, Ag., Phyc. Brit., PI. 36. (Mesogloia multifida, Ag., 
Syst.) PL 12, Fig. 1. 

Fronds brownish purple, lubricous, two to eight inches long, cylindri- 
cal, several times dichotomous, axils obtuse. 

On exposed rocks at low- water mark. Summer. 

From Watch Hill, R. I., northward; Europe. 

Not uncommon on rocks exposed to the action of the waves. Commonly found with 
cystocarps, but no tetraspores have been seen on American specimens. In the Nereis 
the species is said to have been collected at Bangor, Maine, by Mr. Hooper. This 
must be an error, however, since Bangor is on the Penobscot River, above the limit of 
Bait water. Specimens of the present species are so gelatinous as to dry with diffi- 
culty. They should be exposed in the air for two or three hours before pressing. 

SCINAIA^ Bivona. 

(In honor of Domenico Scina, of Palermo.) 

Fronds subgelatinous, dichotomous, cylindrical or compressed, axis 
small, composed of slender colorless filaments, horizontal filaments end- 
ing in short corymbs of small, round, colored cells, the centers of all the 
corymbs bearing large, colorless, cylindrical cells, which by their juxta- 
position form an epidermis over the whole frond ; antheridia in small 
tufts on the superficial cells; cystocarps borne just below the cortical 
layer, consisting of membranous sacks opening externally, with a tuft 
of spore-bearing filaments attached to the base ; tetraspores unknown. 



118 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

A small genus, containing at the most only four or five species, of which S. furcel- 
lata is widely distributed. The genus is unmistakable on microscopic examination by 
the slender axis and large colorless cylindrical cells which cover the surface of the 
fronds, and by the peculiar cystocarps which are visible to the naked eye as dark red 
grains just under the surface. The species should be studied from living or alcoholic 
specimens, since, owiug to the delicate substance, pressed specimens are badly dis- 
torted. 

S. furcellata, Bivona. (Ginannia furcellata, Mont.; Pliyc. Brit., 
PI. 69. — 8. furcellata, Notes Algologiques, PL 6.) 

Fronds solitary or clustered, cylindrical, rising from a disk-like base, 
several times dichotomous, divisions regular, apices obtuse. 

On stones and shells in five to ten fathoms. 

Newport, E. I., Bailey ; Gay Head, Mass., W. O. F. 

A rare species with us, but widely distributed throughout the world, being found in 
most warm seas. In size and regularity of its dichotomous branching it resembles 
Poli/ides rotundas, but is much more delicate in substauce and brighter colored. With 
us it is only known at a considerable depth and in rather cold waters, but in the Med- 
iterranean it is frequent in warm shallow waters. It is not uncommon on shells of 
Mytilus near the Devil's Bridge, Vineyard Sound, Mass., and is found washed ashore 
in the neighboring beach of Gay Head. The Californian form of what is supposed to 
be the same species is much more robust, and the var. undulaa, which Montagne con- 
sidered a distinctspecies, is somewhat compresed and constricted at intervals. When 
pressed the specimens are quite flat and the axis is plainly seen, giving the appearance 
of a membranous frond with a midrib. 

Suborder SPERMOTHAMNIE^. 

Fronds filamentous, monosiphonous, branching; antheridia tufted; 
cystocarps involucrate, spores borne free on the surface of a lobulated 
mass produced by the carpogenic cells. 

In this suborder we would place Spermothamnion and Bornetia, separated from Cal- 
lithamnion and Griffitlisia, respectively, in consequence of the spores being borne free. 

SPERMOTHAMNION, Aresch. 

(From G7rep/ua, a seed, and da/uviov, a small bush.) 

Fronds tufted, composed of procumbent monosiphonous filaments 
attached to the substratum by disk-shaped cells and vertical branching 
filaments ; antheridia sessile on the inner side of the branches, composed 
of oval or cylindrical masses of small cells ; cystocarps terminal on the 
branches, surrounded by an involucre of short incurved branchlets, spores 
free from one another and not surrounded by a gelatinous envelope ; 
tetraspores tripartite, single or aggregated, borne on the inner side of 
the branchlets. 

A small genus, comprising, as far as known, less than half a dozen species, separated 
from CalUthamnion because the spores at maturity are borne free on the surface of a 
lobulated mass which arises from the development of the carpogenic cells, and not, as 



MARINE ALGiE OF ( NEW ENGLAND. 119 

in Callithamnion, held together by a gelatinous envelope. The trieliophoric apparatus 
and the early stagesof the development of the eystoearps, however, scarcely differ in the 
two genera. The species of Spermothamnion have been considered related to Wranaclia, 
but if we are to regard JT. penMllata as the type of the last-named genus, as has been 
done by Thuret aud Boruetin Notes Algologiques, the resemblance is not close. In spite 
of the fact that the fruit of Spermothamnion is not a true favella, there is little doubt 
that the genus should be placed in the Cerami&B, near Callithamnion. The development 
of the genus has been very thoroughly studied and has formed the subject of several 
admirable papers, among whieh may be mentioned Pringsheim's account of S. roseolum, 
in his Beitriige zur Morphologie der Meeres-Algen ; NiBgeli on £. Turneri and hermaphro- 
ditum,iu Beitriige zur Morphologie and Systematik der Ceramiaceaj; and Thuret and 
Bornet on Spermothamnion Jlahellatum, in Notes Algologiques. 

S. Turneri, Arescli. (Callithamnion Turneri, Ag.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 
179; Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, p. 241.— S. roseolum, Pringsh., l. c . i— 
Herpothamnion Turneri, Nseg.) 

Fronds forming densely matted tufts, procumbent filaments brandl- 
ing, attached b}~ disk-like cells, vertical filaments one to three inches 
high, simple or slightly branching, naked below, pinnate above with 
opposite or sometimes alternate spreading pinnate branches, ultimate 
branches long and slender, often ending in a hair; antheridia ovate or 
cylindrical, sessile on the upper side of the branches ; eystoearps iiwolu- 
crate, terminal on the brandies; tetraspores tripartite, borne on the 
upper side of the rainuli, either solitary and pedicellate or clustered and 
sessile on short fastigiate branches. 

Var. variabile, Harv. 

Branches and branchlets alternate or secund. 

In very dense tufts on algse at low- water mark or in deep water. 

Common in Long Island Sound; var. variabile, Boston, Dr. Durkee. 

A species which is often found washed ashore in dense glohose tufts from our southern 
limit to Nantneket. At the latter locality it is often found in very large quantities 
washed from deep water by the surf on Siasconsett Beach. The filaments are delicate 
and of a pleasant lake color. North of Cape Cod the species is hardly known with cer- 
tainty. Specimens collected at Noank, Conn., have both tetraspores and young eysto- 
earps on the same individual, but we have never seen antheridia on American speci- 
mens. Our plant seems to be the same as that figured by Pringsheim under the name 
of S. roseolum, and also corresponds closely to the species of that name in Algie Scandi- 
navicaB, No. 83. It appears without doubt to be the C. Turneri of the Phycologia Bri- 
tannica and the Nereis, but we are unable to say whether it is the true C. roseolum of 
Agardh. 

Suborder CERAMIEiE. 

Fronds filamentous or compressed, either monosiphonous or with a 
more or less corticated monosiphonous axis ; antheridia in sessile tufts 
or patches or in a series of whorls ; eystoearps (favellae) composed of 
spores arranged without order and surrounded by a gelatinous envelope, 
naked or involucrate. 



120 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

A large order of filamentous algse, many of which are monosiphonous throughout, 
■while others are corticated either throughout or partially. The position of the anthe- 
ridia and tetraspores varies in the different species. The cystocarp is a favella, which 
is either naked or surrounded by an involucre arising from the cells below the carpo- 
genic cells. In cases where the frond consists of an axis with dense whorls of branches 
the favella} may be partly concealed but not really immersed in the frond. The order 
is tolerably distinct. The fronds resemble closely those of the Wrangeliece, and on 
the other hand the order passes gradually into the Cryptonemiece by the genera Gloiosi- 
phonia, Calosiphonia, and Nemastoma, in which the fruit is properly a favella, but is im- 
mersed in the comparatively dense outer portion of the frond instead of being free as 
in the Ceramiece. In fact, it is difficult to say in which suborder Gloiosiphonia should 
be placed. 

1. Tetraspores external, occupying the place of a branchlet or ultimate 

cell 3 

2. Tetraspores wholly or partly immersed, formed from the corticating 

cells t . 4 

3. Fronds filamentous, monosiphonous, or with a false cortex composed 

of descending filaments, favellse naked or with only a rudiment- 
ary involucre CaUithaminon. 

Fronds filamentous, monosiphonous, dichotomous, favellse involu- 
crate Griffithsia. 

Fronds filamentous, branches densely whorled on the axis, favellse 
involucrate Halurus. 

Fronds compressed, corticated, decompound-pinnate, favellse involu- 
crate Ptilota. 

4. Fronds filamentous, monosiphonous, cortications at the nodes and 

extending over the internodes Ceramium. 

CALLITHAMNION, Lyngb. 

(From KuXXog, beauty, and -Qanviov, a small shrub.) 

Fronds filamentous, branching, filaments either monosiphonous 
throughout or becoming corticated by the growth of descending, rhizoi- 
dal filaments ; antheridia forming hemispherical or ellipsoidal tufts on 
the branches ; cystocarps composed of irregular masses of roundish 
spores covered by a gelatinous envelope (favellse) ; tetraspores tripartite, 
cruciate, or polysporic ; seirospores present in some species. 

A large and beautiful genus, of which nearly 150 species have been described. Al- 
though tho genus has been divided into a number of smaller genera, the number of 
species still retained in Callithamnion proper is large. Naegeli, in his paper on the Mor- 
phology of the CeramiacesB, divides Callithamnion into a number of genera and sub- 
genera, but we have thought best to retain the genus in an extended sense, regarding 
Neegeli's division as subgenera. Spermothamnion, included by Naegeli in Herpothamnium, 
has been separated because the cystocarpic fruit is not strictly a favella as in Callitham- 
nion proper. Scirospora is still retained, although it is possible that it could safely be 
separated as a distinct genus. The frond in Callithamnion is composed, in the beginning, 
of rows of cells arranged in branching filaments. In the subgenus Rhodochorton, whose 
relative position is doubtful because the cystocarps have not yet been observed, there 
are procumbent ii laments, from which arise vertical branching filaments. In the other 



MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 121 

species of Callithamnion, as here understood, the procumbent filaments are wanting or 
imperfectly developed, and the erect filaments either remain throughout monosipho- 
nous, that is composed of single rows of cells, or become corticated by the growth of 
descending filaments, which proceed either from the base of the branches or from 
the cells of the main filaments. The false cortication formed by the interlacing of 
these filaments is precisely analogous to what is found in some species of Ectocarpus 
and related genera. The filaments in Callithamnion are either all indeterminate in 
growth, or else, as in the subgenus Antithamnion, they are of two kinds; the main fila- 
ments being indefinite and the branches definite, so that we have indefinitely elongating 
stems clothed with short, definite branches, or, to use the expression of Nsegeli, with 
leaves. The antheridia are generally in the form of short tufts of hyaline cells, situated 
on the upper branches. In the present genus it is not rare to find species in which 
antheridia, cystocarps, and tetraspores are borne on the same individuals, a union 
rarely to be seen in the Floridece. The cystocarps are often binate, which is easily 
understood if one considers the structure of the procarp, which is formed as follows : 
One of the cells of the young branches enlarges and is then divided by partitions par- 
allel to the length of the branch into a central or axial cell and a number of peripheral 
cells, generally four. One of the peripheral cells is then divided into an upper and 
one or more lower cells by a transverse partition, aud the upper cell then loses its color 
and grows upwards into a very long trichogyne. The antherozoids unite with the 
tip of the trichogyne, and the fertilizing influence is propagated through the tricho- 
gyne and the cells at its base to the two lateral peripheral cells, which then enlarge 
and divide on opposite sides of the axis and form eventually a bipartite favella. The 
tetraspores are either tripartite or cruciate. In the subgenus Seirospora there is a 
form of non-sexual spore known as seirospores, in which at the extremity of the 
branches are formed tufts comj)Osed of chains of oval bodies, each one of which is 
capable of germinating. 

As is apt to be the case in a large genus, the species of Callithamnion are not well 
defined. Certain groups of species are distinct, but writers are not agreed as to the 
limits of the species in each group. By some a great many species are allowed which 
others regard as mere varieties. On our coast C. Bailey i, C. byssoideum, C. corymbo- 
sum, and perhaps others might be indefinitely split up, but we have preferred to adopt 
the opposite view. Within certain limits collectors may be expected to make out our 
species of Callithamnion, but it must often happen that forms are found which cannot 
with certainty be referred to any of the described species. That such forms are, as a 
rule, new species cannot be accepted, but botanists having large sets of species of the 
present genus soon become very liberal in the interpretation of specific limitations. 

Subgenus RHODOCHORTON, Naeg. 

Fronds composed of procumbent filaments, from which arise vertical 
monopodia! filaments ; cortications wanting j tetraspores cruciate. 

C. Rothii, Lyngb. (Rhoclochorton Rothii, Nseg. — Thamnidium Rothii, 
Thuret, in Le Jolis's Liste des Algues Marines de Cherbourg, PL 5, 
Figs. 1-2.— G. Rothii, Phyc. Brit., PI. 120 b.) 

Fronds forming indefinite patches half an inch high, vertical filaments 
slender, naked below, bearing a few erect, appressed branches above, 
which become at the time of fructification congested and corymbose, 
bearing at their tips cruciate tetraspores ; antheridia and cystocarps 
unknown. 

Forming dense velvety patches on rocks between tide-marks. 



122 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 
Common from New York northward ; California ; Europe. 

A common species, especially frequenting the under surface of rocks and stones near 
low-water mark. It has not yet been found with us in fruit, but Californian speci- 
mens bear tetraspores. In Europe the time of fructification is the spring, and the 
species should be examined at that season on our own coast. Harvey states that the 
tetraspores are tripartite, but other writers — as Thuret, Agardh, and Ntegeli — agree 
in asserting that they are cruciate. In Californian specimens the formation of the 
tetraspores is somewhat irregular, and although in most cases the cruciate division is 
plain enough, in others it seems to be rather tripartite. 

Subgenus ANTITHAMNION, Thuret. 

Branches opposite or whorled, without cortication ; tetraspores cru- 
ciate. 

C. cruciatum, Ag. (Antirhamnion cruciatum, Nseg. — G. cruciatum, 
Phyc. Brit, PI. 164.) 

Fronds tufted, one or two inches high, main branches sparingly and 
irregularly branched, secondary branches short, borne in twos or fours 
just below the nodes, always regularly opposite, and when in twos the 
succeeding pairs at right angles to one another, below subdistant, at 
the apex densely approximate and corymbose, pinnate with erect, alter- 
nate, distichous branchlets; tetraspores cruciate, sessile, or shortly 
stalked at the base of the secondary branches. 

On wharves at low- water mark and on algas in shallow water. 

Bed Hook, N. Y., Harvey; Orient, L. I. ; Noank, Conn. ; Wood's Holl 
and several localities in Vineyard Sound, W. G. F. ; Europe. 

Not common, but, on the other hand, not rare south of Cape Cod. It is a small and 
not very beautiful species when growing, but rather pretty when pressed. It is dis- 
tinguished from the following species by its small size and sparingly branched main 
branches and by its tetrastichous, not distichous, secondary branches, which are 
densely approximate at the tips, so that in dried specimens the plant is rather pale 
except at the tips. Cystocarps and antheridia have never been found on our coast. 
Crouan states that the cystocarps, which are rare, are large, rounded, and slightly 
lobed. The branches of the present species, as well on our own shore as in Europe-, 
are beset with small cysts with oily contents — the Chy Iridium plumulce of Cohn. Tho 
same parasite is also found on the branches of C. Pylaiscei and C. plumula on the New 
England coast. 

C. floccosum, Ag. (G. floccosum, Phyc. Brit., PI. 81. — Pterotham- 
nion floccosum, Nseg.) 

Fronds three to six inches long, capillary, main branches irregularly 
and sparingly branched below, above with numerous alternate branches, 
which give the tips of the frond a rhombic-ovoid outline, clothed through- 
out with short, simple, opposite, distichous, subulate, secondary branches ; 
tetraspores cruciate, sessile or on short stalks on the lower part of the 
secondary branches. 



MARINE ALG.& OF NEW ENGLAND. 123 

On submerged algae. 

Eastport, Maine, W. G. F. ; Portland, Maine,. 0. B. Fuller ; Glouoes- 
ter, Mass., Mrs. Bray and Mrs. Davis; South Boston, Dr. Durlcee; 
Northern Europe. 

A beautiful and easily distinguished species, found only in the colder waters of the 
Atlantic, a variety occurring as far south as South Barbara, on the coast of California. 
It is apparently not uncommon in spring from Boston northward, sometimes occurring 
in company with C. Pylaiscei. It is rare, however, on the northern coast of Scotland. 
It is easily distinguished from its allies in this latitude by the simple, subulate, sec- 
ondary branches with which the main branches are clothed throughout. 

0. Pylaiscei, Mont. {Wrangelia Pylaiscei, Ag. Sp. — C. Pylaiscei, 
Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, PI. 36 b. — Pterothamnion Pylaiscei, Naeg.) 

Fronds three to six inches long, main branches alternately decom- 
pound, secondary branches short, rather stout, opposite, distichous, 
once or twice pinnate with short subulate ramuli ; tetraspores cruciate, 
sessile on the ramuli ; favellae binate on the upper branches. 

On wharves and algae below low- water mark. 

Orient, L. I., Miss Booth ; Wood's Holl, Mass. ; and common from 
Kahant northward. 

A common species of the Atlantic coast from Boston northward, but much less 
abundant southward. It is found early in the spring on wharves and washed ashore 
with other algai, but in the summer it is only seen in a dwarfed and battered condi- 
tion. It is sometimes found in company with C. Amerieanum, and it is by no means 
beyond a doubt that the two species are really distinct. In C. Pylaiscei the fila- 
ments are more robust, and the cells themselves shorter and broader than in C. 
Amerieanum, the main branches are less decompound and spreading, and the apical 
branches are more erect and compact. It is, however, in the secondary branches 
that the difference is best seen. In C. Pylaiscei they are short and thick, and the ulti- 
mate divisions are broadly subulate. In C. Amerieanum they are long, slender, and 
flexuous. Those who have only seen the typical forms of the two species would 
scarcely believe that they were not very distinct species. The collector, however, 
especially on our northern coast, often finds transitions between the two. At the time 
the Nereis was written the cystocarpic fruit was unknown, and the species seemed to 
Agardh to belong rather to the genus Wrangelia. The fruit, which is not uncommon 
in the spring, is distinctly the same as in Callithamnion, and is a true favella. The 
antheridia differ from those of C. corymbosum and its allies. Instead of forming ses- 
sile, hemispherical tufts on the internodes of the branches, as in the last-named spe- 
cies, the antheridia of C. Pylaiscei are in the form of rather loosely branching tufts 
inserted at the nodes of the secondary branches, and occupy the position of the ulti- 
mate branches, reminding one somewhat of the antheridia of C. graniferum, Menegh., 
figured by Zanardini in Phycologia Adriatica, PI. 11, or the figure of C. polysper- 
mum in Phycologia Britannica. As far as our observations go, the antheridia and 
cystocarps of the present species are on different individuals. The color, when dried, 
is usually somewhat brownish, and decidedly less rose-colored than in C. Amerieanum. 

C. Americanum, Harv., Nereis Am. Bor., Part II, p. 238, PI. 36 a. 
(Pterothanmion Amerieanum, Naeg.) 

Fronds three to six inches long, capillary, main branches alternately 
many times branched, ultimate divisions plumose, secondary branches 



124 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

rather long and slender, opposite, in twos or occasionally in fours, gen- 
erally distichous, widely spreading, once or twice pinnate, ultimate 
divisions opposite or secund, long and slender; tetraspores cruciate, 
sessile on the upper side of the secondary branches ; favellse binate. 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 89. 

On wharves and algae below low- water mark. Spring. 

From New Jersey northward. 

A common and very beautiful species, more abundant in Long Island Sound than 
farther northward. It varies considerably in the compactness of the branching and 
the tenuity of the cells. The species with which it is likely to be confounded is 
C. Pylaiswi, as already indicated. The long and slender secondary branches are less 
regularly placed than in some other species of the subgenus, and they are not always 
distichous nor opposite, although that is generally the case. We have also seen a 
specimen on which both tetraspores and cystocarps were found together. 

C. plumula, Lyngb., Phyc. Brit., PI. 242. 

Fronds two to four inches long, main branches alternately decom- 
pound, secondary branches opposite or in fours, distichous, short, 
recurved, pectinate on the upper side with 1-3 pinnated branchlets ; 
tetraspores cruciate, shortly pedicellate on the branches. 

On wharves and on shells in deep water. 

Long Branch, K. J., Harvey ; Orient, L. I., Miss Booth; on steamboat 
wharf, Newport, R. I. ; dredged in 8-10 fathoms, Gay Head, W. G, F. ; 
off Block Island, Professor Eaton. 

A rare species on the American coast, and known in but few localities. It is found 
occasionally on wharves just below low-water mark, but more frequently on shells in 
from five to ten fathoms. It is tolerably abundant off the Devil's Bridge, near Gay 
Head, where it is found in company with Lomentaria rosea. It is one of the most easily 
recognized species of the genus found on our coast. The branches are beautifully 
symmetrical and distichous, two opposite branches being given off from each cell, or 
occasionally there are four in a whorl, two being smaller than the others. The 
branches are recurved and furnished on the upper side only with 1-3 pinnate 
branchlets. 

Subgenus PLEONOSPORIUM, Naeg. 

Fronds erect, pinnate, cortication wanting ; antheridia cylindrical on 
the upper branches ; favellse terminal, involucrate; tetraspores poly- 
sporic. 

C. Borreri, Ag., Phyc. Brit., PI. 159. 

Fronds dioecious, densely tufted, monosiphonous, with a few rhizoidal 
filaments at the base, filaments one to four inches long, capillary, main 
branches several times pinnate, branches beset in lower part with 
usually simple, elongated branchlets, distichously pinnate above, ulti- 
mate ramifications broadly ovate or triangular in outline, branchlets 
naked below $ antheridia cylindrical ; tetraspores sessile on the upper 






MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 125 

branchlets, numerous, tripartite or polysporic; favellae terminal on 
lateral branches, usually composed of several distinct lobes, furnished 
with an involucre by the growth of a few incurved accessory branches 
below. 

On wharves and Fuel 

New York, Harvey; New Haven, Professor Eaton; Newport ; New 
Bedford ; Wood's Holl ; Europe. 

Apparently rather a common species, especially on wharves and Fuci at low-water 
mark. The species is easily recognized, when in fruit, by the polysporic tetraspores 
and by the favellae, which are terminal, not lateral, as in the rest of our species, and 
have a sort of involucre formed by the growth of accessory ramuli from the cells just 
below the favellae. When sterile the species may be recognized by the regular, 
broadly pinnate tips, at the end of nearly naked branches. We have found both poly- 
spores and favellse on American specimens ; and in spite of the fact that our plants are 
always more slender than European forms of the species, there can be almost no doubt 
that we have the true C. Borreri. Whether all the sterile forms referred by Ameri- 
can botanists to C. Borreri are correctly determined is doubtful. Some perhaps belong 
rather to C. roseum. The present species is placed by Bornet in tbe genus Corynospora, 
because of the terminal aud involcurate favellce and polysporic tetraspores. As 
writers differ about the limits of Corynospora, we have kept the species in Callitham- 
nion, although in some respects it differs from the rest of the genus, and the young 
Btages of the cystocarps remind one strongly of Spermothamnion. The fruit is, how- 
ever, a true favella. The number of spores in the polyspores in American specimens 
rarely exceeds 8 or 10, whereas Nsegeli puts the number as high as 20-28 in European 
specimens. As usually found in early summer, the species is small and delicate, but 
later it becomes coarse. Specimens collected as late as possible in the autumn are to 
be desired, and the number of spores in a polyspore should be ascertained more defi- 
nitely. In Contributiones ad Algologiam et Fungologiam, p. 44, PI. 23, Fig. 1, 
Reiusch describes and figures a Callithamnion Labradorense, which is said to have poly- 
spores — whether a polysporic condition of C. floccosum or not can hardly be deter- 
mined from the description. 

Subgenus EUCALLITHAMNION. 

Fronds erect, cortications generally present 5 antheridia in tufts, either 
on the nodes or internodes of the branchlets $ tetraspores tripartite ; fa- 
vellse usually binate, lateral. 

Sect. I. Pennat^e. 

Grotcth monopodia!, fronds distichously pinnate, pinna; alternate, corti- 
cations rudimentary or wanting, 

C. roseum, (Roth), Harvey. (G. roseum, Phyc. Brit., PI. 230.— Phle- 
bothamnion roseum, Kiitz.) 

Fronds capillary, two to four inches high, filaments diffusely branched 
below, main branches slightly corticated, secondary branches long, 
flexuous, distichously pinnate, pinnaB crowded at the ends of the branches, 
long, spreading or slightly incurved 5 antheridia in tufts on the nodes 
of the branchlets ; tetraspores tripartite, sessile on the branchlets 5 fa- 
vcllae binate on the upper branches. 



126 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 
New York Harbor, Mr. A. B. Young ; Wood's Holl, Mass. 

There must remain some doubt as to the correct determination of American speci- 
mens of tho present species in the absence of fruit of any kind. Sterile specimens of 
C. roseum are likely to be mistaken for varieties of C. polyspermum or C. Borreri. In 
C. polyspermum the pinme are short and subequal, so that the outline of the tips of the 
branches is linear or oblong, while in C. roseum the pinme, which are crowded at the 
ends of the branches are long, gradually diminishing in size towards the apex, so that 
the plumose tips are pyramidal or broadly ovate in outline. The filaments of C. roseum 
are finer and more nearly rose-colored than those of C. Borreri, and the pinna) are less 
regularly distichous. Furthermore, there are no polyspores in C. roseum, and the 
favelhe are not terminal and subinvolucrate as in C. Borreri. All three of the species 
above named are distinct from the species of the following group in their distichously 
pinnate ramification, and all three are reddish, inclining to a brownish color. They 
collapse when removed from the water, but are hardly gelatinous, although all adhere 
well to paper in drying. 

0. polyspermum, Ag. (G. polyspermum, Phyc. Brit., PI. 231. — Plile- 
bothamnion polyspermum, Klitz.) 

Fronds capillary, cortications wanting, two to three inches high, main 
branches irregularly divided, with few secondary branches below, dis- 
tichously pinnate above, branches linear or oblong in outline, simply 
pinnate, pinnae alternate, short, subequal, incurved, upper pinnae some- 
times pinnulate; tetraspores tripartite, sessile on the upper side of 
branchlets ; favellae binate near the ends of the branches. 

Hell Gate, N. Y. ; Jackson Ferry, Harvey ; Europe. 

The only localities for this species within our limits are the two given by Harvey. 
We have seen Calif ornian specimens collected by Mr. Cleveland near San Diego, but 
have never found the plant on the New England coast. The species is related to 
C. roseum and is distinguished from it by the short, subequal ultimate branches. 

Sect. II. Fruticosa. 

Growth sympodial, main axis and brandies densely corticated : branch- 
lets pectinate or pinnate, ultimate divisions alternate or secund. 

C. tetragonum, Ag. (G. tetragonum, Phyc. Brit., PI. 136. — G. brachi- 
atum, Harv., 1. c, PI. 13. — Dorythamnion tetragonum, Naeg.) 

Fronds monoecious, two to six inches high, coarse and spongy, shrub- 
like, pyramidal in outline, color dark purple, main filaments densely 
corticated, smaller filaments monosiphonous ; main axis percurrent, 
attached by a disk, pinnate with long, undivided, alternate branches, 
which are once or twice pinnate, the ultimate divisions beset on all sides 
with short, stout, incurved, acutely pointed, fasciculate branchlets; 
cells stout, not much longer than broad; antheridia in tufts on the 
upper internodes ; tetraspores tripartite, sessile on the upper branch- 
lets ; favellse binate. 

Common on stones and algae below low- water mark. 

Long Island Sound ; Europe. 



MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 127 

Our most robust and coarsest species, not uncommon in Long Island Sound, but not 
yet recorded north of Cape Cod. The color is dark, and in the water almost black, 
and the substance is rather spongy, the plant not collapsing when removed from the 
water, as do most of the New England species of the genus. 

C. Baileyi, Harv. (C. Baileyi, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, PI. 
35 b. — Dorythamnion Baileyi, Nreg.) PL XI, Figs. 1-2. 

Fronds monoecious, two to four inches high, setaceous, shrub-like, 
pyramidal in outline, color purplish red, main filaments densely corti- 
cated, the rest monosiphonous ; main axis percurrent, attached by a 
disk, pinnate with long, undivided, alternate branches, which are once 
or twice pinnate, the ultimate divisions beset on all sides with rather 
slender, flexuous, recurved or incurved, fasciculate branches ; cells 
several times longer than broad ; tetraspores tripartite, sessile on the 
upper branchlets ; antheridia in tufts on the upper internodes ; favellae 
binate. 

Var. laxa. 

Oortications less marked than in the type, branchlets long and slen- 
der, divisions widely spreading below, fastigiate at the apex. 

On Zoster a, stones, sponges, and algae below low- water mark. 

Common from New Jersey to Cape Cod; Boston Bay, Harvey ; Port- 
land, C. B. Fuller. 

As is suggested by Harvey in the Nereis Am. Bor., the present species is not only 
very variable in habit, but it is also difficult to distinguish some of the forms from C. 
tetragonum. We are inclined to believe that it would be better to consider the pres- 
ent species as a delicate form of C. tetragonum, in which the cells are longer and more 
slender, the branchlets less dense and robust, the color less inclined to blackish, and 
the substance more delicate. If we are to unite Bhodomela subfusca, R. gracilis, and 
B. Rocliei in one species, as has been done by Agardh, with good reason as it seems, it 
would be equally correct to unite C. Baileyi and C. tetragonum, since the difference in 
habit might result from variations of habitat and season. With us, the form here 
referred to the typical C. Baileyi is more common than C. tetragonum, and is found on 
wharves, on Zostera, shells, and stones in rather warm waters and sheltered places, 
while C. tetragonum frequents places where there is a current of water, or grows on 
algse in somewhat exposed pools. The var. laxa has a diffuse ramification and the 
cortications are not prominent, and we at one time supposed that it might be the C. 
Dietzice of the Nereis, as far as we could recollect the specimens of that species in the 
Harveyan Herbarium at Dublin. In such cases, however, it is not safe to trust to 
one's memory, and in the present article we are unwilling to express an opinion about 
C Dietziw. 

Sect. III. Byssoidje. 

Branching monopodia], or dichotomous. cortications present at the base, 
ultimate branches decompound, very delicate, usually ending in a hyaline 
hair. 

C. byssoideum, Arn. (0. byssoideum, Phyc. Brit., PI. 262.— Phle- 
bothamnion byssoides, Kiitz. — Pcecilothamnion byssoideum, Xaeg.) 



128 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Fronds globosely tufted, one to three inches high, filaments very del- 
icate, slightly corticated at base, main branches many times divided* 
secondary branches long and flexuous, pinnate with numerous pinnately 
compound branchlets ; antheridia sessile in tufts at the nodes of the 
branchlets ; tetraspores tripartite, sessile on the upper side of branchlets j 
favellse binate on the upper branches. 

Var. unilaterale, Harv. 

Fronds small and very delicate, branches and branchlets often secund. 

Yar. fastigiatum, Harvr. 

Branches fastigiate, the lesser ones densely ramulose at the tips. 

Yar. Waltersii, Harv. 

Upper branches distichously compound-pinnate, branchlets patent. 

On Zoster a and different algae. 

Common in Long Island Sound ; Gloucester, Mass. 

The forms which have been referred on our coast to C. byssoideum and C. corym- 
bosum are hopelessly confused. Although as described by algologists the two spe- 
cies are sufficiently distinct, in practice it is difficult to say where one begins and 
the other ends. According to the books, the ramification of the upper branches is 
dichotomous iu C. corymbosum, whereas it is always alternately piunate in C. byssoideum. 
In some of the forms of the last-named species, however, the tips are corymbose and 
the cells of the axis are short and zigzag to such a degree that the tips at least appear 
to be dichotomous. Of the two species in question, C. corymbosum is the less delicate 
and gelatinous, and is not so decidedly rose colored as C. byssoideum,hut, as far as our 
present information goes, although in its typical form C. byssoideum is not only com- 
mon — apparently more common than in Europe — but also easily recognizable, its ex- 
treme forms are not sufficiently well known. The Kiitzingian method would be to 
split the species up into four or five new species. According to Crouan and Bornet, 
this species has seirospores. 

n O. corymbosum, (Engl. Bot.) Lyngb. (G. corymbosum, Phyc. Brit., PI. 
272; Etudes Phycol., Pis. 32-35. — Poecilothammion corymbosum^ Na3g.) 

Fronds tufted, two to three inches high ; filaments very delicate, cor- 
tications wanting except at base, main branches several times pinnately 
or irregularly divided, secondary branches pinnate with dichotomously- 
multifid, fastigiate branches which end in hyaline hairs ; tetraspores 
tripartite sessile at the nodes of the branchlets, occupying the place of 
an ultimate branchlet; antheridia in tufts, sessile on the upper inter- 
nodes ; favella3 binate on the upper part of the branches. 

Yar. secund atum, Harv. 

Lesser branches frequently secund, ultimate branchlets irregular, 
scarcely corymbose. 

On Zoster a. 

Halifax, Boston Bay, "New London, Providence, Harvey. The var< 
secundatum, Massachusetts Bay, Greenport, Harvey. 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 129 

Wo have only quoted the localities given by Harvey, although we have found what 
we take to be C. corymbosum at Newport, Wood's Holl, and in considerable abundance 
at Nahant, always growing on Zostera. An examination of the different published ex- 
siccatae of European writers would lead one to think that several different species had 
been included under the name of C. corymbosum. One might doubt whether the form 
of Cronan, No. 139, and Areschoug, No. 15, belong to the same species. At Nahant the 
same form occurs as that distributed by French algologists. 

C. Dietzoe, Hooper. 

" Fronds capillary, pellucidly-articulate nearly to the base, the lower 
part percurrent, distichously -pinnate, stem veiny, branches alternate, 
simple, set at each node with short, alternate, subsimple or pinnato- 
dichotomous plumules, and often terminated by a dense fascicle of 
ramuli, rachides zigzag ; articulations of the stem six or eight times, 
of the rachides three or four times, of the ramuli eight or ten times as 
long as broad ; apices subattenuate, obtuse, or subacute ; tetraspores 
elliptical, tripartite, solitary on the uppermost ramuli." (Xer. Am. Bor., 
Part II, p. 236.) 

Greenport, Mrs. Bletz. 

Only known through the description given by Harvey in the Nereis. Harvey states 
that it is related to C. corymbosum and C. versicolor. The specimens referred to Wood's 
Holl in Proc. Am. Acad., 1875, p. 376, were probably incorrectly determined. 



Fronds erect, main branches corticated ; antheridia in tufts on the 
outer side of short branches ; tetraspores tripartite ; bispores and seiro- 
spores present j cystocarps destitute of enveloping jelly. 

C. seirospermum, Griff. (Seirospora Griffithsiana, Harv., Phyc. Brit., 
PI. 21. — Phlebothamnion seirospermim, Kiitz. — C. versicolor, var. seiro- 
spermum, Harv., in Hooker's Journ. Bot. j Pcecilothammon seirospermum, 
Kseg.) 

Fronds dioecious, capillary, two to six inches high, pyramidal in out- 
line, main axis percurrent, pinnate with alternate, undivided, lateral, 
branches, which bear secondary branches beset with delicate, erect, 
dichotomo-multified, corymbose branches, main branches corticated, 
smaller branches monosiphonous * and byssoid ; antheridia in tufts on 
the outside of short branchlets ; tetraspores tripartite, sessile on the 
upper branchlets, sometimes replaced by bispores ; seirospores oval, in 
moniliform tufts at the ends of the branches 5 cystocarps composed of 
radiating chains of spores without gelatinous envelope (Bornet.) 

On Zostera, shells, and stones below low-water mark. 

Common throughout Long Island Sound ; Salem, Mass., Harvey. 
S. Miss. 59 9 



130 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

One of the commonest and most beautiful of the genus south of Cape Cod, but only- 
known in one locality north of the Cape. It is often brought up on fishermen's nets, 
and, as a rule, inhabits deeper water than most of the genus. It often attains the 
height of four or five inches, and is broadly pyramidal in outline. The main branches 
are rather stout and distinctly corticated, but the ultimate ramifications are very soft 
and flaccid. With us seirosporic specimens are very common, making the species 
easily distinguishable, but no form of tetraspore or bispore has been observed on Ameri- 
can specimens. According to Bornet, tetraspores, bispores, and seirospores sometimes 
occur on the same individual. From a comparison of our plant with authentic Eu- 
ropean specimens there can be no doubt of the specific identity of the two. Accept- 
ing the account of the cystocarps given by Bornet, it is extremely doubtful whether 
the species should be kept in the present genus, and perhaps the genus Seirospora 
should be restored, not, however, as originally adopted by Harvey. 

SPECIES INQUIRENDJE. 

C. tenue, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, p. 130. (Griffithsia tenuis, 
Ag.) 

11 Filaments tufted, ultra-capillary, irregularly much branched, diffuse 
flexuous, the branches and their divisions very generally secund, spring 
ing from the middle of the internodes; ramuli few and distant, patent 
filiform, beset toward the attenuated apices with whorls of minute bys 
soid fibers ; articulations cylindrical, those of the branches 4-6 times 
those of the ramuli 3-4 times as long as broad, and gradually shorter 
towards the extremities." 

Beesley's Point, N". J., Harvey. 

Two specimens which can probably be referred to the present species have been re- 
ceived from Nantucket, one presented by Mrs. Lusk, the other by Mr. Collins. In the 
absence of fruit the genus cannot be determined. Nsegeli, in Beitrage zur Morphologic 
und Systematik der Ceramicea3, says that the tetraspores are terminal on a single-celled 
pedicel. According to Harvey, the species is distinguished by the branches, which are 
all given off from the middle of the internodes of the branches of the preceding grade. 
Niegeli says that this species has normal branches like those of Griffithsia barbata, and 
he regards those given off from the internodes as adventive branches. 

0. Tocwottoniensis, Harv. MSS., fide Bailey. 
Providence, Bailey ; Warwick, Hunt 

As far as we know, this species, mentioned by S. T. Olney in his List of Rhode Island 
Plants, fortunately for printers and the throats of American algologists, has never been 
described. 

GBIFFITHSIA, Ag. 
(Named in honor of Mrs. Griffiths, of Torquay.) 

Fronds filiform, monosiphonous, without cortications, dichotomously 
branching, branches of two kinds, the vegetative of indeterminate, the 
fructiferous of determinate growth ; antheridia sessile and covering the 
upper surface of the terminal cells in tufted whorls at the nodes, or in 
densely whorled pyramidal tufts on involucrate branches 5 tetraspores 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. ldl 

tripartite, clustered in involucrate whorls at the nodes or on the inner 
side of short fascicled branches ; cystocarps (favellae) involucrate. 

A beautiful genus, comprising between 30 and 40 species, but only represented on 
our Eastern coast by a single species and on the Western coast by two doubtfully 
determined species. The genus is distinguished from Callitliamnion by the involucrate 
favclhe and by the disposition of the tetraspores. As we have Spermotliamnion sepa- 
rated from Callitliamnion in consequence of the absence of the gelatinous envelope 
found in true favellaj, so we have Bornetia separated in a similar way from Griffitksia. 
The genus cau generally be recognized at sight by the rather large but very delicate 
cylindrical, oval, or, at times, globose cells, which do not bear immersion in fresh 
water even for a short time, and by the branching, which is dichotomous or a modifi- 
cation of the dichotomous type. The accurate specific determination from sterile speci- 
mens alone is generally impossible, so great is the resemblance of the fronds in the 
different species. The anther idi a vary very much in the different species. In our 
only species they are sessile on the upper half of the globose terminal cells ; in G. coral- 
Una they surround the nodes in tufts ; and in G. setacea they are in dense approximate 
Whorls, attached to the inner side of incurved branchlets. The tetraspores also vary 
in the different species. In G. Bornetiana and G. corallina they are in whorls at the 
nodes, and are attached to the inner side of short simple branches, which form a whorl, 
around the node. In G. setacea the tetraspores occupy a position which corresponds to 
that of the antheridia. The favellae are always truly involucrate and, as far as is 
known, terminal, in our species occupying the place of a suppressed dichotomy. The 
development of the procarp of C. corallina has been fully studied by Janczewski. In 
that species he found two trichogynes to each carpogenic system, as is also the case in 
the genus Ceramium. A non-sexual mode of propagation, by means of cells which 
give off root-like processes, has been described by Janczewski in G. corallina, and a 
similar process takes place in G. Bornetiana. 

G. Bornetiana, Farlow. ( G. corallina f Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part 
II, p. 22S, non Agardh.— (7. globulifera, Kiitz., Tab. Phyc, Vol. XII, 
Fl. 30. — G. glohifera, J. Ag. in part. — G. Bornetiana, Proc. Am. Acad., 
1877.) 

Exs.— Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 88. 

Fronds dioecious and dimorphous. 

Male plant. — Globosely tufted, one to three inches high ; filaments 
repeatedly dichotomous; lower cells cylindrical-obovoid, several times 
longer than broad, becoming shorter and broader above; terminal cells 
globose-pyriform ; antheridia sessile, densely covering the upper half of 
terminal cell. PL X, Fig. 4. 

Female plant. — Two to five inches high, loosely tufted, filaments re- 
peatedly dichotomous; lower cells cylindrical-obovoid, becoming broadly 
pyriform above and then gradually diminishing in size toward the tip ; 
favellse solitary on the upper part Of the superior cells; cells of involucre 
10-20, unicellular, club-shaped, somewhat incurved. PL XI, Fig. 3. 

Tetrasporic plant. — More slender than the female plant; tetra- 
Bpores tripartite, densely clustered around the nodes of special branches; 
bells of involucre short and subcrect. PL X, Fig. 5. 

On wharves, sponges, shells, and occasionally on Zostera. 



132 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 
Common from Nantucket southward. 

A summer plant which attains perfection during the month of July, disappearing 
later in the summer. It is sometimes found washed ashore in large quantities after a 
storm. The species has been known for some time, hut until recently it has passed 
for a form of G. coralUna, a species common in Europe. It differs from that species in 
several respects. The antheridia form a sort of cap over the top of the terminal 
cells of the male plant, which is considerably smaller than the female plant and has a 
different habit, in consequence of which it was called a variety, var. glooifera, by Har- 
vey. The female and tetrasporic plants more closely resemble the true G. coralUna. 
They do not end in large globose cells, as in the male plant, but the largest cells are 
below the tip, which is tapering and acute. When the tetrasporic plant has narrower 
and more acute cells than usual it constitutes the var. tenuis of the Nereis. The slen- 
derest specimens, however, are usually sterile. In the structure of the procarp this 
species differs considerably from G. coralUna as described by Janczewski. There is 
only one trichogyne instead of two, as in the last-named species. The procarp begins 
by the growth of a hemispherical cell at the upper part of an articulation. The cell is 
then divided into two parts by a partition parallel to the base. It is from the lower 
cell thus formed that the involucre is formed, and from the upper arise the carpogenic 
cells in the following way: By usually four oblique partitions there are formed four 
external hemispherical cells and a central pyramidal cell with a broad base. By sub- 
sequent division of one of the hemispherical cells, generally of the one lying nearest 
the axis of the plant, there is cut off a cell which divides into three smaller granular 
cells, the upper of which grows into a trichogyne. The spores are formed by the sub- 
sequent growth of the other three hemispherical cells. There are two sets of hair-like 
organs which arise from the upper border of the cells in this species; one set is short 
and granular, consisting of a cuboidal basal cell with short corymbose filaments; 
the other set occupies a similar position, but the hairs are long and hyaline, consist- 
ing of a long basal cell, which bears at its apex a whorl of three or more cells, which 
in turn bear other whorls, the whole hair being several times compound. 

HALTJEUS, Kiitz. 

(From air, salt, and ovpa, a tail.) 

Fronds inonosiphonous, branching, beset throughout with short, ap- 
proximate, incurved, di-trichotomous, whorled, secondary branches ; tet- 
raspores tripartite, attached to the inner side of special branches, 
arranged in whorls one above another ; antheridia in similar position, 
forming closely verticillate tufts 5 favellse terminal on short branches. 

A genus composed of one, or according to some writers two, species, separated from 
Griffithsia principally by the character of the frond. 

H. equisetifolius, Kiitz. (Griffithsia equisetifolia, Ag.j Phyc. Brit, 
PL 67.) 

Fronds four to eight inches long, arising from a disk, irregularly 
branching, secondary branches trichotomous below, dichotomous above, 
much incurved, densely covering the branches, rhizoidal descending fila- 
ments given off from some of the lower branches. 

Brooklyn, BT. Y.l 

A plant resembling a Cladostephus, except that its color is a dirty red. The species 
is very doubtfully known on our coast. It is mentioned in the Nereis as having been 
sent to Harvey by Mr. Hooper, of Brooklyn, but there is no definite information as to 
the locality where the plant was collected. 






THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 133 

PTILOTA, Ag. 

(From ttti2iotoc, feathered.) 

Fronds compressed, ancipital, decompound, branches distichous, pec- 
tinate-pinnate, composed of a monosiphonous pinnate axis of larger 
quadrate cells and a cortex of smaller cells 5 antheridia terminal on 
short corymbose branches; tetraspores tripartite; cystocarps (favellae) 
terminal on the branches, usually involucrate. 

A11 easily recognized genus, comprising about twenty species, of a deep red or red- 
dish-brown color, only scantily represented on our coast, but represented on the Cali- 
fornian coast by a number of beautiful species. The genus reaches its greatest develop- 
ment in Australia. The growth is by an apical cell, from which arises a monosi- 
phonous axis of indefinite growth and .short secondary branches. The origin of the 
cortications has been fnlly explained by Nregeli in Die neuern Algensysteme, page 20G. 
The monosiphonous axis is clearly seen on holding specimens up to the light, and is 
also visible at the growing tips where the cortications are wanting. The cortications 
do not form a true solid tissue, but rather, as shown by Niegeli, densely interwoven 
branching filaments. A detailed account of the development of the frond in different 
species is given by Cramer in Physiologisch-systematische Untersuchungen tiber die 
Ceramiaceen. The development of the procarp is given by Bornet in Notes Algolo- 
giques, page 15. The position of the tetraspores is variable, and serves as a specific 
mark. 

P. elegans, Bonnem. (Ptilota scricea, Harv., Phyc. Brit, PI. 191. — 
P.plumosa, var. tenuissimcij Ag.) 

Frouds brownish red, three to six inches high, main branches fili- 
form, irregularly branching, secondary branches compressed, closely pin- 
nate, with opposite pinnate branchlets, ultimate divisions without corti- 
cation; favellse terminal on the branches, irregularly lobed, naked or 
with a short involucre; tetraspores solitary on the ends of the branch- 
lets, at first tripartite, becoming polysporic. 

On the under side of rocks between tide-marks and on shells and algae 
in deep water. 

Throughout our whole limit; Europe. 

A much more delicate species than the next, and recognized at once by the fact that 
the younger parts of the branches are without cortications, whereas in the next species 
the cortications extend nearly to the apex. It also differs in the position of the tetra- 
spores, and the favellse are usually naked, while in the following species they are sur- 
rounded and almost concealed by a well-marked involucre. The usual color is a gray- 
ish black, but in fading it often becomes pinkish. North of Cape Cod the species is 
usually found clinging to the under surfaces of rocks at low-water mark, in company 
with Ceramium Hooperi, Bhodochorton Eothii, and Spliacelaria radicans. In such situa- 
tions the specimens are small. At Newport and Gay Head the plant attains a much 
larger size, and is abundantly washed ashore from deep water. 

P. SERRATA, Klitz. 

Fronds dark red, three to six inches long, compressed, ancipital, de- 
compound-pinnate, pinnae opposite, one pinna being short, undivided, 



134 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

straight or falcate, sharply serrate, especially 011 the lower side, and the 
opposing pinna pinnately divided or compound; pinnae nearly at right 
angles to the axis, apices acute; tetraspores borne in dense ellipsoidal 
cluster either at the ends of the simple pinna? or on the serrations and 
tips of the compound pinnae; tetrasporic masses interspersed with mono- 
siphonous incurved branches; favellae in similar position to the tetra- 
spores, nearly concealed by the large, incurved, usually serrate divisions 
of the involucre. 

On algae, especially on stems of Laminai'ia, below low- water mark. 

Common north of Boston ; Thimble Islands, near New Haven, and 
dredged off Block Island, Prof. Eaton. 

A common and characteristic alga of our northern coast, extending through Green- 
land to the northern coast of Europe, and also found in the North Pacific. The present 
species, together with Euthora cristata and Delesseria sinuosa, form the greater part of 
the specimens collected for ornamental purposes by ladies on the NorthernNew England 
coast. P. serrata, when dried, is usually very dark colored, unless it has previously 
"been soaked for some time in fresh water, and it does not adhere well to paper unless 
under considerable pressure. It cannot be mistaken for any other species growing on 
our coast. Whether it is a variety of P. plumosa is a question about which writers do 
not agree, but, although in this connection our form has been kept as a distinct spe- 
cies, it is highly probable that it is really nothing more than a coarser northern form 
of P. plumosa. The typical form of P. plumosa is certainly unknown in New England. 
The type is more slender, and the pinnse are pectinate, not serrate. The position of 
the fruit is the same, the principal difference being in the more strongly marked in- 
volucre of the favellae and in the tetraspores, which are borne on densely fastigiate 
branches, which have no cortications, and some of which are incurved and project 
beyond the general sporiferous mass. In P. plumosa the tetraspores are also borne on 
the tips of monosiphonous branches, but they are not densely conglomerate, nor are 
the projecting incurved ramuli prominent. The present species is very rare south 
of Cape Cod, being known in only two localities and in a much reduced form. 

CEBAMIUM, Lyngb. 

(From nepafiiov, a small pitcher.) 

Fronds filiform, dichotomous or occasionally subxDinnate, monosipho- 
nous, composed of a series of large ovate or quadrate cells, with bands of 
small corticating cells at the nodes, and in some species also extendiug 
over the internodes; antheridia forming sessile patches on the upper 
branches; tetraspores tripartite, formed from the corticating cells; 
cystocarps (favellae) sessile at the nodes, usually involucrate. 

A universally diffused and easily recognized genus, of which, however, the species 
are by no means easily recognized. The genus is distinguished by the monosiphonous, 
dichotomous frond, with bands of small corticating cells at the nodes, or, in some cases, 
covering the internodes as well. The tiy>s of the filaments are forked and usually de- 
cidedly incurved, whence the generic name is derived. The apical growth and forma- 
tion of the cortex is fully detailed by Naegeli and Cramer in Pflanzenphysiologische 
TJntersuchugen, Part IV. The procarp in Ceramium is furnished with two trichogynes 
and a single carpogenic cell formed from the cortical cells on the convex side of the 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 135 

tips of the branches. The genus has "been split up into a number of different genera 
by Kiitzing, but by most writers his divisions are only accepted as subgenera. Sterile 
specimens are not easily determined and it is always desirable to have tetrasporic 
plants. Although we have an abundance of the genus on' our coast, the number of 
species is comparatively small, and the group of species having spines at the nodes is, 
as far as is known, quite wanting. 

Sect. I. Fronds without spines, cortical cells decurrentfrom the nodes and 
more or less completely covering the intemodes. 

C. eubrum, Ag. (G. rubrum, Phyc. Brit., PI. 181.) 

Fronds robust, dichotomous, subfastigiate, branches erect, apices in- 
curved or forcipate, nodes contracted below; tetraspores in irregular 
series at the nodes, immersed ; favellae lateral, solitary, with a short in- 
volucre. 

Var. proliferitm, Ag. (C. botryocarpum, Phyc. Brit., PI. 215.) 

Fronds beset on all sides with numerous, lateral, simple or forked 
branchlets. 

Yar. secundatum, Ag. 

Branchlets generally secund. 

Var. squarrosum, Harv. 

Fronds small, regularly dichotomous, fastigiate, with very few, short, 
lateral branchlets, lower divisions distant, spreading, upper divisions 
close together, widely spreading, apices often revolute. 

Everywhere common; var. squarrosum on Zoster a, Massachusetts Bay. 

A ubiquitous and variable species, of which we have enumerated only the principal 
forms. The typical form is easily recognized, and the same is true of most of the va- 
rieties. The var. decurrens has the intemodes partly naked, especially in the upper 
X3art. The var. decurrens of the Nereis is referred by Agardh to the next species, 
and is distinguished from the true var. decurrens of C. rubrum, which has immersed 
tetraspores, by the large tetraspores arranged in a regular circle at the nodes and pro- 
jecting decidedly above the surface. 

C. CIRCTNNATUM, KtLtz. 

Fronds setaceous, dichotomous, fastigiate, divisions erect, patent, 
apices forcipate, intemodes partly corticated by the cells which are de- 
current from the nodes ; tetraspores large, projecting in a ring around 
the upper nodes. 

Glencove, L. I., Mr. Young ; Dartmouth, Mass., Miss Ingraham ; Mag- 
nolia, Mass., Mrs. Bray. 

Agardh, in his Epicrisis, refers to the present species the C. decurrens of Harvey (Phyc. 
Brit., PI. 276), which in the Nereis Am. Bor., is made a variety of C. rubrum. There is 
a var. decurrens of C. rubrum which is admitted by Agardh, which, if we understand 
correctly, has small immersed tetraspores. This form occurs also with us, but we 
have no notes as to the locality. To the present species we refer forms in which the 
upper intemodes are scarcely corticated at all and in which the large, projecting tet- 
raspores are in a single ring at the upper nodes. 



136 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Sect. II. Fronds without spines, cortical cells confined to a definitely Urn- 
Ued band round the nodes, the internodes diaphanous. 

C. diaphanum, Both; Phyc. Brit,, PL 193. 

Fronds brownish red, filaments two to four inches high, loosely tufted, 
main branches setaceous, rather stout, distantly forking, beset with short, 
lateral, dichotomous branchlets, apices incurved; tetraspores immersed, 
in whorls at the nodes ; favellse lateral, in volu crate. 

Nahant, New Bedford, Mass.; Providence, B. I.; New York Bay, 

Harvey; Europe; California. 

The localities given are quoted from the Nereis. As far as our own experience goes, 
the present species is of very infrequent occurrence on the New England coast, 
although we have specimens collected at Lynn, Mass., and others from the vicinity 
of New York, collected by Mr. A. R. Young, which may possibly be referred to C. dia- 
phanum. In almost all cases the C. diaphanum of American collectors is the C. striatum 
of the Phycologia Britannica a species closely related to the present, and agreeing with 
it in the fructification, but differing in ramification. C. diaphanum has rather stout 
leading branches, which are beset with secondary dichotomous branches which are 
alternately given off from the main branches, and which are much finer than the main 
branches, the tips being capillary. The general outline of the frond is pyramidal, and 
that of the principal branches and their ramifications is oval-elongated. In C 
strictum there are no leading branches, but the filaments are of a pretty nearly uni- 
form diameter, regularly dichotomous throughout, and form globose tufts. Both 
species differ from our other species, except C. Hooperi, in being of a brownish-purple 
rather than of a distinctly rose- colored tint, and both adhere closely to paper in drying. 

C. strictum, (Kiitz.) Harv. (C. strictum, Phyc. Brit., PL 334. — Gon- 
grocer as strictum, Kiitz.) 

Fronds brownish red, filaments capillary, two to six inches high, 
densely tufted, branches uniformly dichotomous throughout, divisions 
erect, fastigiate above, apices forcipate; tetraspores immersed, whorled 
at the nodes. 

On Zostera and other marine plants. 

Common from New York to Cape Cod. 

This species forms large tufts at the base of Zostera in warm, shallow bays, and is 
often in company with Polysiphonia Olneyi. In the Little Harbor at Wood's Holl it 
is found in large quantities, after a heavy blow, lying unattached on the mud, just 
below low-water mark. 

C. Hooperi, Harv. (0. Hooperi, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, 
p. 214. — C. Deslongchampsii, Farlow, in Report U. S. Fish Comm., 1875.) 

Fronds dark purple, one to four inches high, filaments procumbent 
and densely interwoven at base, above dichotomous, with short, erect, 
irregularly placed lateral branches, apices straight, erect, cortical cells 
forming a sharply defined band at the nodes, axile cells short above, 
becoming twice as long as broad below; rhizoidal filaments unilateral, 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 137 

single at the nodes, numerous, usually unicellular, often ending in irreg- 
ular disks ; tetraspores in a circle at the nodes, immersed in the cor- 
tical cells ; favellae ? 

Forming tufts on mud-covered rocks at low tide. 

New Haven, Prof. Eaton; near New York, Mr. Young; Newport, 
R. I. ; common from Nahant to Eastport. 

This species is not, as Harvty and Agardh supposed, very distinct, but, on the con- 
trary, can scarcely be distinguished from C. Deslongchampsii, except in the tetraspores, 
which are immersed, not projecting as in that species. Both species inhabit similar 
localities, both are deep purple in color, are procumbent at the base, and have numer- 
ous rhizoids ; the branching and erect tips are the same in both. Furthermore, as it 
occurs with uS, C. Hooperi not unfrequently bears precisely such irregular botryoidal 
masses as are found on C. Deslongcliampsii in Europe, and which are figured in the Phy- 
cologia Britannica. Harvey, as well as Nsegeli and Cramer, doubts whether these masses 
are really favellse, and, judging from American specimens, they are more probably 
monstrosities. In one case we found the distortions on a specimen bearing tetraspores, 
and Nsegeli and Cramer have observed a similar case, a presumption against the 
favelloid nature of the swellings. Fully-matured tetraspores are to be desired, and 
it may be that they will be found to be prominent, as in C. Deslongchampsii, in which 
case the validity of the species would be more than doubtful. 

C. fastigiatum, Harv., Phyc. Brit, PL 255. 

Fronds lake-red, densely tufted, two to five inches high, filaments 
capillary, dichotomous throughout, divisions erect, level-topped, apices 
erect or slightly incurved ; tetraspores secund on the outer side of the 
branches, prominent ; favellse small, lateral, with a short involucre. 

On Zostera. 

Massachusetts Bay 5 Greenport; Newport; Long Branch, Harvey. 

This species is at present a puzzle. In American herbaria one frequently finds speci- 
mens labelled C. fastigiatum, aud some specimens bear Harvey's own handwriting. 
Unfortunately, the species is persistently sterile, for we have only twice found 
tetraspores in what seemed to be this species, and sterile specimens are hardly suf- 
ficient for determination in the genus Ceramium. What was apparently considered by 
Harvey to be his C. fastigiatum is common south of Cape Cod and forms beautiful tufts 
on Zostera. The color is a lake-red, the filaments are all capillary and regularly dichot- 
omous, the upper segments being level-topped, so that when spread on paper the 
species has a regular outline. The apices are erect, not rolled inwards at the tip, and 
short rhizoidal processes are given off from some of the nodes. Harvey states that 
the tetraspores are prominent and secund on the outer edge of the branches, while 
Agardh says they^are whorled at the nodes. In one specimen we found them as de- 
scribed by Harvey. It must be admitted that when sterile the species approaches 
too near C. tenuissimum, and it is much to be desired that a large set of fruiting speci- 
mens be examined to settle the disputed question of the tetraspores. C. fastigiatum is 
a species apparently not well known to continental botanists, who seem to have at 
times included it in other species without reference to British specimens. With us it 
is common, although, considering that there may be a doubt about the determination, 
we have only quoted the localities given by Harvey. By Agardh C. fastigiatum is con- 
sidered closely related to C. Deslongcliampsii, but judging by Harvey an specimens, 
both from Ireland and New England, we can hardly think that the two species are 
immediately related. 



138 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 
C. CORYMBOSUM, Ag. 

" Fronds capillary, rather regularly deconipound-dichotomous, branches 
erecto-patent, corymbose, fastigiate, apices forcipate, lower joints four to 
five times longer than broad, upper joints subequal ; tetraspores naked, 
emergent, secund on the outer side of the branches, lower portion rest- 
ing on the cortical layer." (Agardh, Epicrisis, p. 93.) 

Atlantic coast of North America. 

This species is said by Agardh to resemble C. fasligiatum in its ramifications, but 
with more expanded branches, and to differ in having a violet color and a different ar- 
rangement of the tetraspores. From this it would appear that the two species are 
practically distinguished by the different position of the tetraspores. With regard to 
their position in C. fastigiatum, as has already been said, Agardh and Harvey do not 
agree. 

0. TENUISSIMUM, (Lyngb.) Ag. 

Fronds rosy-red, two to four inches high, densely tufted, capillary, 
decompound-dichotomous, branches erect, patent, apices forcipate j tet- 
raspores borne on the swollen nodes, usually on the outer side, often 
several together ; favellse lateral, involucrate. 

Var. ARACHNOIDEUM, Ag. 

Fronds more slender than in the type, tetraspores exserted, secund 
on the outer side of the branches, solitary or several together. 

Var. patentissimum, Harv. 

Fronds small, dichotomies distant and patent, the branches ending in 
dichotomo-multifid, divaricating, corymboso-fastigiate branchlets. 

On Zostera and algae. 

Common in Long Island Sound 5 Gloucester, Mass., Mrs, Davis; 
Europe. 

The present species, according to Agardh, includes the C. nodosum of the Phycologia 
Britannica, but Harvey's plate certainly does not correctly represent the tetraspores of 
the typical form of the species. In the type the nodes are swollen, especially on the 
upper margin, and the rather large tetraspores project beyond the cortical cells, 
usually on the outer side of the node, and there are frequently from two to four together. 
In the var. arachnoideum the tetraspores become almost naked, being only slightly 
covered by the cortical cells in their lower part. The var. patentissimum of Harvey has 
a somewhat different ramification from the type. It must be admitted that the limits 
of C. tenuissimum are not well marked, and it may be that in the present case we 
have confused two distinct species. 

C. Capri-Cornu, (Reinsch). (Rormoceras Capri- Corm*, Reinsch, Con- 
trib. ad Alg. et Fung., p. 57, PI. 47.— C. Youngii, Farlow, Kept. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1875.) 

Fronds brownish purple, one to three inches high, filaments setaceous, 
repeatedly dichotomous, divisions erecto-patent, ultimate divisions sub- 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 139 

fastigiate, apices much incurved, branches beset throughout with very 
short incurved or recurved branchlets, cells in upper part scarcely as 
long as broad, two to three times as long below, corticating cells form- 
ing a sharply denned band at the nodes ; tetraspores and favelhe? 

In eight feet of water. 

Canarsie, L. L, Mr. A. R. Young. 

This curious species lias unfortunately never been found in fruit. We have only 
seen three specimens, which were all collected by Mr. Young. The largest was about 
three inches high and the filaments were coarser than those of C. diaphanum and C. 
'strictiim. It is easily recognized by the numerous short incurved branchlets which 
arise singly or in twos and threes at the nodes. It is possible that a large series of 
specimens would have shown that the present is a form of some other species, but 
when received from Mr. Young in 1375 it seemed so distinct that the name C. Youngii 
was given to it, and under that name it was mentioned in the Report of the U. S. Fish 
Commission for 1875, but without any description. The Hormoceras Capri-Cornu of 
Reinsch, from Anticosti, judging from the plate and description in the Contributiones, 
published in 1874-'75, is apparently the same as C. Youngii, and the name of Reinsch 
has the priority. 

Suborder SPYRIDIE^. 

Fronds filiform, monosiphonous, formed of longer branching filaments 
of indeterminate growth, from which are given off short, simple branches 
of determinate growth, cells of main filaments corticated throughout, 
the secondary branches corticated only at the nodes; antheridia borne 
on the secondary branches, arising from the nodes and finally covering 
the internodes ; tetraspores tripartite, borne at the nodes of secondary 
branches ; cystocarps sub terminal on the branches, consisting of obovate 
masses of spores in dense whorls around the central cell, with a pericarp 
formed of monosiphonous filaments packed together in a gelatinous 
substance. 

An order consisting of a single genus and a small number of species, most of which 
are tropical. The systematic position of the order is a matter of dispute. The fronds 
resemble closely those of the Ceramiece, as do also the tetraspores, but the cystocarps 
are peculiar and not closely related to those of any other order. A section of the ma- 
ture fruit, which is usually either two or three parted, shows a monosiphonous axis, 
around the upper (jells of which the spores are arranged in irregularly whorled groups. 
The whole is surrounded by a wall, which is formed by the union, by means of a jelly, 
of the elongated tips of subdichotomous filaments which arise from the cortical cells 
of the nodes just below the sporiferous cells. The antheridia are first formed at the 
nodes, but soon extend over the internodes for a considerable distance. The devel- 
opment of the frond is fully given by Cramer, 1. c. In the Nereis the order is placed 
next to Ceramiacew, and in the Epicrisis of Agardh between the Dumontiacea and the 
Areschougiew. 



140 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

SPYBIDIA, Harv. 

(From cnvpi?, a basket.) 

Characters those of the genus. 

S. filamentosa, Harv., Phyc. Brit, PL 46. PI. X, Fig. 1, and PI. XII, 

Pig. 2. 

Fronds filamentous, in expanded tufts four to eight inches high, 

branches irregularly placed, spreading, repeatedly divided, secondary 

branches subequal, spirally inserted, ending in a niucronate tip com- 

« 
posed of two or three hyaline cells ; tetraspores tripartite, sessile at 

the nodes of branchlets, solitary or clustered ; cystocarps two or three 

lobed. 

Var. refracta, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part III, PI. 34 a. 

Fronds robust, subdichotomous, the branches naked, divaricating, with 
very wide axils, arched, the terminal ones frequently revolute. 

On Zostera, wharves, and mud below low- water mark. 

Common from Cape Cod southward; Massachusetts Bay, Savvey; 
most warm seas. 

Rather a beautiful species when growing, but which becomes brownish in drying and 
does not adhere very well to paper. It does not collapse when removed from the 
water, but remains covered with drops which adhere to the branchlets. The branches, 
although rather coarse, are brittle. The species is more common in Long Island Sound 
than in Europe, certainly than on the Atlantic coast. It may be recognized under the 
microscope by the monosiphonous corticated branches and hyaline branchlets, corti- 
cated only at the nodes and with a mucronate tip. The antheridia, of which, so far 
as we know, no description has hitherto been given, surround the branchlets, covering 
several cells near the base. They arise from divisions of the cortical cells, which form 
closely packed, short filaments, and extend over the internodes, those from the differ- 
ent nodes becoming confluent. The individuals which bear the cystocarps are distinct 
from those which bear the antheridia, and may be recognized by their more dense 
habit. 

Suborder CRYPTONEMIE^E. 

Fronds solid or becoming hollow with age, cylindrical, compressed or 
membranaceous 5 antheridia forming superficial spots or small tufts; 
tetraspores usually cruciate and scattered in the cortical layer, some- 
times in localized spots j cystocarps consisting of a single mass of irreg- 
ularly placed spores surrounded by a gelatinous envelope, but not pro- 
vided with a special cellular pericarp, immersed in the substance of the 
frond, spores discharged by a narrow passage formed between the cells 
of the cortex. 

An order comprising about 14 or 15 genera and between 125 and 150 species, most of 
which are inhabitants of warm seas, and vary in consistency from subgelatinous to 
coriaceous and cartilaginous. Our only two species belong to the tribe Nemastomcce. 
There are numerous species on the Californian coast, nearly all difficult of determina- 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 141 

tion oving to the great variation iu shape. The suborder approaches very closely to 
the Ceramiece, since the cystocarps are in many of the species true favellae, which, in- 
stead of being naked, are concealed in the fronds. It is in fact merely an arbitrary 
matter whether one places Gloiosiplwnia in one suborder or the other. The fronds are 
more complicated than those of the Ceramiece. In genera like Gloiosiplwnia and Ne- 
ma stoma there is an axis formed respectively of a monosiphonous filament or bundle o? 
filaments, and an ill-defined cortex formed simply of the loosely united lateral fila- 
ments. In other genera, as in Halymema, the cortex is more distinctly marked, and ir 
Prionitis and Cryptonemia the frond is dense and coriaceous. 

GLOIOSIPHONIA, Carm. 
(From y'Aoios, sticky, and eupov, a tube.) 

Fronds monoecious, gelatinous, cylindrical, branching, solid above, 
and formed of a monosiphonous axis, whose cells in their central por- 
tion bear whorls of four secondary branches, which divide so as to form 
umbels, which collectively form the cortex ; descending filaments formed 
from the lower part of secondary branches ; lower portion of fronds 
hollow ; tetraspores cruciate, borne at the summit of the cortical fila- 
ments; antheridia forming spots on the surface of the fronds; cysto- 
carps borne on the lower part of the cortical filaments, consisting oi 
tufts of branching, radiating filaments densely packed in a single mass 
and surrounded by jelly. 

A genus containing but a single certainly known species, found both in Europe and 
this country. The genus has been placed by some writers in the Cryptonemiece and by 
others in the Ceramiece. It in fact connects the two suborders, the fruit being a favclla 
in which the spores all arrive at maturity at the same time, forming, in the terminol- 
ogy of some algologists, a simple nucleus. The ripe cystocarps are concealed in the 
frond, as in the Cryptonemiece, but, on the other hand, the structure of the so-called 
cortical layer is like the outer portion of Dudresnay a, which is generally placed in the 
Ceramiece. A detailed account of the development of the cystocarp in G. capillaris will 
be found in Notes Algologiques, p. 41. 

G. capillaris, Carm. ( G. capillaris, Carm., Phyc. Brit., PI. 57 ; Notes 
Algologiques, PI. 13.) 

. Fronds gelatinous, four inches to a foot long, solid above, hollow below, 
main branches subsiinple, terete, naked below, densely beset above with 
decompound lateral branches, branchlets tapering at both extremities ; 
cystocarps abundant, frequently forming nodosities. 

In pools below low- water mark. 

New London, Harvey ; Nahant, W. G. F.; Chelsea, Miss Brewer; 
Gloucester, Mrs. Bray and Mrs. Davis ; Hampton Beach, Br. Burpee; 
Peak's Island, Maine, Prof. Goode. 

A widely diffused but locally rare species, found in early summer and disappearing 
in August. It is easily recognized at sight by its delicate gelatinous substance and 
brilliant rose color and by the tapering branchlets. Cystocarpic specimens are not 
unfrequently found, but tetrasporic plants are rare and have never been observed in 
this country. The species shrinks very much in drying and adheres closely to paper. 



142 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

NEMASTOMA. 

(From v7}/j,a, a thread, and crojua, a mouth.) 

Fronds gelatino-carnose, compressed -cylindrical or plane, dichoto- 
mous or subpinnate, composed of an axial layer of densely woven longi- 
tudinal filaments, from which are given off short, lateral, dichotomous, 
fastigiate filaments, which are united by a gelatinous substance to form 
a peripheral layer; tetraspores cruciate, borne in the peripheral layer; 
antheridia borne on the superficial cells of the periphery; cystocarps 
(favellse) buried in the peripheral layer, spores escaping by a narrow 
opening between the peripheral filaments. 

A genus comprising not far from a dozen species, which inhabit principally the 
warmer waters of the globe, the genus being particularly well represented in Aus- 
tralia. The fronds of the different species vary from only slightly compressed and 
linear to broad and palmate, and in G. marginifera the frond resembles in shape that 
of Ehodymenia palmata. The substance is rather gelatinous and the microscopic struc- 
ture resembles very closely that of the fronds of some of the Nemaliece. The fruit of 
N. marginifera is described by Bornet, in Notes Algologiques, as being a true favella like 
that of Callithamnion. The genus is generally placed near Gloiosiphonia, and, like that 
g^nus, closely connects the Ceramiecd with the Cryptonemew. 

K (?) Bairdii, Farlow, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 1S75, 
p. 361. 

Fronds purplish-rose colored, gelatinous, four inches long, one inch 
wide below, vermiform, once or twice dichotomously divided, axils acute, 
apices attenuated ; tetraspores cruciate, borne on the tips of the peri- 
pheral filaments; cystocarps 

Washed ashore at Gay Head, W. G. F. 

A very rare species, of which only a single specimen is known. It was found on the 
beach near the light-house at Gay Head, Mass., in company with Scinaia furcellata, in 
August, 1871. The specimen was a fragment, without the base of the plant, but 
with abundant tetraspores, which were borne on the tips of the peripheral filaments. 
In the absence of cystocarpic specimens the genus cannot be ascertained with cer- 
tainty, and botanists who visit Gay Head, should seach for the plant by dredging off 
the Devil's Bridge in five to ten fathoms. The specimen collected was at first sup- 
posed to be a portion of a broad specimen of Nemalion purpnreum, a species not yet 
known on our coast. The peripheral filaments are loosely united together by a gela- 
tinous mass, as in the subgenus Gymnopliloca of Agardh. 

Suborder DUMONTIEiE. 

Fronds tubular, branching or proliferous; cystocarps immersed in 
the frond, composed of a single mass of irregularly placed cells, similar 
in most respects to those of the Cryptonemiece. 

A small suborder, included by Harvey in the Cryptonemiece. The development of the 
cystocarps is not well known, and on our coast there is no material to be obtained for 
the study of the suborder. The common Dumontia filiformis of Northern Europe is 
wanting with us, and the genus Halosaccion, of which we have one representative, 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 143 

lias never yet been found with cystocarpic fruit, the genus being referred to the pres- 
ent suborder in consequence of the resemblance of the frond to that of Dumontia. Ac- 
cording to Bornet, the spores in D.filiformis are borne directly on the carpogenic cell, 
whereas in the nearly related genera of Cryptonemiece there are sterile cells between 
the spores and the carpogenic cell. 

HALOSACCION, Ktttz. 

(From a/If, the sea, and can/ciov, a small sack.) 

Fronds hollow, tubular or sack-shaped, simple or proliferously branched, 
consisting of an internal layer of large, roundish, angular, colorless cells, 
usually arranged in linear series and packed closely together by a gela- 
tinous substance ; tetraspores cruciate, immersed in the cortical layer ; 
cystocarps? 

A small genus, including about ten species, of which H. ramentaceum is common in 
the North Atlantic, the other species being confined to the North Pacific and ex- 
tending as far south as California on the east coast and Japan on the west coast. 
The species are all coarse and somewhat cartilaginous, and are either in the form of 
elongated obovate sacks or tubular and proliferous. The cystocarpic fruit is unknown, 
and the genus is placed conjecturally near Dumontia in consequence of the structuro 
of the frond. 

H. ramentaceum, (L.) Ag. (E. ramentaceum, Ner. Am. Bor., Part 
II, PL 29 a.— Ulva sobolifera, EL Dan., PL 356.) 

Fronds brownish purple, six to fourteen inches high, cylindrical-com- 
pressed, attenuated at the base, simple or irregularly branched, more or 
less densely beset with scattered or crowded, simple or forked, lateral 
proliferations ;■ tetraspores large, spherical, cruciate ; cystocarps ? 

Var. gladiatum, Eaton, Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. II, p. 347. 

Proliferations long, simple, somewhat incurved, inflated. 

On algae in deep pools and on mud-covered rocks at low- water mark. 

From Gloucester, Mass., northward ; North Atlantic and Pacific. The 
variety at Eastport. 

A characteristic species of our northern coast, occasionally found at Gloucester and 
becoming very common at Eastport. The fronds are very variable in shape, yet, on 
the whole, easily recognized. The most marked form is the var. gladiatum. The 
robustness depends a good deal on the place of growth. In exposed pools the fronds 
Are short and very densely proliferous; in sheltered harbors, like that of Eastport, the 
proliferations grow long, and are of rather delicate texture, approaching R. microspo- 
rum, which hardly seems a distinct species. Kjellman, in Spetzbergens Marina kloro- 
fyllforande Thallophyter, mentions certain hemispherical protuberances on the fronds 
of this species, and the same are found on our coast. As before stated, the specimen 
of Asperococcus compressus credited to Gloucester, Mass., was an error, the specimen 
being in reality a sterile and partly bleached Halosaccion. 

Suborder GIGARTINE^E. 

Fronds terete, compressed or membranaceous, fleshy or cartilaginous ; 
antheridia in superficial spots or sunk in small crypts ; tetraspores 



144 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

cmciate or zonate, usually collected in nemathecia or in superficial spots 
(sori), sometimes scattered ; cystocarps composed of numerous masses 
of irregularly placed spores, between which are found portions of the 
tissue of the interior of the frond, the whole sporiferous mass being 
covered by the swollen surfaces of the frond, which are sometimes raised 
in subspherical conceptacles ; spores discharged through special car- 
postomes. 

A large suborder, comprising species which are sometimes more or less cylindrical in 
shape, but which are more frequently expanded and of a coarse, subcartilaginous con- 
sistency. Some of the largest Floridece are found among the Gigartinece, and perhaps 
no other suborder contains so many ill-defined species as the present. Owing to the 
thickness and opacity of the fronds, the study of the development of the cystocarps is 
attended with very great difficulty, and as yet no fall account of the formation of 
the fruit of any of the species has been published. In the Notes Algologiques, Bornet, 
however, gives a brief account of the formation of the cystocarp in Gymnogongrus 
patens. In all the species the spores are irregularly grouped in several distinct masses, 
which are imbedded in the tissue of the frond, the cells of which undergo a change as 
the spores ripen, their walls becoming thick and lamella ted, and traversed by numer- 
ous small canals. In Callopliyllis and some other genera the sporiferous mass and the 
enveloping tissue of the frond form subglobose swellings external to the surface of the 
fronds, but in other genera, as Gymnogongrus, the sporiferous mass occupies the central 
part of the frond, which swells on all sides. The cystocarps discharge their spores 
through carpostomes or narrow canals formed in the cortex of the fronds. Sometimes 
there is a single carpostome, but in some genera, as Gymnogongrus and Ahnfeldtia, there 
are several. 

1. Fronds terete 3 

2. Fronds compressed 4 

3. Substance rigid, horny Ahnfeldtia, 

Substance soft, succulent Cystoclonium. 

4. Fronds thin, leaf-like Phyllophora. 

Fronds cartilaginous or subcartilaginous 5 

5. Cystocarps external in special leaflets . Gigartina. 

Cystocarps immersed , 6 

6. Central part of frond composed of roundish polygonal cells. 

Gymnogongrus. 

7. Central part of frond formed of slender anastomosing filaments. 

Chondrus. 

PHYLLOPHOEA, Grev. 

(From <pv?Jkov, a leaf, and <pepo, to bear.) 

Fronds stipitate, stipes expanding into a rigid-membranaceous, flat, 
simple or cleft lamina, proliferous from the disk or margin, composed 
internally of oblong polygonal cells, with a cortical layer of minute, 
colored, vertically seriated cells ; antheridia contained in small cavi- 
ties ; tetraspores cruciate, arranged in moniliform filaments, which are 
packed together in external excrescences (nematJiecia) j cystocarps ex- 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 145 

ternal, globose, sessile or pedicellate, containing within a thick peri- • 
carp several irregular masses of spores imbedded among the cells of the 
frond ; spores discharged by a narrow carpostome. 

The genus comprises eight or nine species of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean 
one species, P. Clevelandii, being found on the coast of California. The species are 
dark red, rather coarse and rigid, not adhering to paper, and are very apt to be cov- 
ered with Bryozoa. They inhabit rather deep water, and are characterized by their 
external fruit, the tetraspores being arranged in nemiathecia or warts composed of 
densely packed filaments, each cell of which becomes a cruciate tetraspore. Some of 
the broader forms pass with collectors for species of Bhodymenia. 

P. Brodi^i, Ag. ; Phyc. Brit., PL 20. 

Stipes cylindrical at base, compressed upwards, branched, the branches 
expanding into oblong or wedge-shaped, simple or forked, membrana- 
ceous laminae, often proliferous at the summit ; cystocarps globose, ses- 
sile on the laminie ; nemathecia spherical, pedunculate, at the tips of 
the laminae. 

In five to ten fathoms of water. 

Newport, E. I.; Wood's Holl, Mass. ; and common from Nahant north- 
ward. 

P. MEMBRANIFOLIA, Ag. ; Phyc. Brit., PL 163. 

Stipe cylindrical, filiform, branched, the branches expanding into 
broadly wedge-shaped bifid or dichotomous laminae ; cystocarps ovoid, 
stipitate, rising from the branches or laminae; nemathecia forming 
broad, dark-colored, convex patches in the center of the laminae. 

In deep water on stones. 

Common from Long Island Sound northward ; North Atlantic. 

Our two species of Phyllojphora are perfectly easy to identify when tetrasporic speci- 
mens are obtained. P. Brodicei is a larger plant than P. membranifolia, and the laminae 
are longer and larger and less broad at the base than in P. memoranifolia. P. Brodiwi 
varies considerably, however, and in the spring the bright-red broad laminae are often 
broken from the stipes and washed ashore, when they might be mistaken for some 
species of Ehodymenia. 

GYMNOGONGKUS, Mart. 

(From yvfivog, naked, and yoyypog, an excrescence.) 

Fronds dark red or purple, carnoso-coriaceous, terete, compressed or 
flaty dichotomous, composed of a medullary stratum of roundish, angu- 
lar, colorless cells and a cortical stratum of closely packed short fila- 
ments formed of small colored cells; tetraspores cruciate, borne in 
hemispherical nemathecia; cystocarps immersed in the swollen frond, 
consisting of several irregular masses of spores imbedded among the 
cells of the frond ; spores discharged by a carpostome. 

A genus of about thirty species, found principally in the warmer parts of the world, 
all rather coriaceous, but not attaining any great size. The genus is distinguished 
S. Miss. 59 10 



146 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

from Chondrus, to which several of the species were formerly referred, by the structure 
of the froud and the arraugemeut of the tetraspores ; from Pliyllopliora by the absence 
of a stipe aud the immersed cystocarps. 

G. Norvegtgus, J. Ag. (Sphcerococcus Norvegicus, Ag. — Chondrus 
Norvegicus, Lyngb. ; Phyc. Brit., PL 187. — Oncotylus N'orvegicus, Kiitz.) 

Fronds deep red, two to four inches high, linear, dichotomous, fiat, 
fastigiate, axils rounded, patent, apices obtuse; cystocarps immersed 
in the upper segments projecting on both sides of the frond ; neina- 
thecia sessile, hemispherical, on both sides of the frond. 

In deep pools on rocks. 

Penobscot Bay, Mr. Hooper ; Peak's Island, Maine, W. G. F.; Kalian t, 
W. G. F. ; Beverly, Mass., Miss Alexander. Europe. 

Our plaut, which is apparently rather rare, is the same as that of Europe, although 
narrower forms are sometimes seen which perhaps might be referred to the G. Torreyi 
of Agardh. G. Griffithsicv is to be expected with us, as it is common in Europe. The 
present species is found only in the autumn and winter, either in deep cold pools or 
below low-water mark. Its resemblance to the simpler forms of Chondrus crispus is so 
great that it is perhaps mistaken for that species by amateur collectors. Its color, 
however, is red rather than purple, and the whole plant is thinner and more delicate 
than C. crispus, which, moreover, has quite a different microscopic structure. 

G. Torreyi, Ag. 

Frond compressed, flattish, dichotomous, fastigiate, segments linear, 
very narrow, the axils rounded. 
New York, Prof. Agardh. 

A species known only by the above description of Agardh. Bailey, in Am. Jour. 
Sci., Vol. VI, 1848, p. 39, makes the singular statement, inspeakiug of Dasy a elegans, 
Ag., that he has examined a fragment of the original specimen of Sphcerococcus Torreyi 
in the Torrey Herbarium, "which," he says, " unless I am greatly mistaken, was 
founded on a battered specimen of this plant." 

AHNFELDTIA, Fries. 

(Named in honor of Nils Otto Ahnfeldt, of Lund. ) 

Fronds cartilagineo-corneous, subterete, dichotomous or irregularly 

branched, composed of densely packed elongated cells within and a 

horizontal layer of closely packed short filaments formed of small colored 

cells; cystocarps immersed in the fronds; tetraspores in nemathecia 

which surrounded the branches (?). 

A small genus, comprising stiff, wiry, or cartilaginous algse, whose fructification is 
not well known. As it is, the genus is distinguished from Gymnogongrus rather by the 
rigidity and terete character of the fronds than by any more definite character, since 
the fact that the tetraspores in the present genus are in the nemathecia which surround 
the branches, even if fully proved, which is not the case, would hardly constitute suf- 
ficient ground for the separation of the genera. In the only common species of the 
North Atlantic cystocarps have never been seen and the nemathecia have not been 
satisfactorily examined. In Ahnfeldtia gigartinoides of the west coast the cystocarps 
form nodose swellings in the upper part of the branches, and there are numerous car- 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 147 

postomes by which the spores are discharged. However ill defined the present genus 
may he, there is no difficulty in recognizing at sight our only species. 

A. plicata, Fries. (Gymnogongrus plicatus 7 T£Mtz.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 
288. — Gigartina plicata, Lam.x. — Sphcerococcus plicatus, Ag.) 

Fronds horny, terete, filiform, very irregularly branched, entangled, 
branches di-trichotomous, with lateral, often secund, branches, axils 
rounded, terminal divisions elongated ; cystocarps and tetraspores ? 

Var. FASTIGIATA. 

Fronds regularly dichotomous, terminal segments equal. 

On rocks and algae in exposed tide-pools. 

From New York northward 5 Europe ; North Pacific. 

Forming very irregularly branched, rigid tufts several inches in diameter. The 
color is usually nearly black, becoming on exposure yellowish or greenish. More wiry 
and rigid than any of our other Floridece. 

CYSTOCLONIUM, Kiitz. 

(From kvgtlc, a bladder, and kTuoviov, a small twig.) 

Fronds fleshy, succulent, terete, decompoundly branched, composed 
of three strata of cells, an axile series of loosely interlaced filaments 
formed of delicate elongated cells, surrounding which is a layer of large 
rounded cells and a cortical layer of small roundish-angular cells 5 an- 
theridia in spots on the upper part of the fronds, interspersed among 
the unchanged cortical cells ; tetraspores zonate, scattered in the cor- 
tical layer 5 cystocarps large, immersed in the frond, usually prominent 
at one side, with a single carpostome. 

The account given above of the structure of the frond refers to the appearance pre- 
sented in sectioning the mature plant. A study of the development shows that the 
external" and medial layers really are derived from the axial filaments, or rather that 
all three are formed from a common set of filaments at the apex of the frond. The 
frond of Cystoclonium might be mistaken for that of RhaMonia, but the fruit is very 
different. The genus comprises about half a dozen described species, but only one is 
at all well known. « 

C. PURPURASCENS, Kiitz. (Hypnea purpurascens, Harv., Phyc. Brit., 
PI. 11G.) 

Fronds brownish rose-colored, six inches to two feet long, an eighth 
to a quarter of an inch in diameter, terete, subpinnately decompound, 
much branched, branches alternate, elongate, beset with alternately 
decompound branch lets which taper at each end; cystocarps nunier- 
rous, large, often forming nodose swellings in the branches. 

Yar. cirrhosa. 

The branches drawn out into long, twisted tendrils. 



148 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Iii tide-pools and just below low-water mark. 
Very common from New York northward ; Europe. 

■ With the exception of Ceramium rubrum, the present is probably the most common 
species of Floridece found on our coast. It not unfrequently attains a length of a 
foot and a half, and when washed from its attachment and exposed to the sunlight 
assumes a bright orange color, which is attractive to many collectors. The Solieria 
chordalis, said by Mr. Samuel Ashinead* to have been collected in Greenland by the 
Hayes Arctic expedition, was probably a sterile plant of Cystoclonium purpurasccns. 

GIGABTINA, Lam.x. 

(From yiyuprov, a grape-stone.) 

Fronds fleshy, cartilaginous, compressed, composed of an internal 
layer of longitudinal, slender, anastomosing filaments, which pass hori- 
zontally outwards and divide dichotomously into short moniliform fila- 
ments, the whole set in a gelatinous substance 5 antheridia in super- 
ficial spots ; tetraspores cruciate, densely aggregated, forming spots 
just below the surface ; conceptacles external. 

A genus of which nearly fifty species have been described, but some of which are 
of doubtful value. They abound in the Pacific Ocean, several species being found in 
California, but we have only one species. 

G. mamillosa, Ag. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 199. 

Fronds dark purple, three to six inches high, half an inch to two 
inches broad, flattish, channelled, linear, decompound, dichotomous, 
fastigiate, upper segments wedge-shaped, bifid 5 cystocarps borne in 
short papillae given off from the surface and.margin of the frond. 

On rocks at low- water mark, in company with Chondrus crispus. 

Common from Boston northward ; Europe. 

Bearing some resemblance to the common Irish moss, with which it usually grows, 
but distinguished by the numerous papilla) which cover the surface of the fronds and 
bear the fruit. The present species may occur in California, but most of the speci- 
mens of G. mamillosa from the west coast belong rather to G. papillata, Ag. 

CHONDBUS, Stack. 

(From xovdpog, cartilage.) 

Fronds and tetraspores as in Gigartina ; cystocarps immersed in the 
frond. 

A small genus as limited by modern writers, but formerly made to include a large 
number of forms. The three genera Gigartina, Chondrus, and Iridwa are very nearly 
related. In the first-named genus the cystocarps are borne in external conceptacles, 
and in the last two they are immersed. 

C. crispus (Linn.), Stack. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 63.— Irish moss. 

Fronds purple, three to six inches high, stipitate, flabelliform, dichoto- 
mous, fastigiate, flat, the segments linear-cuneate ; cystocarps immersed 
in the frond and usually projecting on one side. 

* Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Vol. XV, p. 93. 



THE MARINE ALGiG OF NEW ENGLAND. 149 

On rocks at low- water mark. 
Common from New York northward. 

The common Irish moss which is used for culinary purposes, and also for clarifying 
"beer. It is also said to he used in the manufacture of cheap cotton cloths. Although 
very variable in shape, it is not likely to bo mistaken for any other species, except 
possibly sterile specimens of Gigarlina mamillaris or Gymnogongrus Norvegicus, which 
is, however, a rare species. When growing exposed to the light, the color is a yel- 
Jow-green. 

Suborder RHODYMENIEJS. 

Fronds membranaceous or filiform, solid or tubular ; antheridia form- 
ing superficial patches ; tetraspores tripartite, cruciate, or zonate, either 
scattered in distinct spots or sometimes sunk in crypts ; cystocarps ex- 
ternal, containing densely packed subdichotomous filaments, arranged 
in distinct masses around a basal placenta with a thick pericarp, which 
is connected by numerous filaments with the placenta. 

The present suborder is exceedingly ill-defined, and no two writers agree exactly as 
to its limits. In the typical genera we find a distinct basal placenta on which are 
borne masses of spores, which when young are seen to be formed of subdichotomous 
filaments, but which when mature are arranged without order and held together by a 
gelatinous envelope. Diverging from the type, we have genera like Cordylecladia, in 
which, even at maturity, the spores preserve to a certain extent a moniliform arrange- 
ment, and we then have a cystocarp but little different from that of Gracilaria, which 
belongs to the Sphcefococcoidcw. On the other hand, we have the order connected with 
the Crypionemkw by Chrysymenia, which is now placed by Agardh in the Rhodymeniacece. 
The position of Rhodophyllis and Euthora is doubtful. Here we have no distinct basal 
placenta, but rather a central placenta or carpogenic cell, reminding one somewhat of 
the genus Rhabdonia and i ts allies, which have been included in the Solieriew. Euthora, 
at any rate, demands a more accurate study, and our own species of Rhodophyllis, R. 
veprecula, does not well correspond with the typical members of the suborder in rela- 
tion to its cystocarpic fruit. Lomentaria and Champia agree with the Rhodymeniece in 
their fruit, although the fronds are peculiar, and we have kept them as a division of 
the present. 

Tribe I. Bhodymenieje proper. 

Cystocarps with a basal placenta, fronds solid. 

Fronds dichotomous or palmate Rhodymenia. 

Fronds p innately compound Plocamium. 

Fronds filiform Cordylecladia, 

1 Tribe II. Bhodophylleje. 

Cystocarps with a central placenta, fronds membranaceous. 

Tetraspores zonate, fronds dichotomous or pinnate Rhodophyllis. 

Tetraspores cruciate, fronds dentato-pinnate - Euthora. 

Tribe III. Lomentarieje. 

Cystocarps with a basal placenta, fronds tubular. 

Fronds constricted at the joints, but with no proper diaphragms, tetra- 
spores sunk in depressions of the frond Lomentaria. 

Fronds with numerous diaphragms, tetraspores superficial. . . . Champia. 



150 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 
KHODYMENIA, (Grev.) J. Ag. 

(From podeog, red, and vfiqv, a membrane.) 

Fronds flat, membranaceous, dichotomous or palmate, composed of 
an internal layer of large roundish-angular cells and a cortical layer of 
smaller cells, in some cases arranged in short horizontal filaments; 
tetraspores cruciate, either collected in superficial spots (sori) or scat- 
tered in the cortex; cystocarps external, sessile, with a distinct car- 
postome, spores irregularly grouped in masses attached to a basal pla- 
centa and surrounded by a gelatinous envelope. 

A genus which formerly was made to include a large number of flat membranous 
species, a large part of which have by recent writers been removed to other genera. 
We have but one species on our coast, Bhodymenia palmata, the common dulse, of which, 
unfortunately, the cystocarpic fruit is unknown, and the study of the fruit of the 
genus is out of the question with us. 

E. palmata, (Linn.) Grev. ; Phyc. Brit,, Pis. 217, 218; Ann. Sci. Nat., 
Vol. Ill, Ser. 4, PI. 3, Fig. 8.— Dulse. 

Fronds purplish red, broadly wedge-shaped, six to twelve inches long 
and four to eight inches broad, irregularly cleft, palmate or dichoto- 
mous, sometimes repeatedly laciniate, the margin often winged with 
leaflets ; tetraspores cruciate, scattered in patches over the frond, im- 
mersed in the cortex; cystocarps ? 

Var. Sarniensis. 

Divisions very numerous, narrow, sublinear. 

On Fuci, Laminarice, and other algse, between tide-marks, and extend- 
ing into deep water. 

Common from New York northward ; North Atlantic ; California % 

This, with Clwndrus crispus, forms the only species eaten in New England. The present 
species, although one of the commonest red sea-weeds in the North Atlantic, has never 
been known to bear cystocarps, and hence the generic position is doubtful. The 
description given applies to the typical form, and although the fronds are very variable 
in outline, the species is easily recognized. It is sold in the seaport towns, where it 
is to be found dried on the fruit-stands of the women who sell green apples, corn-balls, 
and other dainties. It is said to possess anthelmintic properties, which, if one can 
judge by its disagreeable taste, is very probable. 

PLOCAMIUM, Lyngb. 

(From irTiOKafiog, a lock of hair.) 

Fronds compressed, membranaceous, pinnately decompound, the pin- 
nules alternately secund in twos, threes, fours, or fives, composed of an 
inner layer of longitudinal, oblong cells and a cortical layer of smaller 
polygonal cells ; tetraspores zonate borne in special branchlets ; cysto- 



THE MARINE ALG^S OF NEW ENGLAND. 151 

carps external, sessile or pedicellate, with a distinct carpostome, spores 
in several masses composed of closely packed radiating filaments borne 
on a basal placenta. 

A beautiful genus, comprisiug about twenty-five species, the most striking of which 
are found in Australia, New Zealand, and at the Cape of Good Hope. P. coccineum is 
very widely diffused in the North Atlantic and Pacific, and possibly also in the south- 
ern hemisphere ; but it has only been observed once on the coast of New England, 
and that perhaps requires verification. The genus is at once recognized by the branch- 
ing. The frond is linear and distichously pinnated, the pinnules, which are always 
alternately secund in groups of from two to five, being of two kinds ; the lowest 
pinna is short, simple, and acute, while the remaining pinnae are pinnulate or pecti- 
nato-decompound. The cystocarps of Plocamium are similar to those of Bhodymenia, 
and the zonate tetraspores are in special branchlets or leaflets, known as stichidia. 

P. coccineum, Lyngb. ; Phyc. Brit, PI. 44. 

Fronds narrowly linear, witkont a midrib, decompound pinnate, pinnae 
alternately secund in threes or fours, the lowest subulate and entire, the 
upper pectinate on the upper side; conceptacles marginal, solitary, ses- 
sile; tetraspores zonate on divaricately branching processes borne on 
tjie inner side of the pectinated branchlets. 

Boston Bay, Miss Sawlcsliurst. 

The above-named locality, given in the Nereis, is the only one known on the New En- 
gland coast, for this widely diffused species, if we except the vague statement of Bailey 
in the American Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, 1847, p. 84, that it has been found by Eev 
J. L. Russell on the coast of Massachusetts. One sometimes finds forms of Euthora 
ci'istata labelled P. coccineum in American herbaria. The common Californian form of 
the species is coarser than the European, and has been named by Kutzing P. Calif or- 
nicum. It is not, however, distinct. 

COBDYLECLADIA, J. Ag. 

(From KopSvXrjj a club, and Khadoc, a branch.) 

Fronds filiform, irregularly branched, carnoso-cartilaginous, formed 
of two strata of cells; medullary layer of oblong, longitudinal cells, 
cortical of roundish, colored, subseriated, vertical, minute cells ; con- 
ceptacles sessile on the branches, subspherical, furnished with a cellular 
pericarp at length perforate, containing a densely packed globular mass 
of roundish angular spores, formed by the evolution of much-branched 
filaments issuing from a basal placenta ; tetraspores immersed in the 
periphery of pod-like ramuli, oblong, cruciately parted. 

f C. Huntii, Harv. 

" Fronds densely tufted, springing from a common, expanded, crust- 
like disk, livid purple, tereti-compressed, once or twice forked or se- 
cundly branched ; branches subulate, alternate, acute ; fruit % " (Ner. 
Am. Bor., Part II, p. 155.) 

Narragansett Bay, Mr. George Hunt. 



152 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

A species only known from tho description in the Nereis, which is quoted above, 
and from the specimen in Herb. Harvey for an examination of which we are indebted 
to Prof. E. Perceval Wright. In the absence of fruit, the genus must remain in 
doubt, and it is hardly likely that the species, as described by Harvey, will be again 
recognized by American algologists. 

RHODOPHYLLIS, Kiitz. 

(From poihv, a rose, and <pvl?i,ov, a leaf.) 

Fronds membranous, dichotomously compound, with proliferous or 
pinnatifid margins, composed of an internal layer of large roundish- 
angular cells and a cortical layer of smaller cells ; tetraspores zonate, 
immersed in the cortex of the frond or marginal processes ; cystocarps 
external, subspherical, borne usually on the margin of the frond or on 
lateral processes, spores arranged around a central carpogenic cell in 
masses composed of densely packed radiating filaments, whose cells at 
maturity become irregularly placed. 

A genus comprising about twenty species, which mostly inhabit the Australian 
coast. They have membranously expanded fronds resembling those of the genus 
Bhodymenia, but they are as a rule smaller and thinner, the internal layer consisting 
of usually two series of cells. The genus is distinguished from Bhodymenia by the 
zonate tetraspores, and by having the carpogenic cell or placenta in the center of the 
conceptacle instead of at its base. In the typical species of Kiitzing, R. bifida, there 
is, according to Dr. Bornet, a large carpogenic cell at the center of the conceptacle, 
around which the sporiferous masses are gathered, and the same is true with regard 
to our own Bhodophyllis veprecula. 

li. veprecula, J. Ag. (C Maria fasca, Eupr. — R. veprecula and Cal> 
liblepharis ciliata, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, pp. 105, 152, non 
Calliblepharis ciliata, Kiitz.) 

Fronds deep red, attached by a branching base, two to five inches 
long, a quarter of an inch to an inch and a half broad, decompoundly 
dichotomous, margin pinnate, pinnae linear-lanceolate, ciliate, with short 
subulate or forked teeth 5 tetraspores zonate, borne in the cortex of 
the cilia; cystocarps subglobose, usually borne at the base of the cilia, 
often densely aggregated, sometimes borne on the surface of frond. 

Var. cirrhata, Harv. 

Fronds very narrow, dichotomous, the apices cirrhiform, repeatedly 
forked. 

On the larger algse in five to ten fathoms, and rarely in deep tide- 
pools. Autumn and winter. 

Campobello Island, Grand Menan, Maine, Prof. Eaton; Gloucester, 
Mass., W. G. F.; Arctic Ocean. 

The present species is a characteristic Arctic form which occurs as far south as Cape 
Ann, where it is not rare although hardly common. It is usually found washed ashore 
late in the autumn or in winter. It is recognized by its beautiful red color and frond 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 153 

destitute of a midrib and with a ciliated margin. It bears a close resemblance to Cal~ 
Ublepharis ciliata, Kiitz., which is a common European species, and it was introduced 
under that name in the Nereis, in which work Rliodopliyllis vcprccula was cited on the 
authority of Agardh. But subsequent observation and examination of the cystocarpic 
fruit has shown that the C. ciliata of the Nereis is the same as Rliodopliyllis veprecula, 
Ag. Gobi states that R. veprecula of Agardh is the Fucus dicliotomus of Lepechin, and 
he considers that C. ciliata, Kiitz., should also be included with it under the name of 
Rliodopliyllis dichotoma (Lepechin). We have retained the name of Agardh because we 
only wish to assert that our plant is a Rliodopliyllis already described by Agardh, but 
do not wish to go so far as to express an opinion with regard to the identity of the 
two European plants, since we have never been able to examine the fruit of C. 
ciliata in good condition. Our form, as found on the Massachusetts coast, is well de- 
veloped and agrees perfectly with specimens collected by Dr. Kjellman in Greenland. 
The narrow variety was found by Harvey at Halifax. In Herb. Gray is a narrow 
specimen from Labrador, marked Calliblepliaris jubata, apparently in Lenormand's 
handwriting. 

EUTHORA, Ag. 

(Derivation uncertain.) 

Fronds membranaceous, subdichotomously pinnate, formed internally 
of large oblong cells, between which is a network of slender branching 
filaments with a cortical layer of small cells ; tetraspores cruciate, im- 
mersed in the cortex of the thickened apices ; cystocarps external, sub- 
spherical, marginal, containing a central nucleus attached to the walls 
of the conceptacle composed of tufts of radiating sporiferous filaments 
around an ill-defined cellular placenta. 

A small genus of only two species, one of which is found in the North Atlantic and 
the other in the North Pacific. The structure of the frond in our species is peculiar 
and is the same as that of the genus Callophyllis. Between the rather large cells of 
the interior run small branching filaments, best seen in longitudinal sections. The 
genus is separated from Rliodymenia, in which it was formerly included, in consequence 
of the peculiar frond and cystocarp. The structure of the latter is not at all well 
known and should be studied on our coast, where there is an abundance of material. 
The conceptacles are small and are borne on the margin of the frond, and the carpos- 
tome is not at all prominent. The arrangement of the spores is complicated and not 
easily described. They are arranged in tufts of short filaments, radiating from a com- 
mon point, and the different tufts, which are very numerous, apparently surround a 
central cellular placenta, not at all sharply defined. At any rate, there is no large 
carpogenic cell, either at the center, as in Rliodopliyllis, or at the base, as in Rliodymenia, 
and it is by no means certain that the genus should be placed in the present suborder. 

E. cristata, J. Ag. (Splicerocoecus cristatus, 0. Ag. — Rliodymenia 
cristata, Grev. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 307. — Callophyllis cristata, Kiitz.) 

Fronds rosy-red, one to five inches high, membranaceous, flabellately 
expanded, main divisions widely spreading, alternate, repeatedly sub- 
divided, upper divisions alternate, linear, laciniate at the tips, with a 
fimbriated margin; tetraspores cruciate, in the thickened tips of the 
frond ; cystocarps small, marginal, nearly spherical. 

On algae, especially on Laminariw, in deep water. 



m 
154 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Staten Island; Newport, R. L, Bailey ; dredged off Xapatree Point, 

B. I., Prof. Eaton ; Gay Head, in eight or ten fathoms'; and common 

from Nahant northward. 

Together with Delesseria sinuosa, this species forms the bulk of the membranaceous 
red sea-weeds collected by ladies on our northern coast for ornamental purposes. 
Probable in no part of the world are more beautiful and luxuriant specimens found 
than at Magnolia Cove, Gloucester, Mass. Specimens vary very much in breadth. 
Some have the main divisions an inch wide and the terminal divisions are densely 
rlabellate. Others are scarcely an eight of an inch wide and the terminal divisions 
are rather diffuse, the fimbriations being prolonged into sharp teeth. The first-men- 
tioned form approaches the figure in the Phycologia Britannica, while the last resem- 
bles Spliwococcm coronopifolius. The Long Island forms are scarcely an inch high. The 
species is found at all seasons of the year, and inhabits rather deep water, its favorite 
habitat being the roots of Laminaricc. 

LOMENTARIA, (Gaill.) Thuret. 

(From lommtum, a pod with constricted joints.) 

Fronds filamentous, branching, hollow, with constricted nodes, formed 
of one or more layers of roundish-angular cells with a few longitudinal 
filaments in the interior; tetraspores tripartite, borne in cavities 
formed by the infolding of the cortex; cystocarps external, sessile, con- 
taining a nucleus composed of oblong masses of irregularly radiating 
spores attached to a placenta surrounding a large basal carpogenic cell, 
which is connected with the pericarp by filaments. 

A small genus, containing species which have been placed by some writers in Clujlo- 
cladia and Chrysymenia. As limited by Thuret, the genus includes species in which 
the tetraspores occupy small cavities hollowed out in the cortex. The development 
of the fronds has not been fully studied. They are hollow and much constricted at 
the joints, but in our species there are no distinct diaphragms as in Champia. The 
walls of the filaments are composed of a membrane consisting of a single layer of round- 
ish-angular cells, or there are two or three layers, the outer cells being smaller than 
the rest. The inner side of the wall is traversed by long, slender filaments, to which 
are attached, laterally, small round cells, by which the filaments are attached to the 
walls. The cystocarps are external, and, in section, one sees a large basal triangular- 
ovoid carpogenic cell surrounded by closely packed sporiferous lobes, in which the cells 
are at first arranged in the form of densely radiating filaments, but at the time of ma- 
turity become irregularly placed. The pericarp is rather broadly ovate, with a dis- 
tinct terminal carpostome, and its walls are connected with the carpogenic cell by 
filaments, between the bases of which lie the sporiferous masses, around which is a 
gelatinous envelope. 

L. UNCiNATA, Menegh., in J. Ag., Spec. ( Chylocladia Baileyana, Harv., 
Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, p. 185, PI. 20 c. — Chylocladia uncinata, Ag., Zan. 
Icon. Adr., PI. 43. — Chondroslphon uncinatus, Kutz.) 

Pronds brownish red, densely tufted, two to five inches high, tubular, 
irregularly much branched, branches about one-tenth of an inch in diam- 
eter, divaricated, secund or scattered, often recurved, branchlets nar- 
rowly fusiform, much contracted at base, secund; tetraspores tripartite 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 155 

in cavities on the branchlets ; cystocarps sessile on the branches, ovoid, 
with a distinct terminal carpostome. 

Var. filiformis, Harv., 1. c. 

Slender, elongate, with longer and less arching branches. 

On wharves, sponges, &c, below low- water mark. 

Quincy, Mass., Harvey ; common from Cape Cod southward. 

A common and characteristic species of Long Island Sound, forming very densely 
branching tufts. The branches are usually arched backwards and bear secund branch- 
lets which are much constricted at base. The arrangement of the tetraspores in cavi- 
ties can easily be seen in fresh or alcoholic specimens, but not well in pressed plants. 
It is principally on the authority of Zanardini that our species is united with his C. 
uncinate/,, and as he had plenty of material for comparison his opinion is probably cor- 
rect. The Adriatic specimens of C. uncinata which we have examined corresponded 
better with the var. filiformis than with the more common secund form of Long Island 
Sound. - 

L. ROSEA, (Harv.) Thuret. (Chrysymenia rosea, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PI. 
358 a. — Chylocladia rosea, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, p. 186.) 

Fronds rose-colored, compressed, hollow, triangular in outline, main 
divisions simple or once or twice forked, one and a half to three inches 
long, an eighth to a quarter of an inch broad, tapering at the apex, pin- 
nate with simple or pinnate, opposite, distichous branchlets, which are 
much contracted at the base 5 tetraspores tripartite, sunk in cavities in 
the cortex of branches. 

On stones and shells in ten fathoms. 

Portsmouth, 1ST. H. 5 Newport, R. I., Harvey ; Gay Head, W. G. F.; 

Northern Europe. 

A rare and beautiful species, easily distinguished from the last by being broader and 
flattened, with beautifully regular, opposite, distichous pinnae. As far as we know, 
the cystocarpic fruit of this species has never been seen. It is tolerably abundant on 
shells of My tilus, in company with Scinaia furceUata, off Gay Head. 

CHAMPIA. 

(In honor of M. Deschamps, a French botanist. ) 

Fronds filamentous, branching, hollow, nodose, formed of one or more 
layers of roundish-angular cells with cellular diaphragms at the nodes, 
traversed internally by a few longitudinal filaments ; tetraspores tripar- 
tite, scattered in the cortex 5 cystocarps as in Lomentaria. 

A small genus, comprising about a dozen species, most of which are tropical or Aus- 
tralian, our species, C.parvula, being the most widely diffused. The genus resembles 
Lomentaria very closely in the cystocarpic fruit. The fronds, however, are not only 
constricted at the joints, but are nodose throughout, a diaphragm composed of a sin- 
gle layer of cells extending across the nodes. The tetraspores are not contained in 
sunken cavities as in Lomentaria. A section of the cystocarps of C. parvuJa and L. 
uncinata shows the same arrangement of the spores, but in the first-named species 
the carpogenic cell is larger and projects further into the conceptacle. 



156 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

C. PARVULA, (Ag.) Harv. (Chylocladla parvula, Phyc. Brit., PI. 210.— 
Champiaparvula, Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, p. 70.) PL XV, Figs. 2, 5. 

Fronds brownish red, globosely tufted, two to four inches high, intri- 
cately branching, branches opposite, alternate, or whorled, nodose, joints 
ouce or twice as long as broad, apices obtuse; tetraspores tripartite, 
scattered in the cortex ; conceptacles scattered, sessile, ovoid, with a dis- 
tinct carpostome. 

On Zoster a and algse below low- water mark. 

Common from Cape Cod southward; Europe; Pacific Ocean. 

A homely sx>ecies, which does not collapse when removed from the water. The con- 
ceptacles are larger than in our species of Lomcntaria, and better adapted for the study 
of the arrangement of the spores. 

Suborder HYPNE^E. 

Fronds filiform or subcompressed, branching; tetraspores zonate ; cys- 
tocarps external or partly immersed, filled with a spongy cellular mass, 
in which the spores are borne in small, scattered tufts on a branching 
filamentous placenta. 

A small suborder, in which the cystocarpic fruit is peculiar. Sections of the cysto- 
carps show a loose cellular structure which fills the interior, and scattered through 
the mass are small tufts of spores which remind one of the cystocarps of the Gigartinece. 
In the jiresent instance, however, the spores are not arranged irregularly in globose 
groups, but they are attached to filaments which branch among the general cellular 
mass which fills the conceptacle. In the Notes Algologiques an account of the devel- 
opment of the fruit in H. musciformis is given by Bornet. 

HYPNEA, Lam.x. 

(From Hypnum, a genus of mosses.) 

Fronds filiform, virgately or divaricately branched, with subulate 
branchlets, composed of an internal layer of large roundish-angular cells, 
which become smaller outwards, and a cortex of small, colored, polygo- 
nal cells ; tetraspores zonate, borne in swollen branchlets ; cystocarps 
external, subglobose, borne on the branchlets, containing a placenta com- 
posed of filaments which form a network, to which are attached at inter- 
vals tufts of spores. 

A genus of about twenty-five or thirty species, most of which are tropical and rather 
ill-defined, since the sterile and fertile plants of the same species vary considerably 
in aspect. Most of the species have the tips of the branches swollen and rolled in- 
wards. The cystocarps are peculiar, and in sections one sees small tufts of pyriform 
spores, scattered through a nearly solid tissue composed partly of a network of branch- 
ing filaments which form a sort of placenta and partly of the cells of the frond itself. 

H. musciformis, Lam.x. 

Fronds filiform, purplish red, tufted, virgately branched, six to twelve 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 157 

inches long, branches elongated, irregularly placed, clothed below with 
numerous, short, subulate branchlets, thickened and nearly naked near 
the apex, which is often much incurved ; tetraspores zonate, borne in 
somewhat swollen branchlets ; cystocarps subglobose, numerous, on di- 
varicately branched spinescent branchlets. 

New Bedford, Mass., Harvey; Wood's Holl, W. G. F. ; Orient, L. I., 
Hiss Booth ; and southward to the West Indies. 

In* four or five fathoms of water. 

A common species of the West Indies, and probably not rare in Long Island Sound, 
although not very common. It is usually found washed ashore in sheltered places 
like the Little Harbor, Wood's Holl, after a heavy blow, where one sometimes finds 
intricately twisted tufts two feet in diameter. With us cystocarps have not been seen, 
but the frond is very well developed on our coast. It may be recognized by the yel- 
lowish-purple color, by the long branches covered with short, subulate branchlets, and 
especially by the swollen, naked apices, which are rolled strongly inwards or almost 
circinate. Fertile specimens from the West Indies are more robust and do not so fre- 
quently have inrolled apices. The species does not adhere well to paper in drying. 

Suborder GELIDIE^E. 

Fronds of a dense cartilaginous structure, filiform or compressed, 
branching ; antheridia in superficial patches ; tetraspores cruciate, borne 
in the cortical layer; cystocarps formed in swollen branches and com- 
posed of spores arranged singly or in short filaments on the surface of 
an axile or parietal placenta, carpostomes present, often two in number; 

Rather a small order of dark-colored, rigid sea-weeds, whose fronds are formed of 
densely packed cells, and whose cystocarps are born in swollen terminal branches, 
but are not strictly external. In Gelidium the spores are sessile on an axile placenta, 
and there are two carpostomes on the opposite surfaces of the fronds. In Pterocladia 
the placenta is attanched to the lateral wall of the cystocarp, the spores are borne few 
in a row, aud there is but one carpostome. 

GELIDIUM, Lam.x. 

(From gelu, frost, and, secondarily, gelatine.) 

Fronds cartilaginous, terete or compressed, decompound-pinnate, 
formed of long cylindrical cells in the axis, surrounded by roundish 
cells which become small and polygonal at the surface ; antheridia in 
superficial patches ; tetraspores cruciate, scattered in the cortex ; cys- 
tocarps immersed in swollen branchlets, containing oblong or pyriform 
spores borne on an axile placenta which is attached by filaments to the 
walls of the cystocarp ; carpostomes usually one on each side of the 
frond. 

A genus of narrowly linear or nearly terete alga3 of a dense structure, found in nearly 
all parts of the world. The limits of the species are not well marked, because the 
ramifications on which the principal specific distinctions depend are very variable. 
The genus is recognized on our coast by the peculiar cystocarps, which are formed in 



158 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

small brauchlets, which become swollen and usually have an opening on each dde for 
the escape of the spores. A longitudinal section shows an axile placenta which 
passes through the cystocarp, on which the spores are borne, not in chains but singly. 
Numerous filaments connect the placenta with the wall of the cystocarp. The ac- 
count given above of the frond applies merely to what one sees in sections of the ma- 
ture branches. A section of the younger portions shows that there is originally an 
axile filament, from which are given off other filaments which are nearly parallel to 
the axis, and which afterwards turn outwards and form the cortical layer, the cells 
of. which they are composed becoming rounder and short. The genus differs from 
Pterocladia merely in the position of the placenta, which in the last-named genus is 
not central, but is attached laterally to the wall of the cystocarp. 

G. crinale, J. Ag., Epicr. ( Gelidium corneum, var. crinale, auct. — 
Acrocarpus lubricus and crinalis, Klitz., Tab. Phyc, Vol. XVII, Pis. 32, 
33.) 

Fronds csespitose, dark purple, setaceous, one to three inches high, 
primary axis procumbent, from which arise erect, sub terete, once or 
twice pinnate branches, pinnae distichous, alternate, short, patent, acute, 
often pinnatifid; tetraspores cruciate, borne in thickened subspathu- 
late or pinnatifid apices. 

Forming tufts on mud-covered rocks and stones at low- water mark. 

Portland, Maine; Red Hook, K Y., Harvey; New Haven; Wood's 
Holl, W. G. F. ; Maiden, Mass., Mr. Collins; Europe; California. 

We have followed Agardh in separating the var. crinale from the polymorphic and 
very widely diffused G. corneum. The typical form of the latter occurs in Florida and 
on our west coast. G. crinale has been as yet recorded in but few localities, but it is 
probably common along our whole coast. It is a homely, insignificant species, usually 
not much thicker than a bristle, and forms small blackish patches on mud-covered 
rocks. 

Suborder SOLIEEIE^S. 

Fronds filiform or compressed ; tetraspores cruciate or zonate ; cys- 
tocarps immersed in the frond, usually prominent at one side, spores 
arranged in short filaments and arranged in tufts around a large central* 
carpogenic cell or a central placenta, which is attached to the wall of 
cystocarp by filaments ; carpostome distinct. 

A small suborder, of which we have but a single species. It is characterized by 
having the spores produced few in a row and attached either, as in Solieria and 
Eucheuma, to a large central cell, or, as in Rhabdonia, to a large cellular placenta at 
the center of the . cystocarp. Whether Rhdbdonia should be united in a suborder 
with Solieria is perhaps doubtful. By some the genus is considered to be related to 
the Rhodymeniew, and its affinity to Rhodopkyllis and perhaps Euthora is not remote. 

EHABDONIA, Harv. 

(From pafttioc, a wand.) 

Fronds deep red, cylindrical or nodose, branching, formed of an axis 
composed of slender, branching, longitudinal filaments surrounded by 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 159 

a layer of large roundish-angular cells and a cortical layer of smaller 
cells; tetraspores zonate, scattered, immersed iu the cortex; cysto- 
carps immersed in the frond, and projecting at one side, opening by a 
distinct carpostonie, inclosing tufts of spores arranged in short, dense 
filaments, surrounding a globose, cellular, central placenta, connected by 
filamentous bands with a plexus of the axial filaments which surrounds 
the sporiferous mass. 

A genus comprising from fifteen to twenty species, the greater part of which are con- 
fined to Australia, divided by Agardh into two subgenera, in one of which the frond is 
cylindrical and in the other constricted at intervals. Our species belongs to the first 
division, and the frond resembles closely that of Cystoclonium purpurascens, and the 
same is true of the tetraspores. The cystocarps are large, and project on one side. 
The genus is placed by Agardh near Solieria, but in that genus the spores are placed 
around a very large central carpogenic cell, while in Rhabdonia they are attached to a 
large, solid, central placenta formed of cells. The placenta is attached to the walls of 
the cystocarp by numerous bands of interwoven filaments, between which are the 
sporiferous masses, which consist at maturity of short filaments, whose cells are changed 
into spores, which are not held together by a gelatinous envelope as in Champia. 

E. tenera, Ag. (Gigartina tenera, J. Ag., Symb. — Solieria chordalis, 
Harv. (non Ag.), Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, p. 121, PI. 23 a.— Rhabdonia 
tenera, J. Ag., Spec— B. Baileyi, Harv. MSS., Am. Journ. Science, Yol. 
VI, p. 39.) PL XIV, Fig. 2. 

Fronds deep red, from six inches to a foot and a half long, cylindrical, 
attached by a small disk, simple below, above densely branched, alter- 
nately decompound, branches long, virgate, erect, tapering at the base 
and apex, and furnished with numerous, linear, fusiform branchlets ; 
tetraspores zonate, scattered in the cortex; cystocarps numerous, 
immersed, but projecting at one side. 

In warm, quiet bays, in shallow water. 

Common from Cape Cod southward ; Goose Cove, Gloucester, Mass., 
W. G.F. 

A characteristic species of Long Island Sound, and only known in one locality north 
of Cape Cod, but extending southward to the West Indies. It forms beautiful tufts 
often two feet long, in muddy places around wharves and in sheltered places, and is 
not likely to be mistaken for any other plant, except possibly for a large form of 
Cystoclonium purpurascens. The procarps consist of three cells, and from the inner- 
most or that nearest the axis grows a long trichogyne, which curves round in a tor- 
tuous fashion, and makes its way to the surface, reminding one of the trichogynes of 
Hahjmenia Ugulata, figured by Bornet. The section of the cystocarp given by Harvey 
in the Nereis does not pass through the center, and the cystocarp is not a closed cav- 
ity, as supposed by Harvey, but has a distinct carpostome ; nor are the spores pyri- 
form and attached to separate pedicels, but they are formed from the cells of short 
filaments. 



160 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Suborder SPONGIOCARPE^E. 

Fronds solid, cylindrical, branching; antheridia in spots on upper 
part of fronds ; tetraspores cruciate, immersed in the cortical filaments ; 
cystocarps in external wart-like protuberances, composed of parallel 
filaments, spores obovate, densely packed around the surface of a cellu- 
lar mass which surrounds the tip of a short pedicel. 

The present suborder was made by J. G. Agardh and Harvey to include a single 
species, Polyides rotundus, a species in several respects anomalous. The development 
of the cystocarps of that species was first made out by Thuret and Bornet, and a de- 
tailed account was published in the Etudes Phycologiques. In its development the 
cystocarp of Pohjides resembles that of the genus Dudresnaya. There is produced from 
the cells at the base of the trichogyne a number of filaments which wind amongst the 
short filaments, of which the wart-like bodies near the tips of the fronds arc formed. 
These filaments come in contact with certain cells of the protuberances, which then 
divide and produce the spores. Although this indirect fertilization of the carpogenic 
cells by means of winding filaments is the same as is found in Dudresnaya, the mature cys- 
tocarp is different in the two genera. In Poly ides the ripe spores are arranged iii a regu- 
lar layer around a small placenta, which is borne on a short pedicel produced from the 
carpogenic cell. In Dudresnaya coccinea the spores are irregularly grouped around a 
placenta surrounding the carpogenic cell itself. In D. purpurifera, however, accord- 
ing to D. Bornet, the cystocarps more nearly resemble those of Polyides, and he thinks 
it not impossible to unite the two genera in one suborder. 

POLYIDES, Ag. 
(From noXvc, many, and idea, form.) 

Fronds cylindrical, dichotomous, composed of interlaced branching 
filaments, consisting of elongated cells and curving outwards at the sur- 
face so as to form a cortical layer of horizontal filaments 5 antheridia in 
patches on the upper part of frond, consisting of short, densely packed 
filaments bearing clusters of antherozoids ; tetraspores cruciate, im- 
mersed in the cortical layer ; cystocarps in wart-like protuberances on 
the upper part of the frond. 

P. rotundus, Grev. ; Phyc. Brit, PI. 95. 

Fronds blackish red, cylindrical, cartilaginous, three to six inches 
long, attached by a disk, with an undivided stipe, which becomes above 
repeatedly dichotomous, apices obtuse j warts flesh-colored, numerous 
on the upper divisions of the frond. 

On stones in deep pools and in deep water. 

Common from New York northward ; Europe. 

A species easily recognized by its regularly dichotomous, cylindrical frond, by its 
dark, almost black, color, and dense cartilaginous substance. When sterile it might 
be mistaken for Furcellaria fastigiata, a common species of Northern Europe, which 
maybe expected to occur on our coast. In fruit, however, they are easily distinguished, 
since the cystocarps of Polyides are borne in external warts, while those of Furcellaria 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 161 

are in the somewhat swollen tips of the frond. The present species is usually found 
washed ashore from deep water, but on the northern coast is found also in deep tide- 
pools. When dried it becomes brittle and does not adhere to paper. 

Suborder SPH^EROCOCCOIDE^. 

Fronds cylindrical or membranaceous, substance often very delicate; 
antheridia forming superficial patches or occasionally contained in 
sunken cavities; tetraspores cruciate, zonate, or tripartite, often col- 
lected in spots (sori) on the surface; cystocarps external, hemispherical 
or flask-shaped, spores arranged in moniliform filaments, which radiate 
from a basal placenta, carpostome distinct. 

The present suborder is by Agardh and some other writers divided into two, the 
Splicer vcoccoidece, which include rather coarse cartilaginous algee, which are cylindrical 
or somewhat compressed, but hardly membranaceous, and the Delcsseriecc, which are 
rosy-red and of delicate texture and distinctly membranaceous. The fruit, however, 
is very similar in both groups. The spores are arranged in subdichotomous filaments, 
which radiate from a basal placenta, which in some genera, as Gracilaria y projects far 
into the cavity of the cystocarp. The suborder differs from the JRhodymeniece in that 
the moniliform arrangement of the sporiferous filaments is preserved even at matu- 
rity, and the filaments are distinct from one another and not held together by a gelat- 
inous envelope. It must, however, be admitted that there are genera which seem to 
indicate a close relation between the two suborders. 

GKINKELLIA, Harv. 

(Named in honor of Mr. Henry Grinnell, of New York.) 

Fronds rosy-red, occasionally purple, delicately membranaceous, with 
a slender percurrent midrib, composed of a single layer, at the midrib 
of several layers, of large polygonal cells ; antheridia in tufts on both 
sides of the frond ; tetraspores tripartite, in swollen spots on the frond; 
cystocarps sessile on the frond, flask- shaped, spores in dichotomously 
branching filaments arising from a basal placenta. 

A genus comprising a single species, which is found from Cape Cod to Norfolk, sep- 
arated from Belesseria because the tetraspores are formed in incrassated spots on the 
frond. The genus is too near Delcsseria, of which it should perhaps form a subgenus. 

G. Americana, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, PL 21 b. (Belesseria 
Americana, Ag. — Aglaiopliyllum Americanum, Mont. — Cryptopleura 
Americana, Kiitz.) PI. XIII, Figs. 2-4. 

Exs.— Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 64. 

Fronds dioecious, four inches to a foot and a half long, one to four 
inches wide, lanceolate, tapering at the extremities, occasionally bifid 
or proliferous, margin smooth or wavy ; antheridia in small spots on 
both sides of the frond ; tetraspores scattered over the frond in thickened 
spots ; cystocarps scattered, sessile, flask-shaped. 
S. Miss. 59 11 



162 KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

On wharves, shells, stones, and sponges below low-water mark, and 
extending to several fathoms. 
Cape Cod, southward. 

This, with the exception perhaps of Dasya elegans, is the most beautiful alga of 
Long Island Sound. It is often found in tufts on wharves below low-water mark, and 
it flourishes in rather warm, shallow bays. It is met with at all seasons of the year; 
and, according to Miss Fisher, of Edgartown, the ladies of Martha's Vineyard collect 
it in winter, when it is found in considerable quantities on the ice. The male plant 
is smaller than the cystocarpic, and the antheridia may be detected by the naked eye 
in the form of small, whitish, glistening spots. The walls of the conceptacles are 
thinner than those of Delesseria. The swellings in which the tetraspores are borne 
can hardly be called warts, and the figure given by Harvey in the Nereis is somewhat 
exaggerated. The surface of the frond is raised, and becomes more or less convex, 
but there are no such irregular projections as represented in Harvey's figure. 

DELESSEEIA, Lam.x. 

(In honor of Baron Benjamin Delessert.) 

Fronds bright red, thin, membranaceous, laciniate or branched, cos- 
tate, and often with lateral veins, composed of a single or a few layers 
of large polygonal cells ; antheridia in spots on the frond ; tetraspores 
tripartite, grouped in spots (sori) on the frond or on marginal leaflets j 
cystocarps external, sessile, with a basal placenta, from which radiate 
the numerous subdichotomous, sporiferous filaments. 

A beautiful genus, comprising fifty or more species, distributed all over the globe. 
They are of delicate texture and rosy-red color, and are generally leaf-like in appear- 
ance, although some are narrowly linear. The genus is not likely to be mistaken for 
any other on our coast, unless it be Grinnellia, in which the tetraspores are borne in 
thickened portions of the frond. The fronds, when young, are more or less leaf-like 
and provided with a midrib, and generally also with lateral nerves; and, as they 
grow older, they become more or less stipitate by the wearing away of the blade of 
the leaf, which leaves the thickened midrib either naked or with a small winged 
margin. When still more advanced, owing to the growth of the lacinise and the 
wearing away of the lateral nerves, the stipes appear to branch and to bear several 
leaf-like fronds. In some species the membranous portion of the fronds consists of a 
single layer of cells, which are rectangular when seen in section and polygonal seen 
from above. At the veins the cells form several layers, and in some species it is only 
at the tip that the fronds are formed of a single layer. When the cystocarps are 
formed, the cells are divided by numerous partitions parallel to the surface of the 
frond, and the wall of the conceptacle, when mature, consists of several layers of cells, 
all of about the same size and smaller than the cells of the frond. 

D. sintjosa, Lam.x. ; Phyc. Brit, PI. 259. 

Fronds four to eight inches long and two to four broad, stipitate be- 
low, stipe often elongated and branched, with oblong or obovate, deeply 
sinuate or pinnatifid toothed leaves, midrib percurrent, lateral veins 
opposite, extending to the lacinia3 ) tetraspores tripartite, either borne in 
small lateral leaflets or in patches following the veins; cystocarps ses- 
sile, generally on the veins, hemispherical, with a distinct carpostome. 

On algae, generally in $eep water. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 163 

From ~New Haven northward. 

One of the more common Floridew north of Cape Cod, and not rare in the colder 
waters of Long Island and Vineyard Sounds. It is found all the year, but especially 
in the autumn and winter. It is at once recognized by the presence of a midrib and 
lateral veins and by its general resemblance in outline to an oak-leaf. 

D. ALATA, Lam.x. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 247. 

Fronds two to four inches long, an eighth of an inch wide, stipitate 
below, above pinnately decompound, divisions linear, margin entire, 
costate, lateral veins scarcely visible ; tetraspores tripartite, borne in 
the apices of the segments or in special leaflets ; cystocarps hemispheri- 
cal, on the upper veins. 

Var. angustissima, Harv., Phyc. Brit, PI. 83. 

Fronds very narrow, blade of the leaflets almost wanting. 

From Boston northward, with the last ; Europe. 

A common species of Northern New England, but not yet found south, of Cape 
Cod. Our form is uniformly narrower than the common European form, and there is 
scarcely a trace of lateral veins. Hypoglossum Grayanum, Reinsch, Contributiones ad 
Algologiam et Fungologiam, p. 55, PL 42, appears to be the same as D. alata of the New 
England coast. 

D. Leprieurii, Mont.; Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, PI. 22 c. (Hypoglos- 
sum Leprieurii, Kiitz. — Caloglossa Leprieurii, J. Ag., Epicr.) 

Fronds purple, one to two inches high, about a tenth of an inch wide, 
dichotomous, articulato-coDstricted, costate, proliferous from the costa, 
segments linear-lanceolate, attenuate, rhizoids and new leaflets formed 
at the constrictions ; tetraspores tripartite, in oblique lines extending 
from the midrib to the margin ; cystocarps sessile on the midrib. 

West Point, Bailey; Fort Lee, 1ST. Y., Mr. Averill; Harlem Biver, 
C. H. Peck; and common southward. 

This small species inhabits tidal rivers where the water is warm, and is found on 
wood- work, stones, and water-plants. It is probably not rare near New York, and on 
our Southern Atlantic coast it is common. It extends to the West Indies, and is also 
found in the warmer waters of both hemispheres. It is distinguished at once from 
our other species by its small size, purple color, and very tliin constricted fronds. 
The species was placed by Harvey in the subgenus Caloglossa,which is separated as a 
distinct genus by Agardh in his Epicrisis. 

GRAC1LAKIA, Grev. 

(From gracilis, slender.) 

Fronds filiform or compressed, carnoso-cartilaginous, dichotomous or 
irregularly decompound, composed of an inner layer of large angular 
cells, which become smaller outwards, and a cortical layer of small col- 
ored cells; antheridia in cavities sunk in the cortex or superficial; 
tetraspores cruciate, dispersed in the cortical layer ; cystocarps exter- 
nal, sessile, spherical or conical, with a large cellular placenta at the 



164 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

base, from which radiate the sporiferous filaments, pericarp thick and 
connected with the placenta by slender filaments. 

A genus containing not far from forty species, none of which really deserve the generic 
lame, for they are usually coarse and often decidedly cartilaginous. The specific dis- 
tinctions are principally derived from the branching, which in the present genus is 
very variable. Some of the species, as G. lichenoides, are used as food. 

G. multipartita, J. Ag.; Phyc. Brit., PL 15. 

Fronds purplish red, four to twelve inches long, compressed or sub- 
membranaceous, deeply cleft vertically in an irregularly dichotomous 
or palmate manner, divisions linear wedge-shaped, acute; cystocarps 
large, conical, scattered over the frond. 

Var. angustissima, Harv. 

Fronds narrow, nearly filiform below, compressed above, irregularly 
dichotomous, the apices frequently palmately divided. 

On stones and on muddy bottoms below low- water mark. 

Massachusetts Bay, Harvey, and common from Cape Cod southward ; 
Europe; California. 

A coarse and variable species, which is generally of a dingy purple color. The 
limits of the species are difficult to fix. Occasionally one finds with us specimens as 
broad as the common European form, but on the coast of California, and especially of 
Florida, one finds forms which look like large Bhodymenice. Most of our specimens 
are narrower than the type, and the var. angustissima of Harvey, it must be confessed, 
has more the habit of G. compressa than of G. multipartita. At Orient we^have seen 
what we supposed was G. confervoides, but unfortunately our specimens were mis- 
placed. 

. Suborder RHODOMELE.E. 

Fronds usually filiform and branching, sometimes membranaceous or 
(in exotic genera) reticulate 5 antheridia ovate or lanceolate in outline, 
formed by the transformation of monosiphonous branchlets, occasionally 
covering the surface of discoid al branches ; tetraspores generally tripar- 
tite, borne either in localized portions of the fronds or in specially modi- 
fied branches (stichidia) ; cystocarps external, with a distinct ovate or 
urceolate conceptacle or pericarp, spores pyriform, borne on short stalks 
given off from a basal placenta. 

The largest suborder of the Floridece, and one containing many of the most beauti- 
ful sea- weeds. The suborder is mainly characterized by the cystocarpic fruit, which 
is external, and has the spores borne separately on short stalks which arise from a 
placenta which surrounds the carpogenic cell at the base of the conceptacle. In the 
Dasya, however, the filaments which bear the spores branch and fill the larger por- 
tion of the conceptacle, but we have not thought it advisable to separate them as a 
suborder. The antheridia, except in the genus Chondriopsis, where they assume a pecu- 
liar shape, form ovate or siliculose tufts, generally developed from monosiphonous 
branchlets or rather hairs. The position f the tetraspores varies in the different 
genera. In some cases the branchlets become broadly ovate and the tetraspores are 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 165 

borne in parallel rows. Such collections of tetraspores are called stichidia. The 
fronds in the present suborder vary greatly. In the more beautiful genera of tropical 
regions they are in the form of complicated net-works or in membranes in which the 
cells are arranged in regular order, but in the majority of the genera the fronds are 
filiform and branching and generally beset, at least at some seasons, with delicate 
hairs. In most of the genera represented on our coast the fronds have a polysiphonous 
axis, that is, on cross-section there is seen to be a central cell surrounded by a circle 
of large c#lls, and in longitudinal sections there is a central filament composed of large 
cells, and on each side a lateral filament whose cells correspond in length to those of 
the central filament, the upper and lower walls of the three cells forming two parallel 
lines. 

Fronds flattened Odonthalia. 

Fronds filiform » 1 

1. Tetraspores borne in the smaller branches 2 

Tetraspores borne in stichidia 4 

2. Superficial cells small, irregularly placed 3 

Superficial cells, at least in the younger branches, in transverse 

bands Polys iphonia. 

3. Branches filiform throughout Rhodomela. 

Ultimate branches club-shaped, much attenuated at base . Chondriopsis. 

4. Fronds beset with monosiphonous branchlets Dasya. 

Fronds without monosiphonous branchlets, superficial cells quad- 
rate Bostrychia. 

CHONDEIOPSIS, J. Ag. 

(From x ov dp°Si cartilage, and otfjic, an appearance.) 

Fronds brownish red, terete or subcompressed, pinnately decompound, 
branches virgate, much constricted at the base, composed of a monosi- 
phonous axis surrounded by a few (4-G) siphons and surrounded by sec- 
ondary siphons, cortex of small polygonal cells; antheridia borne in 
short disk-like branchlets covering both surfaces except at the margin ; 
tetraspores tripartite, in club-shaped branchlets ; cystocarps sessile, 
^fcite, with a distinct carpostome, spores pyriform, on short pedicels 
from a basal placenta. 

A genus of which about twenty species have been described, wnich inhabit princi- 
pally the warmer parts of the world, some being widely diifused. They are as a whole 
difficult to distinguish, the specific marks being principally the ramification and shape 
of the branchlets, points in which the different species vary very much. The anther- 
idia are very peculiar. On the upper branches are borne flattened, more or less in- 
curved, disk-shaped branches, whose margin is wavy. The antheridia cover both 
sides of these discoidal branches, except at the margin, which is composed of large 
hyaline cells. The fronds are intermediate between those of lihodomela and Laurencia, 
and the branchlets are always much constricted at the base. Most of the species were 
formerly included by Lamouroux and others in the genus Laurencia. By C. A. Agaidh 
they were, in the Species Algarnm, placed in Chondria, a genus retained by Harvey in the 
Nereis. Since as originally defined the genus Chondria embraced alga? of rather remote 
relationship to one another, J. G. Agardh, in the third volume of his Species Algarum, 
separated the present group, under the name of Chondriojms, the name Chundria being 



1G6 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

abandoned altogether. The habit of the species of the present genus is much like that 
of Laurencia, hut the polysiphonous character of the fronds is more evident, the sub- 
stance more delicate, and the branchlets more distinctly club-shaped than in that 
genus. As in Laurencia, the apices are all depressed, the growing point being sunk in 
a hollow concavity, from which, as well as from the younger part of the fronds, project 
numerous tufts of hyaline, dichotomous, monosiphonous filaments. 

0. DASYPHILA, Ag. {Laurencia dasijphila, Phyc. Brit., PL 152.) 

Fronds dioecious, four to eight inches high, broadly pyramidal in 
outline, cylindrical, robust, densely branched, generally with a percur- 
rent axis and alternate, spreading, pinnately decompound branches, ulti- 
mate divisions short, club-shaped or top-shaped, very obtuse at apex 
and much constricted at base j cystocarps sessile on very short branch- 
lets. 

Var. sedifolia, Ag. (Chondria sedifolia, Ker. Am. Bor., Part II, 
PL 18 g.) 

Branches fasciculate, approximate, branchlets obovate-oblong. 

On rocks and stones at low- water mark, and on Zostera. 

Common from New York to Cape Cod 5 Europe. 

A rather coarse species which does not collapse when removed from the water, but 
which glistens on account of the water held by the tufts of hyaline filaments at the 
tips of the branches. The species is recognized by its coarseness and broadly pyra- 
midal outline and by its club-shaped ultimate divisions. The variety has rather less 
obtuse tips and is not uncommon. In spite of its coarseness, the species <]uickly decays 
in fresh water. 

C. tenuissima, Ag. (Laurencia tenuissima, Phyc. Brit., PL 198. — 
Chondria tenuissima, Ker. Am. Bor., Part II, PL 18/; Etudes PhycoL, 
Pis. 43-48.) 

Fronds dioecious, four to eight inches high, narrowly pyramidal in 
outline, cylindrical, slender, rather loosely branched, with a percurrent 
axis and long, suberect, alternate, virgate, pinnately decompound 
branches, ultimate branchlets narrowly fusiform, attenuated at both 
extremities. 

Var. Baileyana. (Laurencia Bailey ana, Mont., Ann. Sci.Xat, Ser. 3, 
Vol. II, p. 63. — Chondria Baileyana, Harv., Ker. Am. Bor., Vol. II, 
PL 18 a. — Chondria striolata, Farlow, List of Marine Algae.) 

Branches erect, subsimple, beset with slender curved branchlets, which 
are much attenuated at base and blunt at the apex. 

On stones at low-water mark. 

Squam, Mass., and common in Long Island Sound; Europe. 

A variable species, distinguished from the last by its lighter yellowish color, less 
dense branching, and slender fusiform branchlets. The typical form is common with 
us, but not so common as variety Baileyana, which was considered by Agardh to be 
tho same as C. striolata Ag. The species seems to us rather to be a form of C. tenuis- 



THE MARINE ALGJ3 OF NEW ENGLAND. 1G7 

sima, but it must be confessed approaching C. dasyphylla. Bailey was inclined to refer 
it to C. dasyphylla. He quotes Montagne, who first described the species, as Laurencia 
dasyhhylla, as follows: " Notwithstanding the close affinity of this alga /to Laurencia 
tenuissima and to L. dasyphylla, it cannot be confounded with either of them. The 
absence of ramification distinguishes it sufficiently from the first, and the form of the 
ramenta does not permit it to be referred to the second, from which it is in other re- 
spects quite distinct." Just what is meant by the "absence of ramification," by which 
L. Baileyana is to be distingished from L. tenuissima, is not easy to see. 

0. littoralis, (Harv.) J. Ag. (Chondria littoralis, Ner. Am. Bor., 
Part II, p. 22.) 

u Fronds robust, elongate, subdichotonious or irregularly much 
branched, branches flexuous, attenuated, with rounded axils, ramuli 
scattered or crowded, fusiform, attenuated at the base and apex, simple 
or pinnulated, acute." (Harvey, 1. c.) 

Wood's Holl, Mass., W. G. F. 

The description taken from the Nereis applies pretty well to a specimen collected at 
Wood's Holl. We have seen several specimens of the species collected at Key West. 
It is dark colored and coarse, but has the branching and habit of C. tenuissima. The 
Key West specimens are reddish yellow, perhaps owing to exposure to the sun. Spe- 
cies of the present genus vary so much in appearance, according as they are more or 
less thoroughly " squashed" in pressing, that the determination of dried specimens fre- 
quently has but little value. 

0. atropurpurea, (Harv.) J. Ag. {Chondria atropurpurea, Harv., 
Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, PI. 18 e.) 

Fronds four to six inches high, robust, very densely branched ; branches 
patent, secondary brauches tapering at the base and apex, beset with 
scattered fusiform ramuli. 

Var. fasciculata, Farlow. 

Secondary branches borne in clusters ; cystocarps broadly ovate, sessile 
on short lateral branchlets. 

From Charleston, S. C, southward, Harvey. Var. fasciculata, Fort 
Hamilton, K Y. 

The characters of the present species are not well defined. Specimens from Charleston, 
determined by Harvey himself, are robust and have the ultimate branches scattered, but 
unfortunately they are without fruit. What has been supposed to be a variety of the 
same species occurs rather commonly on the coast of California, and was distributed in 
the Alg. Am. Bor., No. 57. It is, however, not beyond question whether the form dis- 
tributed should not rather have been referred to C. nidijica, Harv. , described in the 
Supplement to the Nereis The plant which is here described as var. fasciculata is less 
robust than specimens from California and Charleston, but resembles them in the dark 
color and secondary branches which taper at both extremities. It differs from Charles- 
ton specimens in having the branches in tufts, in which respect it resembles some Cal- 
ifornian specimens. Whether the New York form should be considered a variety of 
C. atropurpurea rather than C. uidifica is perhaps doubtful. 



1G8 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 
ODONTHALIA, Lyngb. 

(From ochvg, a tooth, a/If, the sea.) 

Fronds dark purple, plane, deeply distichously pinnatifid, with a 
rudimentary midrib, margin alternately toothed, formed of oblong inter- 
nal cells and small irregularly shaped cortical cells; tetraspores tripar- 
tite, arranged in two rows in short, corymbose, stipitate, lanceolate 
branchlets (stichidia), which are marginal and generally axillary ; cys- 
tocarps similarly placed, ovate, with a distinct carpostome and pyriform 
spores borne on a basal placenta. 

A small genus of seven or eight species, which are confined mainly to the colder 
waters of the northern hemisphere. 0. dentata occurs in the North Atlantic, extend- 
ing as far south as Halifax. Several other species inhabit the North Pacific, esj>ecially 
the vicinity of Kamtschatka, one species occurring as for south as Japan and another 
in California. The species are dark and opaque, and the polysiphonous structure is 
scarcely visible in the older parts of the fronds, but is clearly seen in young shoots, 
especially in adventitious growths. 

O. dentata, Lyngb. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 34. 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 56. 

Fronds four to twelve inches long, quarter of an inch broad, decom- 
poundly pinnate, branches oblong, deeply pinnatifid or bipinnatifid, 
laciniae alternate, linear, sharply inciso dentate toward the truncated ex- 
tremities ; tetrasporic and cystocarpic branchlets clustered, axillary. 

Halifax, N. S., and several localities on the Saint Lawrence Eiver. 

This species has not yet been found within our limits, but may be expected on the 
Maine coast. It is easily recognized by its color and ramification, and does not adhere 
to paper in drying. As a rule, American forms of this species are narrower than the 
common British form, but they are not distinct, and at Halifax the common British 
form was dredged by Professor Hyatt in abundance. The 0. furcaia of Reinsch, 
Contiibutiones ad Algologiam et Fungologiam, p. 58, PL 42 a, is apparently the com- 
mon narrow form of the present species. 

EHODOMELA, J. Ag. 

(From po<hog } red, and fie'Kag, black.) 

Fronds dark red, filiform or subcom pressed, pmnately decompound, 
branches filiform, not contracted at base, composed of a monosiphonous 
axis surrounded by several siphons and a thick cortex of small, irregu- 
larly placed, polygonal cells ; tetraspores tripartite, borne in the ultimate 
branches ; cystocarps sessile or pedicellate, spores pyriform, on short 
stalks from the basal placenta. 

A small genus of dark-colored alga*, confined to rather high latitudes in both hemi- 
spheres. It is connected by the genus Ilytiphlcea with Polyaiphonia. The polysiphonous 
character of the frond is seen at the tip, and in most species cross-sections of the stem 
show a circle of large ce}ls surrounding the axial cell and a thick cortical layer. When 
young the species are covered with dichotomous hairs. The genus is distinguished 
at sight from Chondriopsis by not having branchlets constricted at the base. 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 169 

B. SUBFUSCA, Ag. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 264. 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 55. 

Fronds six inches to a foot and a half long, terete, pinnately decom- 
pound, branches virgate, lower branchlets patent, subulate, the upper 
fasciculato- corymbose $ tetraspores prominent in subtorulose branchlets; 
cystocarps sessile, ovato- globose. 

Yar. gracilior, J. Ag. (Rhodomela gracilis, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., 
Part II, PI. 13 c.) 

Fronds slender ; tetrasporic branches distinctly torulose. 

In deep tide-pools and at a depth of several fathoms. 

Throughout our whole limits ; Europe. 

A species which varies very much with the time of year and the place of growth. 
It is usually common in the spring months, when it is often washed ashore, and in the 
summer and autumn it is occasionally found, especially in dredging, in a denuded 
form, nothiug remaining but the older branches, which are perennial and which give 
rise the following season to rather delicate new branches. As usually seen on Cape Ann 
the fronds are short, robust, and dark colored, even in early spring, while at Wood's 
Holl and in Long Island Sound the common spring form is much attenuated, delicate, 
and of a brighter red color, forming the Bhodomela Eochei of the Nereis. In spite of 
the difference in aspect, the extreme forms are connected by numerous transitional 
stages which make it impossible to admit a specific distinction. By Agardh B. Bochei 
is considered to be the spring form of the typical B. subfusca, but we are more inclined 
to regard it as the young of the var. graeilior, which is more common south of Cajje 
Cod, the type occurring northward. The species does not adhere well to paper. 

POLYSIPHONIA, Grev. 

(From Tro^vg, many, and oupov, a tube.) 

Fronds filamentous or subcompressed, distichously or irregularly 
branching, formed of a monosiphonous axis and several (4-20) siphons, 
often with secondary siphons, and either naked or with a cortical layer 
of irregular cells, furnished with numerous tufts of hyaline, monosipho- 
nous, dichotomous filaments; antheridia lanceolate in outline, borne on 
the dichotomous filaments; tetraspores tripartite, in one, rarely in two, 
rows, in the slightly altered upper branches ; cystocarps ovato-globose* 
or urceolate ; spores pyriform, on short pedicels borne around a basal 
carpogenic cell. 

The largest genus of Floridcce, of which more than two hundred species have been 
described, but not all of which can be considered valid. They abound in ail parts of 
the world, especially in warm, shallow waters. Some are perennial, but the majority 
are annual and disappear during the winter. They are easily recognized at sight by 
the structure of the frond aud the tetraspores, which are almost always in a single row 
in the upper brauches, rarely in a double row, and not in swollen special branches or 
stichidia, as in Bostrychia, which is nearly related to Polysiplionia. The growth is from 
a single apical cell, from which is formed a monosiphonous axis. By tangential di- 
visions of the upper cells there is formed a number of peripheral cells and a central 



170 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

cell. The peripheral cells are similar to one another and of the same length as the 
central cell, and, as the successive secondary cells lie exactly or nearly exactly over 
one another, the mature frond appears to he composed of a central filament or axis 
surrounded by a number of secondary filaments or siphons, as they are termed in speak- 
ing of the present genus and its allies. There is formed in some species a second set 
of cells alternating with the siphons, and also corticating, generally irregularly sinuous 
cells, which cover the surface. The tetraspores, according to Prof. E. P. Wright, are 
formed by out-growths from the axial cell. The antheridia are borne on the delicate, 
colorless filaments which form tufts on the younger parts of the frond. The filaments are 
dichotomous and the antheridia cover the lower cells of one of the forkings, the branch 
Sometimes being prolonged beyond, when the antheridia are said to be mucronate. 
The cystocarps are terminal on short branches, and contain within a pericarp, whose 
cells are arranged in longitudinal series, pyriform spores on short stalks around a small 
basal placenta. Some of our species are not well defined, and a prolonged observation 
on the shore, especially during the spring months, is necessary before the limits of 
some species can be accurately fixed. 

Sect. I. Siphons four, cortications wanting. 

P. urceolata, (Dillw.) Grev.; Phyc. Brit,, PI. 167. 

Fronds deep red, becoming blackish, csespitose, three to ten inches 
high, setaceous, branches subdicliotomous, with short, alternate, patent 
or recurved, decompound branchlets, siphons four, cells below 4-5 
times longer than broad, becoming shorter above ; cystocarps on short 
lateral branches, urceol ate, .with a distinct neck; antheridia linear- 
oblong, mucronate. 

Yar. Formosa, Ag. (Polysiplwnia formosa, Phyc. Brit.) 

Filaments soft and flaccid, branches long, flexuous, branchlets some- 
what attenuated, cells 5-10 times as long as broad. 

Var. patens, Grev. (P. subcontorta. Peck, Twenty-third Eeport New 
York State Botanist.) 

Branches numerous, recurved or revolute, 

On wharves and rocks at low -water mark. 

From New Jersey northward ; Europe ; California. 

A common perennial species, most abundant in the spring, when it has a deep blood- 
red color. It is frequeut on old wharves and wood- work and on the under surface of 
rocks near low-water mark, where it forms small turfs, in company with Callithamnion 
Ji'otML The var. formosa is found only in the spring, and is softer, forms longer 
tufts, and has longer cells than the type. It is the only form of the species which 
adheres well to paper or which can lay claim to beauty. It is especially luxuriant in 
April at Wood's Holl and the region of New Bedford, and forms dense tufts sometimes 
a foot long. As usually seen in summer, the species is blackish and setaceous and 
covered with diatomes. The var. patens, which differs somewhat in general habit from 
the type, is not uncommon with us. Through the kindness of Mr. Peck, we have been 
able to examine a specimen of his P. svbeontorta, which, judging from the description 
in the Twenty-third Report, seemed to be closely related to, if not a form of, P. Har- 
veyi. An examination of the specimen, however, seems to us to show that it is var. 
patens of the present species, which it resembles in microscopic characters. 

P. SUBTILISSIMA, Mont. 

Filaments densely tufted, two to four inches long, purplish brown, 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 171 

rising- from a creeping base, capillary, alternately decompound, branches 
inultifid, attenuate, branchlets filiform, internodes once and a half as 
long as broad. 

Var. Westpointensis, Harv, 

More slender and delicate. 

Jackson Ferry, N. Y. ; Xewburyport, Mass., Harvey; Providence, E. 
I., Mr. Olney; Gloucester, Mass. ? W. G. F. The variety at West Point. 

The present species is with difficulty distinguished from P. Olneyi, which, in its turn, 
too closely approaches P. Harveyi. The two last-named species are attached by a 
small disk, and the filaments do not rise from a creeping base, as in the present spe- 
cies. The vertical filaments of P. subtilissima are of a purjde color, and are fine and 
soft, and the cells are not much longer than broad. We have seen specimens collected 
by Mr. Olney near Providence which may with certainty be referred to the present, and 
have found floating in ditches at Gloucester tufts of a very dark, delicate species which 
may probably be referred to it. The specimens were apparently washed from some 
muddy shore, but the creeping basal filaments could not be seen. Gloucester col- 
lectors should search for the plant in muddy ditches towards Little Good Harbor. 

P. Olneyi, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, PI. 17 b.— Dough Balls. 

Fronds brownish red, densely tufted, from two to five inches high, 
filaments capillary, much branched, branches patent or divaricate, 
decompound, attenuated above, with scattered slender branchlets, 
internodes three or four times as broad below, becoming shorter above; 
antheridia ellipsoidal, not mucronate ) cystocarps broadly ovate, nearly 
sessile. 

On Zostera. 

From New York to Halifax, most common south of Cape Cod. 

The present species passes by numerous forms into P. Harveyi, and in spite of the 
marked difference in the typical forms of the two species, the question remains to bo 
settled whether P. Olneyi is not a slender variety of P. Harveyi. In its typical form 
P. Olneyi forms dense soft tufts, sometimes called dough -balls by the sea-shore popula- 
tion. The filaments are divaricately branched below, but the upper branches are 
slender and erect and beset with fine byssoid branchlets. When old, however, the 
lower branches become rigid, and the branchlets rather spine-like, as in the nest spe- 
cies. Both P. Olneyi and P. Harveyi are very common from Cape Cod to New York, 
growing usually on Zosiera in shallow, quiet bays. As they mature they fall from the 
Zostera and are blown into small coves, the bottoms of which are sometimes almost 
carpeted with the globose tufts of these two species, which lie loosely on the bottom. 
The typical forms of the present species collapse at once when removed from the 
water. 

P. Harveyi, Bail. ; Ker. Am. Bor., Part II, PI. 17 a.— Nigger Hair. 
PI. XV, Figs. 3, 4. 

Fronds blackish red, globosely tufted, filaments two to six inches 
high, setaceous, when young with a leading axis, becoming divaricately 
much branched, branches alternately decompound, patent, often angu- 
larly bent, beset with numerous short, simple or forked, spine-like 



172 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

branchlets, internodes all short, never more than twice as long as broad ; 
antheridia ellipsoidal, not niucronate ; cystocarps broadly ovate, on 
short pedicels. 

On Zoster a and other plants. 

Common in Long Island Sound and found in several place in Massa- 
chusetts Bay $ Goose Cove, Squam, Mass. 

The typical form of the species is closely related to P. spinulosa, Grev., found in 
Scotland and in the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas, where, however, it does not ap- 
pear to be at all common. We once collected specimens at Antibes, France, and cer- 
tainly at first sight it could not be distinguished from P. Harveyi. In the typical P. 
JJarveyi the branches are rather rigid and the branchlets are spine-like and sometimes 
revolute. As the plant grows old the finer branchlets disappear, and there is left an 
irregular mass of coarse filaments beset with revolute branchlets, forming the P. arie- 
Una of Baiiey, which is in the Nereis considered a variety of P. Harvey i. It is, however, 
rather an autumnal condition than a proper variety. The upper portion of the fronds 
of P. Harveyi are sometimes slender and byssoid, and as it is a well-known fact that 
the branchlets of Poly siphonice have the power of falling from their attachments and 
producing new plants, it may be, as has already been suggested, that P. Olveyi is the 
byssoid condition of P. Harveyi. 

Polysiplionia Americana, Reinsch, Contrib. ad Algolog. et Fungolog., p. 50, PI. 33 a, as 
far as can be judged by the plate, closely resembles some forms of P. Harveyi, except 
in the color, which as given by Reinsch is bright pink. It is said by Reinsch to re- 
semble P. arietina, Bailey, in general appearance, but to differ in the erect, subdichoto- 
nious filaments, whose joints are bicellular. 

Sec. II. Siphons four j main brandies corticated, ultimate branches with- 
out cortication. 

P. elongata, Grev. ; Phyc. Brit., Pis. 292, 293.— Lobster Claws. 

Fronds dark red, six to twelve inches long, robust, cartilaginous, 
irregularly branched, lower branches naked, upper beset with closely 
set, alternately multifid branchlets, which taper at the base and apex, 
cortications covering all but the younger portions of frond, section of 
branches showing four large siphons, with secondary siphons and a 
rather thick cortex ; cystocarps ovate. 

Gloucester, Lynn Beach, Squam, Wood's Holl, Gay Head, Mass. 

One of the largest but less common Polysiplionia, which is more abundant in the 
spring than at any other season. The species is perennial and in late summer and 
autumn the branchlets fall off, leaving the lower and coarser branches, which persist 
through the winter, and in the following spring produce at the apices tufts of delicate, 
deep-red branchlets. It is recognized by its long cartilaginous main branches, which 
are nearly naked, and which bear tufts of filaments at the apex. The popular name 
of lobster claws is tolerably appropriate. 

P. fibrillosa, Grev. ; Phyc. Brit, PI. 302. 

Fronds brownish yellow, four to ten inches high, broadly pyramidal, 
rather robust below, becoming slender above, with an undivided axis 
or disided near the base into several long, main branches, secondary 
branches alternate, several times pinnate, fibrillose, with short, scattere d, 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 173 

simple branclilets, ultimate divisions capillary, tufted ; antlieridia ob- 
long, terminal ; cystocarps ovate. 

On stones and Zoster a at low -water mark. 

Lynn, Mass., Harvey ; Wood's Holl, Noank, Orient Point, Newport, 
and several places in Long Island Sound ; Europe. 

Rather a common species in sheltered places south of Cape Cod, but only known 
northward from the reference of Harvey. It is smaller and more slender than the last 
species and the branches are not naked, but fibrillose. The present species is more 
nearly related to P. violacea, of which Harvey suggests that it may be a variety. 
The last-named species is more decidedly red in color, is a larger plant, and although 
the ultimate branches are in tufts, as in P. fibrillosa, the larger branches are destitute 
of the fibrillose branchlets characteristic of the latter species. 

P. VIOLACEA, Grev. ; Phyc. Brit, PL 209. 

Fronds brownish red, six inches to two feet long, elongated, pyramidal, 
usually with an undivided main axis, which has several long, widely 
spreading branches near the base, main divisions robust, becoming 
capillary at the tops, branches rather naked below, bearing above numer- 
ous multifid branchlets, ultimate branchlets densely tufted; antheridia? 
cystocarps broadly ovate, sessile or shortly pedicelled. 

Var. FLEXiCAULis, Harv. 

Branches very long, slender, angularly bent, much divided, divisions 
patent and sometimes secund. 

In deep tide-pools on exposed shores and on Zostera in deep water. 

Common from New York northward. Yar. flexicaulis, Cape Ann; 

Portland, C. B. Fuller ; and northward. 

One of ( he commonest species of the genus, frequenting cold, exposed tido-pools, where 
it has a dense habit and rarely exceeds a foot in length. When growing in deep water 
it is long and slender. In spring it has a pink color, but late in the season it becomes 
dark colored, almost blackish. Specimens of the present species are sometimes found 
in American herbaria bearing the name of P. Brodicei, a species having six siphons, 
which has not as yet been detected with certainty on our coast. The P. Brodicei of 
Bailey's List of United States Algce is, according to Harvey, P. fibrillosa. 

Sect. III. Siphons more than four, corticating cells wanting, 

P. vakiegatA- Ag.; Phyc. Brit., PI. 155; Ann. Sci. Nat., Ser. 3, Yol. 
XYI, PI. 6. 

Fronds purplish brown, densely tufted, four to ten inches high, fila- 
ments setaceous and rigid below, capillary above, dichotomo-multifid, 
the lower axils patent, branches above somewhat zigzag, elongated, 
with alternately decompound, flaccid branchlets, siphons six in number, 
cortications wanting, internodes not much longer than broad; antlieridia 
linear-oblong, mucronate ; cystocarps ovate, short-stalked. 

At the foot of wharves, on Zostera, &c. 



174 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OP FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Massachusetts Bay., Harvey ; common from Cape Cod to the West 

Indies ; Europe. 

A beautiful summer species, forming large purple tufts on •wood-work and various 
substances a sbort distance below low-water mark in warm, sheltered waters. The 
lower branches are rigid and widely spreading, but the tips are byssoid and collapse 
on being removed from the water. When mounted on paper small specimens have a 
slight resemblance to P. Olneyi, but the species is coarser, and the siphons are six in- 
stead of four in number. 

P. parasitica, Grev. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 147. 

Fronds dark brownish red, one to three inches high, filaments com- 
pressed, decompound-pinnate, branches alternate, distichous, 2-3 pin- 
nate, ultimate divisions erecto -patent, subulate, acute, internodes about 
as long as broad, siphons 8-9, cortications wanting ; cystocarps ovate, 
on short stalks. 

Providence, E. L, Harvey ; Europe; California. 

A small species, said to have been collected by Mr. Hooper on the authority of Har- 
vey. It differs from our other species in the compressed frond and uniformly distich- 
ous arrangement of the branches. In aspect it looks more like a fine Ptilota than a 
Polysiphonia. In drying it does not adhere well to paper. In California the species 
is rather common, especially the large variety dendroidea. 

P. ATRORUBESCENS ; Grev. 5 Phyc. Brit., PI. 172. 

Fronds tufted, dark red, two to twelve inches long, filaments setace- 
ous, rather rigid, branches long, erect, alternately decompound, with 
scattered, simple or virgately tufted branchlets, which taper at the 
base and apex, siphons usually 12, spirally twisted, articulations gen- 
erally 2-3 times as long as broad; antheridia oval, terminal; cystocarps 
broadly ovate, sessile. 

In deep water and washed ashore. 

Gloucester, Mrs. Davis; Gay Head, Mass., W. G. F.; Fisher's Island, 
Prof. Eaton; Orient, L. L, Miss Booth; Noank, W. G. F.; Little Comp- 
ton, R. I., and Long Branch, IS". J., Harvey ; Europe. 

One of our less common species, recognized by the number of siphons, which are 
usually spirally twisted, and by the long branches, which bear small branchlets that 
taper at both extremities. Late in the season one finds denuded, rigid specimens, 
which bear little resemblance to the form found early in the season. It does not adhere 
well to paper in drying, and becomes quite black in the herbarium. 

P. nigrescens, Grev. 

Fronds dark brown, three to twelve inches long, rigid below, becom- 
ing flaccid and much divided above, branches alternate, decompound- 
pinnate, ultimate branches subulate, siphons 12-16, articulations about 
l-J-3 times as long as broad; antheridia lanceolate, mucronate; cysto- 
carps ovate, subsessile. 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 175 

Var. fucoides, Ag.; Phyc. Brit,, PI. 277. 

Fronds robust and naked below, upper branches pectinate or corym- 
bose, articulations but slightly longer than broad. 

Var. affinis, Ag. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 303. 

Fronds elongated, diffusely branching, branches distant, undivided 
below, densely pinnate at the tip, articulations two or three times as 
long as broad. 

In tide-pools and below low- water mark on stones and alga3. 

Common along the whole coast. 

One of our commonest and least beautiful species, which, although very variable, is 
generally easily recognized. In the Nereis, Harvey describes seven forms found on 
our eastern coast. Practically, the species as found with us is recognized uuder two 
principal forms. The first is rather robust, and has branches which are more or less 
pectinate or corymbose, and in the extreme forms, as var. Durkeei, Harv., 1. c, PI. 17 c, 
they are compressed, and the pinnae are distichous and abbreviated. The second form 
of the species is represented by the P. affinis of the Phycologia Britannica, in which 
the main branches are much elongated and more delicate than in var. fucoides, and the 
ultimate divisions are arranged in pyramidal tufts. Between the two types described 
occur innumerable forms which hardly require a further description. 

P. fastigiata, Grev. $ Phyc. Brit., PI. 299. 

Fronds dark brown, forming globose tufts one to three inches in 
diameter, filaments rigid, of nearly the same diameter throughout, re- 
peatedly dichotomous, fastigiate, apices subulate, spreading, occasion- 
ally forcipate, siphons averaging about 20, articulations decidedly broader 
than long j antheridia oval, in dense terminal tufts j cystocarps ovate, 
taking the place of a terminal dichotomy. 

On Ascophyllum nodosum. 

Common from New York northward ; Europe. 

A very common species, at once recognized by its form and place of growth. It 
forms tufts on Fucus {Ascophyllum) nodosus and, according to Harvey, on F. vesiculosus. 
Its color is so dark that one at first sight would hardly suppose it to be one of the 
Floridece. The filaments are rigid, and the plant does not collapse in the least when 
removed from the water, nor does it adhere to paper in drying. The antheridia 
are very abundant early in the season. The species, like most of the genus found on 
our coast, is dioecious, but occasionally one finds both sexes on the same individual. 
In this connection, it would be well to inquire if there is not a proterandrous condi- 
tion among the Floridece, as in the higher plants. It has seemed to us that such a 
condition may exist in P. variegata, and possibly in the present species. P. fastigiata 
is said to have been collected in California, but the locality is doubtful. It has been 
found also in Australia and New Zealand. 

BOSTRYCHIA, Mont. 

(From fioarpvxiov, a small curl. ) 
Fronds dark purple, compressed or filiform, distichously or irregu- 
larly branching, composed of several (4-11) cells (siphons) arranged 
around a central filament, the siphons either naked or corticated with 
subcubical cells, apices usually monosiphonous j tetraspores tripartite, 



176 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

in a double row in terminal fusiform branches (stichidia) ; cystocarps 
terminal on the branches, ovate, with a distinct carpostome, spores pyri- 
form, attached to short filaments which are given off from a basal pla- 
centa. 

A genus of about twenty species, characterized by their lurid purple color and by grow- 
ing in places where the water is not very salt, some species, it is said, even growirjg 
in fresh water. They inhabit principally the tropics. The genus is intermediate 
between Pohjsiphonia and Dasya, and some species have been previously referred to 
Ehodomela. The tetraspores are in stichidia, as in Dasya, but the cystocarpic spores 
seem to us more nearly like those of Pohjsiphonia. The frond is originally monosipho- 
nous, and soon becomes polysiphonous, the number of siphons not being as constant 
as in Pohjsiphonia. The corticating cells, when present, are regularly arranged in 
transverse bands. The development of the frond has been studied in detail by Dr. 
Ambronn in B. scorpioides. 

B. riyularis, Harv., Ner. Am. Bor., Part II, PL 14 d. 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 54. 

Fronds an inch high, capillary, rising from a procumbent base, branches 
flexuous, bipinnate, pinnae distichous, alternate, patent, loosely pinnu- 
late, pinnules subulate, section of main branches showing about seven 
siphons; tetraspores cruciate, in two rows in oblong stichidia below 
the tips; cystocarps ovate, terminal on the shortened, naked, lower 
pinnae. 

On submerged logs in patches. 

Hell Gate, K Y., Harvey; Fort Lee, IS". Y., Mr. Averill; College Point, 

Astoria, C. H. Peck; common southward; Australia. 

A common species from Charleston, S. C, southward, but only occasionally found 
with us. The only certain localities are near New York City, and it is extremely 
doubtful whether it was ever found in the arctic waters of the Isle of Shoals, where 
it was reported by Captain Pike. The species is small and rather insignificant, but 
is easily recognized by its polysiphonous structure and ramification. There are no 
cortications, and the species belongs to the subgenus Stictosiphonia. 

DASYA, Ag. 

(From dacvc, hairy.) 

Fronds bright red, filiform or compressed, distichously or irregularly 
branching, composed of a monosiphonous axis surrounded by several 
(4-12) siphons, often corticated with irregularly shaped cells, clothed in 
the upper part or throughout with colored, monosiphonous,. dichoto- 
mous branchlets; antheridia in siliculose tufts on the branchlets; tetra- 
spores tripartite, borne in regular rows in lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate 
enlargements of the branchlets ; cystocarps ovate, acuminate, sessile 
or pedicellate, spores terminal on branching filaments arising from a 
basal placenta. 

A large and beautiful genus, including about seventy species, of which the greater part 



THE MARINE ALGjE OF NEW ENGLAND. 177 

aro tropical, Australia being especially rich, in species. The genus is divided into a 
number of subgenera, and is connected by BostrycMa and Tamioma with Polysiphonia. 
The tetraspores are in stichidia borne on the hair-like branchlets, while in BostrycMa 
they are in the polysiphonous branches, and in Tcenioma the stichidia are formed from 
the flattened and scarcely altered branches. The cystocarps are borne on short lat- 
eral branches, which aro usually slightly prolonged beyond the base of the cystocarp. 
The placenta of Dasya differs somewhat from that of Polysiphonia and our other gen- 
era of Bhodomelece. The spores are pyriform, but are borne on rather long branching 
filaments which surround the carpogenic cell at the base of the conceptacle, and 
which rise high up in its interior instead of being nearly sessile around the carpo- 
genic cell, as in Polysiphonia. The development of the cystocarp has been studied in 
detail by Janczewski in D. coccinea. The fronds are either filamentous or more or less 
flattened, and, as in the case with most of the suborder, are formed from a monosiph- 
onous axis, from the cells of which whorls of filaments are given off, which in the 
older parts of the frond become parallel to the axis and replace the siphons of Poly- 
siphonia. In most of the genus there are also secondary siphons and corticating cells, 
and either at the tip or throughout the frond tufts of delicate, dichotomous, monosiph- 
onous branchlets, which are colored and not hyaline, as in the hairs of some other 
genera. 

D. elegans, Ag., Sp. Alg. (Bhodonema elegans, Martens. — Dasya 
pedicellata, Ag., Syst. ; Bailey, in Am. Journ. Sci., Vol. Ill, p. 84.) — Che- 
nille. PL XV, Fig. 1. 

Exs. — Alg. Am. Bor., Farlow, Anderson & Eaton, No. 51. 

Fronds dioecious, villous, lake-red, six inches to three feet long, cylin- 
drical, attached by a small disk, alternately 1-3 pinnate, with a percur- 
rent axis, densely clothed throughout with tufts of purple, capillary, 
monosiphonous, dichotomous branchlets, sections of branches showing 
five cells around the axial cell ; antheridia densely covering the lower 
cells of one of the divisions of the branchlets ; tetraspores in two or 
three rows in linear-lanceolate or ovate pointed stichidia on the branch- 
lets j cystocarps sessile on very short branches ( pedicels) which are 
borne on the main branches. 

On Zoster a, wharves, &c, below low- water mark. 

Common from Cape Cod southward; Adriatic Sea. 

A beautiful species, known to lady collectors by the name of chenille, at once recog- 
nized by its long, cylindrical, branching fronds, densely fringed with fine lake-colored 
filaments. It is found throughout the year. In drying it adheres closely to paper. 
The antheridia are much like those of Polysiphonia variegata, but are longer. The 
species extends to the West Indies, but appears to be more common in Long Island 
Sound than elsewhere. There is in the collection of the Peabody Academy of Salem 
a very large specimen, said to have been collected at Ipswich Beach, Mass., but the 
locality must be regarded as doubtful. At any rate, the species is quite unknown 
elsewhere north of Cape Cod. 

Suborder CORALLINE2E, Decaisne. 

Fronds rose-colored or purple, calcareous, horizontally expanded or 
erect and branching, crustaceous, foliaceous, or filiform, continuous or 
S. Miss. 59—12 



178 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

articulated ; antheridia, carpospores, and tetraspores borne in distinct 
cavities (conceptacles), which are either external or immersed in the 
fronds ; antherozoids spherical, attenuated at one end, or provided 
with two short projections borne on short filaments at the base of the 
male conceptacles; carpospores pyriform, terminating short filaments 
which surround a tuft of paraphyses at the base of the female concep- 
tacles ; tetraspores zonate, occasionally binate. 

The present order includes all the calcareous Floridece except a comparatively few 
species which belong to the Nemaliece and Squamariece. Although classed by the 
earlier writers with the corals rather than plants, the species of Corallinece are now 
placed at the head of the Floridece, in consequence of their highly differentiated or- 
gans of fructification. Our knowledge of the fructification of the Corallinece is de- 
rived principally from the Etudes Phycologiques of Thuret and Bornet and the Re- 
cherches Anatomiquessurles Melobe'sie'es of Rosanoff. Thuret and Bornet describe three 
different forms of conceptacle, containing, respectively, the antheridia, the carpospores, 
and the tetraspores, the last only being mentioned by Harvey in the Nereis. The 
tetraspores, which are much more common than the carpospores, are usually zonate, 
although occasionally binate, and from the fact that they are borne in distinct con- 
ceptacles, which is not the case with the other Floridece, it had erroneously been con- 
sidered that the carpospores of the Corallinece were four-parted. The cystocarpic 
spores, or carpospores, are always pyriform and undivided, and accompanied by para- 
physes. The number of trichogynes is large, and they project in -a tuft at the orifice 
of the conceptacle at the time of fertilization. The antherozoids differ from those of 
the other Floridece in having appendages. 

The Corallinece abound in the tropics, and but few representatives are found in 
northern seas. Our own coast is especially poor in species. The study of the devel- 
opment of the plants of this order is difficult, owing to the calcareous deposit, and 
soaking in acid injures the more delicate parts. The species are nearly all fragile 
when dried, and it is not easy to preserve herbarium specimens in good condition. 
The suborder may be divided into two tribes. The Corallinece proper have articu- 
lated fronds, which rise vertically from the substratum, as is seen in our common 
Coralline. The Melohesiece are not articulated, but form irregular horizontal crusts, 
which sometimes rise in irregular erect branches. 

Fronds erect, filiform, articulated Corallina, 

Fronds horizontally expanded or vertical and inarticulate. 

Fronds horizontal Meldbesia. 

Fronds rising in irregular protuberances from a horizontal base, 

Lithothamnion. 

CORALLINA, Lam.x. 

(From Kopalliov, a coral. ) 

Monoecious or dioecious, fronds arising either from a calcareous disk 
or from interlaced filaments, erect, terete or compressed, articulated, 
branched, branches opposite, pinnate ; conceptacles terminal, naked or 
occasionally with two horn-like appendages. 

A genus comprising about thirty to thirty-five species, mostly tropical, C. officinalis, C. 
squamata, and a few others extending high northward. The fronds of Corallina are 
formed of a bundle of dichotomous parallel filaments, whose external branches grow 



THE MARINE ALGM OF NEW ENGLAND. 179 

obliquely out wards to form the cortical layer. The increase in the length of the frond 
arises from the elongation of the central bundle of filaments. The whole plant is 
covered by a dense cuticle. The conceptacles are formed from the terminal cells of 
the filaments just mentioned, which cease elongating and lose their calcareous incrus- 
tation, the cuticle also falling away. The peripheral filaments, at the same time, 
continue to elongate and project beyond the central bundle of filament**, thus forming 
the wall of the conceptacle. 

C. officinalis, L. ; Phyc. Brit., PI. 222. — Common Coralline. 

Dioecious, fronds two to six inches high, arising in dense tufts from a 
calcareous disk, decompound-pinnate, lower articulations cylindrical, 
twice as long as broad, upper articulations obconical or pyriform, slightly 
compressed, edges obtuse,; conceptacles ovate, borne on the ends of the 
branches, or some of them hemispherical and sessile on the articulations. 

Yar. profunda, Farlow. 

Fronds elongated, with few, irregular branches. 

Common in tide-pools ; the variety in deep water. 

Europe; North Pacific? 

The only species known on our coast, often lining the bottoms of pools, and when 
exposed to the sun becoming white and bleached. C. squamata, which is monoecious, 
and has a filamentous base, and whose upper articulations are compressed with sharp 
edges, especially on the upper side, is a common species of Northern Europe, and may 
bo expected with us. 

MELOBESIA, Aresch. 

(Possibly from fie?u3oia or fiTjXofioGtg, the daughter of Oceanus.) 

Fronds calcareous, horizontally expanded, orbicular, becoming con- 
fluent and indefinite in outline, conceptacles external or immersed; 
antherozoids spherical, furnished with one or two short projections; 
tetraspores either two or four parted, borne sometimes in conceptacles 
having a single orifice, at other times in conceptacles having several 
orifices. 

The limits of the three genera Melobesia, Litlwpliyllum, and Lithothamnion are not 
well defined. In M. Thuretn, Bornet, the plant consists merely of a few short filaments, 
which are buried in the substance of Corallina squamata and several species of Jania, 
upon whose surface the conceptacles of the Melobesia are alone visible. From this 
species, in which the frond may be said to be rudimentary, we pass through forms in 
which the frond is in the form of calcareous crusts or plates till we meet heavy, irreg- 
ularly branching forms, which resemble corals much more than plants. In the present 
paper, Melobesia, including Litlwphyllum of Rosanoff, comprehends all the smaller and 
thiuuer forms in which the frond does not rise in the form of irregular tubercles or 
branches, while in Lithothamnion are placed the branching and heavier species, referred 
by the older writers, as Linnaeus, Ellis and Solandcr, Lamarck, and others, to Millepora 
or NulUpora, and by Kiitzing to Spongites. Our common species, L.polymoipluim, which 
does not often branch, shows the insufficient basis on Avhich the genera of this group 
rest. Although there is considerable diversity in the structure of the fronds, the 
organs of fructification, with somo slight modifications of the antherozoids and tetra- 
spores, are the same as in Corallina and Jania. The most detailed account of the 



180 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

frond in the Melobesioid group is that given by Rosanoff in his work already referred 
to. According to Bornet, however, the cystocarpic fruit of the Melobesice escaped the 
observation of Rosanoff, and what the latter called cystocarps were only a form of 
the non-sexual or tetrasporic fruit. The tetraspores are found in two different forms — 
either iu hemispherical conceptacles, which have a single central orifice of good size, 
at whose base the spores are borne around a central tuft of paraphyses, or else in 
truncated conceptacles, whose flattened upper surface is perforated with numerous 
orifices, beneath each one of which is a tetraspore, separated from its fellows by a 
large, colorless cell. 

The fronds of the smaller species of Melobesia, as M. Lejolisii and M. farinosa, consist of 
two portions, the basal and the cortical. The former consists of a single layer of cells, 
which arise from the division of the spore into four cells and subsequent marginal growth. 
The cortical layer in the smaller species is composed of small cells cut off by oblique par- 
titions from the upper part of the basal cells. In the larger species of Mdobesia, more 
particularly those placed in the subgenus Lithophyllum, the cortical layer is much more 
marked, and the cells of which it is composed seem to be arranged in lines which are 
curved at the base, but are straight above and at right angles to the direction of growth. 
In some of the small species of Mdobesia certain of the basal cells elongate and swell 
at the summit, so that when seen from above they look larger than the neighboring 
cells. Rosanoff applied to such cells the name of heterocysts, a word badly chosen, 
since the heterocysts in the Nostodiineos, where the term was first employed, cannot 
well be compared with the heterocysts in Mdobesia. The conceptacles in all our species 
of Melobesia are external. The form generally found is that which contains the tetra- 
spores. Our species all occur in Europe, and it is very probable that the remaining 
Northern European forms not yet recorded with us will be found on further search. 

a. Species small, growing on plants, basal stratum well marked, cortical 
layer imperfectly developed. 

M. Lejolisii, Eosanoff. (M. membranacea, Aresch., in Agardh's Spec. 
Alg. ; Harvey, Phyc. Brit., PI. 347, in part. — M. farinosa, Kiitz., Spec. 
Alg. ; Le Jolis's Liste des Algues. — M. Lejolisii, Eosanoff, 1. c, p. 62, 
PL 1, Figs. 1-12.) 

Fronds thin and brittle, at first orbicular but soon densely confluent, 
forming scaly patches of indefinite extent ; heterocysts wanting, basal 
cells squarish, cortical cells few and indistinct ; tetrasporic conceptacles 
very numerous, approximate, flattened-convex, orifice ciliated; tetra- 
spores four-parted ; antheridia and cystocarps % 

On leaves of Zostera. 

Wood's Holl, Mass. ; common from Nahant northward ; Europe. 

A species which is certainly common on eel-grass on the northern coast and probably 
equally abundant in Long Island Sound, although definite information on this point is 
wanting. This is the form which is found in American herbaria bearing the name 
usually of JH. farinosa or M. membranacea. The orbicular character of the fronds soon 
disappears, as they are found in great numbers, and at an early stage become confluent. 
The conceptacles are so numerous that at times very little of the fronds themselves can 
be seen. The latter easily crumble and fall from the plant on which they are growing. 

M. farinosa, Lam.x. (M. farinosa, Aresch., in Agardh's Spec. Alg., 
non Le Jolis's Liste des Algues.— M. farinosa and M. verrucata f Harvey, 
in part—If. farinosa, Lam.x., in Eosanoff, 1. c, p. 69, PI. 2, Figs. 2-13.) 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 181 

Fronds thin, orbicular, becoming confluent, distinctly zonatc ; hetero- 
cysts present, basal cells elongated-rectangular, cortical cells semicircu- 
lar or triangular seen from above ; tetrasporic conceptacles small, hemi- 
spherical, orifice not plainly ciliate; tetraspores four-parted ; antheridia 
and cystocarps I 

On Fucus vesiculosus. 

Wood's Holl, Mass ; in all parts of the world. 

Although only one locality is mentioned, the species probably occurs throughout 
our limits. It is distinguished from the last by the shape of the conceptacles and the 
absence of a circle of cilia around the orifice. The fronds are larger and more fre- 
quency orbicular, although scarcely thicker than in M. Lejolisii. In both species the 
calcareous incrustation is somewhat farinaceous as compared with the following, in 
which the incrustation is smoother and solid. M. membranacea, Lam.x. related to M. 
farinosa, but destitute of heterocysts and having tetrasporic conceptacles with several 
orifices, is to be expected on algae of our coast. 

M. pustulata, Lam.x. (if. pustulata, Phyc. Brit., PI. 347 d ; Eosa- 
noff, 1. c, PI. 4, Figs. 2-8.) 

Fronds rather thick, circular, becoming reniform or orbicular, indis- 
tinctly zoned ; heterocysts wanting, basal cells elongated vertically, cor- 
tical cells squarish; conceptacles large, hemispherical, orifice naked; 
tetraspores four-parted. 

Probably common on the larger algae along the whole coast, but being undistinguish- 
able from the next species when sterile, one cannot be sure of the species unless it is 
in fruit. The tetraspores of M. pustulata are zonately four-parted, while those of AT. 
macrocarpa are merely two-parted at maturity. In both species the fronds are rather 
thick and solid and do not crumble, as in the two preceding species, and the orbicular 
shape is preserved for a longer time. 

M. macrocarpa, Eosanoff. (M. macrocarpa^ 1. c, p. 74, PI. 4, Figs. 
2-8 and 11-20.) 
Fronds as in M. pustulata ; tetraspores large, two-parted. 
On Chondrus. 
Gloucester, Mass. ; Europe. 

o. Species rather large, growing on stones and shells, cortical stratum 
well developed. 

M. Lenormandi, Aresch. (Lithophyllum Lenormandi, Eosanoff, 1. c, 
p. 85, PI. Y, Figs. 16, 17 ; PI. VI, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 5.) 

Fronds saxicolous, closely adherent to the substratum, suborbicular, 
becoming squamulose-imbricate, slightly zonate, margin crenate, lobed ; 
tetraspores four-parted, in compressed, hemispherical conceptacles, with 
numerous orifices j antheridia and cystocarps $ 

On stones. 

Gloucester, Mass. ; Europe. 

Apparently common in many places, but fruiting specimens were only collected at 



182 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Gloucester. The fronds form rose-colored crusts of considerable extent, and are so 
closely adherent that they can scarcely he removed. The tetrasporic conceptacles are 
large, hut very much flattened. 

LITHOTHAMNION, Phil. 

(From li-&og, a stone, and ■& pviov, a hush.) 

Fronds calcareous, thick, at first horizontally expanded, but after- 
wards producing erect knobs or coralloid branches 5 otherwise as in 
Melobesia. 

A genus comprising prohahly not more than twenty or twenty-five good species, most 
of which are tropical. The larger and more solid forms inhabit deep water. In Litho- 
thamnion the cortical portion is markedly developed, and it not rarely happens that 
new lobes are produced which overlap the older ones and form an imperforate layer over 
the older conceptacles, which are thus occluded before the spores are ripe. In such 
cases sections show conceptacles which are apparently buried in the central part of the 
frond. 

L. polymorphum, (L.) Aresch. (Millepora polymorpha } L. ; Sp. Alg. — 
Millepora (Nullipora) informiSyLam&Tck.-- Melobesia poly morpha, Harvey, 
Phyc. Brit., PI. 345.) 

Fronds thick and stony, purplish, becoming whitish,, forming incrus- 
tations of indefinite extent and occasionally rising in thick clumsy lobes, 
punctate throughout with the very numerous, small, immersed concep- 
tacles ; antherozoids spherical, with an appendage at one end (Boruet) ; 
tetraspores two-parted 5 cystocarps u ? 

On rocks and stones in deep pools and below low-water mark. 

Common from Nahant northward. 

Not known with certainty south of Cape Cod, but very common northward, where ib 
forms stony, purplish incrustations on rocks. As usually seen, it adheres closely to tho 
rocks, covering patches of indefinite extent, and would be mistaken for a species of 
Melobesia. It is so hard and adherent that it is mistaken by persons on the shore for 
a part of the rock itself. Although the determination of the present species admits 
scarcely a doubt, the form usually found with us is smoother and less lobed than 
European specimens of the same species. In the description given above the- tetra- 
spores are said to be two-parted. This is true of all the American specimens examined, 
but it may be that what we have seen were immature spores, which, when ripe, are 
four-parted. 

L. fasoiculatum, (Lamarck) Aresch. (Millepora fasciculata, Lam- 
arck. : — Melobesia fascieulata, Harv., Phyc. Brit., PL 74.) 

Fronds purple, stony, attached, afterwards becoming free, very irregu- 
lar in outline, densely branching, branches fastigiate, subcylindrical, 
apices generally depressed j tetrasporic conceptacles densely covering 
the branches, flattened, hemispherical \ tetraspores two-parted. 

On stones or in free globose tufts at low- water mark and in deep 
water. 

Eastport, Maine j Europe. 



THE MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 183 

Rather common at Eastport, where it is often dredged. It is also found at low-water 
mark during the spring tides, especially on Clark's Ledge. Small forms of what may 
be the same species are occasionally washed ashore after storms as far south as Nahant. 
The species is at once distinguished from all our other forms by the very numerous, 
short, stout, cylindrical branches. The conceptacles are external and contain two- 
parted spores, which may possibly be later four-parted, although in the specimens we 
have examined they seemed to be quite mature. The conceptacles, as far as could bo 
made out, had no distinct orifice, and were very much flattened externally. 



ADDENDA. 

To follow Stilophora, page 89 : 

ABTHKOCLADIA, Duby. 

Fronds olive-brown, filiform, branching, composed of a large central 
filament formed of cylindrical cells and a series of polygonal cortical 
cells, which become smaller towards the surface 5 plurilocular sporangia 
moniliform, borne on branching inonosiphonous filaments which form 
tufts on the branches. 

A small genus, consisting of a single species, which has been divided by Kutzing into 
three, characterized by the tufts of inonosiphqjious filaments which bear the sporan- 
gia, and which are arranged in whorls, giving the fronds a nodose appearance. Har- 
vey and Agardh place the genus in the Sporochnacece, while Le Jolis places it in a spe- 
cial suborder of Phceosj>orece. 

A. villosa, Doby. (Sporochnus villosus, Ag., Sp. — Ulaionema vil- 
losum. Berk.) 

Fronds six inches to three feet long, delicately filiform, with a per- 
current axis and usually opposite, widely spreading, 1-2 oppositely pin- 
nate branches ; fructiferous filaments byssoid, in dense penicillate tufts 
which form irregular whorls ; plurilocular sporangia moniliform, com- 
posed of numerous cells, about 15-20 in a row, generally secund on the 
branches of fructiferous filament 5 unilocular sporangia? 

Washed ashore at Falmouth Heights, Mass., Mr. F. T. Collins; Cape 
Fear. 

A rare species, only known on the New England coast from the specimens collected 
by Mr. Collins, which were rather smaller than European specimens. The species bear» 
a more or less considerable resemblance to Desmarestia viridis, but the penicillate tufts 
are more regularly arranged in whorls, and bear the sporangia, which is not the case 
in the genus Desmarestia. 

To follow Lyngbyct) page 34: 

SYMPLOCA, Kiitz. 

Filaments as in Lyngbya, but adhering to one another in fascicles. 

Scarcely distinct from Lyngbya except in the existence of a mass of jelly, by means 
of which the lilameuts adhere to one another in meshes. In habit the species of the 



184 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

present genus resemble the species of Calothrix rather than Lyngbya, but the filaments 
are not prolonged in a hair-like extremity as in the first-named genus. 

S. FASCICULATA, Ktltz. 

Filaments a quarter to half an inch high, united in tooth-like masses 
from a gelatinous base, .009-12 mm broad, sheaths thin, cells broader than 
kmg. 

On rocks between tide-marks > 

Newport, E. I. ; Europe. 

Table of comparative distribution of New England species. 





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Cryptophyceae 

Chroo'coccaceas. 


17 




32 




24 




24 




26 




20 








.... 






1 




2 






5 




6 




5 




4 




5 




3 














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12 


"ss" 


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19 


"m 


20 


"77" 


21 


34' 


17 


15' 




33 




"T 




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Zoospores 


36 




Chlorosporese . . 




7 





36 




28 




27 




30 




15 




7 .. 


6 




2 




1 




1 






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1 




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1 




1 




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Phaeosporeae . . . 




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49 






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44 




17 




7 




«7 




1 




1 




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4 


1 
3 


11 
*99 


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6 


7 


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5 


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Total 


107 




230 




171 




183 




185 




104 




31 




74 




10 




4 




17 


■■ 



Besides the genera and species, enumerated above, there are 4 genera and 10 species described, 
but not considered to be sufficiently well known. If these are counted, the total number of genera is 
111, and 240 species. The comparison with Mediterranean and Adriatic species is imperfect, because 
there is no complete list of the algae of those seas, and our Pacific coast has not as yet been sufficiently 
well explored to make it possible to give approximately the number of our species found there. In the 
table the species marked peculiar to New England are those which extend along our whole coast, 
those of more limited range being kept distinct. The table shows plainly the general fact that the 
total number of species increases as one goes southward, and that the increase is mainly due to the rela- 
tive increase in number of the Floridece. It also shows the close resemblance of our marine flora to that 
of Northern Europe, and although the number of species common to Arctic waters is not large, as far as 
the numbers themselves are concerned, yet, if we consider the absolutely small total of species found 
in Arctic regions, the number of species common to our coast is relatively very large. The general 
poverty of our flora may be seen in comparing the number of genera and species found in New England 
with the number of species and genera in Harvey's Phycologia Britannica and Le Jolis's Liste des 
Algues Marines de Cherbourg. The number given by Harvey is 110 genera and 388 species ; that given 
by Le Jolis is 137 genera and 316 species. The Phycologia was published in 1846-'51, and Le Jolis's 
Liste in 1863. In both works, more especially in the Phycologia, a number of species which we have 
in the present article united were kept distinct ; but as additional species have been discovered since 
the appearance of the two works above named, the total number of species is not probably much less, 
or may even be greater, than the figures given by Harvey and Le Jolis. In Phyceae Scandinavicae 
Marinae, published in 1850, Areschoug describes 68 genera and 175 species. Since that date numerous 
additions have been made to the Scandinavian marine flora, and the total number of species is proba- 
bly not far from that of the species of our own coast. 



THE MARINE ALGffi OF NEW ENGLAND. 185 



ARTIFICIAL KEY TO GENERA 



Note. — The following key is intended to enable persons who are not at all acquainted 
with our sea- weeds to ascertain with a partial degree of accuracy the genera to which 
specimens which they may collect are to he referred. For this purpose the characters 
used are, as far as possible, those which can be seen by the naked eye, hut, as in many 
cases, the generic distinctions absolutely depend on microscopic characters, one must 
not expect to be able to recognize all of our forms without making a more or less care- 
ful microscopical examination, especially in the case of the Cryptophycece and Phao- 
sporece. It should of course be understood that the key is entirely artificial, and does 
not represent the true botanical relations of our genera ; since in many cases the char- 
acters refer only to species of our Atlantic coast and would mislead a student having 
a specimen from other waters. 

1. Color bluish or purplish green,* algse of small size, usually more or 

less gelatinous (Crytophycece) 5 

2. Color grass green . . . 18 

3. Color from yellowish brown to olive green or nearly black . .< 20 

4. Color red or reddish purple, rarely binckish, in fading becoming at 

times greenish (Floridew) 48 

5. Cells arranged in filaments 

Cells in colonies, but not forming filaments G 

G. Cells grouped in twos or some multiple of two 7 

Cells solitary, not adherent in twos 8 

7. Groups free, not united with one another by a gelatinous envelope. 

Cliroococcus. 

Groups united by a gelatinous substance so as to form irregularly- 
shaped colonies Gloeoeapsa. 

Groups united by a gelatinous substance so as to form colonies of a 
dendritic shape Entopliy sails. 

8. Cells imbedded in a gelatinous substance, forming colonies of indefi- 

nite shape Polycystis. 

Cells imbedded in a gelatinous mass, which forms at first ovoidal and 
afterwards net-shaped colonies Clathrocystis. 

9. Filaments ending in a hyaline hair 1G 

Filaments not ending in a hair 10 

10. Filaments provided with heterocysts t 11 

Filaments destitute of heterocysts 12 

11. Filaments with a thin gelatinous sheath, spores not adjacent to the 

heterocysts Nodularia. 

* Our marine species of Clathrocystis and the genus Begcfiaioa are exceptions. ' The 
former is pinkish, and covers the mud and alga? between tide-marks with a very line 
gelatinous film. The species of Bcggiatoa are whitish to the naked eye, and form very 
delicate films over decayiug alga?. 

t Vid. page 11. 



186 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OP FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Filaments without a gelatinous sheath, spores next to the hetero- 
cysts Sphccrozyga. 

12. Filaments with a gelatinous sheath 15 

Filaments without a gelatinous sheath 13 

13. Filaments spirally twisted Spirulina. 

Filaments not spirally twisted 14 

14. Cells bluish or purplish green Oscillaria. 

Cells colorless or containing opaque granules Beggiatoa. 

15. Filaments free Lyngbya. 

Filaments adherent in meshes Symploca. 

Filaments united in bundles and surrounded by a general gelatinous 

sheath Microcoleus. 

16. Filaments free Calothrix. 

Filaments imbedded in a dense mass of jelly 17 

17. Filaments nearly parallel, fronds forming a thin expansion. . .Isactis. 
Filaments diverging from the base of the hemispherical or somewhat 

flattened fronds Bivularia. 

Filaments simple at the surface and forking in the interior of the 
vesicular fronds BLormactis. 

18. Fronds unicellular '.\ . 19 

Fronds multicellular 20 

19. Cells small, ovoidal, prolonged into a long, root-like process at the 

base , Codiolnm. 

Cells large, filamentous, pinnately branching Bryopsis. 

Cells large, with few, erect, alternate branches, some of which swell 

at the end and bear numerous spores Berbesia. 

Cells very long, cylindrical, with irregular or subdichotomous 

branches, spores large, solitary, in special lateral or terminal cells. 

Vaucheria. 

20. Fronds membranaceous - 21 

Fronds filamentous 22 

21. Fronds formed of a single layer of cells Monostroma. 

Fronds composed of two layers of cells, which in some cases sepa- 
rate so as to form tubular fronds .. Ulva. 

22. Filaments simple 23 

Filaments branching 24 

23. Small algae, filaments soft and flaccid Ulothrix. 

Bather coarse algae, filaments more or less rigid, often twisted to- 
gether Chcetomorpha. 

24. Some of the cells bearing long, hyaline hairs Bulbocoleon. 

Hairs wanting 25 

25 Branches small and root-like Bhizoclonium. 

Branches distinct Gladophora. 

26. Fronds irregularly globose, hollow, gelatinous .Leathesia. 

Fronds forming crusts or expanded pellicles 27 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 187 

Fronds small, tufted, composed of a dense basal portion and an 

outer portion composed of free filaments 28 

Fronds tubular, unbranched 29 

Fronds filamentous • 31 

Fronds membranaceous, expanded 41 

27. Fronds densely parenchymatous throughout, fruit in external 

spots Ralfsia. 

Fronds minute, thin, formed of a basal horizontal layer of cells and 
short vertical filaments, between which the sporangia are borne. 

Myrionema. 

28. Free filaments all alike , Myriactis* 

Free filaments of two kinds, one short and the other exserted. 

Mocliistea. 

29. Fronds simple, hollow throughout, substance thin 30 

Fronds simple, cylindrical, somewhat cartilaginous, with numerous 

diaphragms Chorda. 

Fronds branching, substance thin, sporangia large, arranged in 
transverse lines Striaria. 

30. Sporangia densely eovei ing the surface Scytosiphon. 

Sporangia external in scattered spots Asperococcus. 

31. Fronds capillary, branching, formed of single rows of cells (mono- 

siphonous) Ectocarpus. 

Fronds cylindrical, solid or occasionally becoming partially hollow 
with age - 32 

32. Fronds slimy, composed of an axial layer of elongated filaments 

and a distinct cortical layer of short, horizontal filaments 33 

Fronds composed of elongated internal cells, which become smaller 

and polygonal at the surface 35 

Fronds, at least in the younger portions, formed of cells of nearly 

uniform length, arranged in transverse bands, without any proper 

cortical layer 38 

33. Fronds tough and dense Chordaria. 

Fronds soft and flaccid 34 

34. Outer cells of cortex producing plurilocular sporangia . . Castagnea. 
Outer cells of cortex not producing plurilocular sporangia. Mesogloia, 

35. Fronds traversed by a central filament formed of large cylindrical 

cells placed end to end 3G 

Fronds destitute of distinct axile filament 37 

36. Sporangia in branching, monosiphonous filaments, which form tufted 

whorls on the branches Arthrocladia. 

Sporangia inconspicuous, formed from the cortical cells. Besmarestia. 

37. Sporangia globose, prominent in the cortical layer Bictyosiplwn. 

*When reference is made in Myriactis and the following genera of Phwosporece to 
free external filaments, it should be understood that only filaments whose cells contain 
coloring matter are meant, and that no account is to be taken of the numerous hyaline 
hairs with which most of the species of Phccoaporcce are covered at certain seasons. 



188 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Sporangia at the base of filaments, which form scattered external 
tufts Stilophora. 

38. Fronds minute, ending in a hyaline hair, monosiphonous below, 

densely beset above with very short branches, between which are 

the sporangia Myriotrickia. 

Fronds ending in a large, single cell, the cells of the lower part 
giving off descending filaments, which become interwoven and 
form a false cortex 30 

39. Ehizoidal filaments few and limited to the base of the plant, branch ■ 

ing, irregularly pinnate Sphacelaria. 

Ehizoidal filaments numerous 40 

40. Branches distichously pinnate Chcetopteris. 

Branches whorled Cladostephus. 

41. Fronds simple or occasionally proliferous 42 

Fronds branching 47 

42. Midrib present 43 

Midrib wanting .* 44 

43. Fronds stipitate, perforated with numerous holes Agarum. 

Fronds entire, with a few separate leaflets on the stipe below the 

lamina Alaria. 

44. Fronds thin, subsessile 45 

Fronds thick and coriaceous, distinctly stipitate 46 

45. Sporangia densely covering the surface of frond Phyllitis. 

Sporangia external in scattered spots Punctaria. 

46. Cryptostomata present, fronds attached by short, nearly simple 

rhizoids Saccorhiza. 

Cryptostomata wanting, fronds attached by prominent, branching 
rhizoids Laminaria. 

47. Fronds without distinction of midrib and lamina, fruit borne on 

short lateral branches Ascophyllum. 

Blade distinct from the midrib, bladders borne in the laminae, 

fruit terminal Fucus. 

Bladders and fruit borne on special stalks Sargassum. 



48. Fronds calcareous - , 49 

Fronds not calcareous , 50 

49. Fronds erect, filiform, articulated Corallina. 

Fronds thin, horizontally expanded Hfelobesia. 

Fronds thick, horizontally expanded, but rising at intervals in 

irregular protuberances Idthothamnion. 

50. Fronds horizontally expanded, crustaceous or membranaceous . . 51 
Fronds erect or umbilicate 52 

51. Fronds parenchymatous, spores in external warts Peyssonnelia. 

Fronds parenchymatous, spores in cavities sunk in the 

frond Hildenbrandtia. 



THE MARINE ALG^ OF NEW ENGLAND. 189 

Fronds parenchymatous below, but above formed of loosely united 
filaments, tetraspores formed in the filaments Petrocelis. 

52. Fronds tubular - 53 

Fronds filamentous . - 54 

Fronds membranaceous 75 

53. Fronds cartilaginous, hollow throughout, rigid, proliferous, tetra- 

spores cruciate Halosaccion. 

Fronds slender, much contracted at the joints, but without dia- 
phragms, tetraspores tripartite in depressed cavities . . Lomentaria. 

Fronds slender, nodose, with diaphragms at the nodes, tetraspores 
tripartite in the cortical layer Champia. 

54. Fronds monosiphonous, without proper cortex 55 

Fronds with distinct axial and cortical layers 62 

55. Fronds monosiphonous throughout 56 

Fronds at first monosiphonous, becoming polysiphonous above, 

spores formed by divisions of any of the cells, filaments simple, 
gelatinous, dark purple Bangia. 

Fronds monosiphonous above, but below with a false cortex formed 
by descending filaments given off from the cells 60 

Fronds formed of large cells placed end to end, with bands of smaller 
cells at the nodes, in some cases the nodal cells extending in a 
thin layer over the internodal cells . . , . 61 

56. Spores (as far as known) formed directly from the contents of any 

of the cells 57 

Spores on short pedicels, distinct, undivided Trentepohlia (?). 

Tetraspores and cystocarps present 58 

57. Filaments simple, forming a fine web over other algge. 

Urythrotrichia. 
Filaments dichotomously branching, minutely tufted . . Goniotriclmm. 

58. Fronds formed of prostrate filaments, from which arise erect pinnate 

filaments, cystocarps terminal, involucrate, spores irregularly 
grouped, not surrounded by a common gelatinous envelope when 

mature , Spermathamnion. 

Cystocarps terminal or lateral, spores irregularly grouped at ma- 
turity, covered by a general gelatinous envelope 59 

59. Fronds dichotomous, formed of delicate vesicular cells, tetraspores 

in whorls at the joints, involucrate Griffith-sia. 

Fronds dichotomous or pinnate, tetraspores scattered on the 
branches, solitary or aggregated, cystocarps lateral, usually bj- 
nate CalUthamnion, in part. 

Fronds with a monosiphonous axis, nearly concealed by the densely 
whorled branches, cystocarps terminal on short branches, tetra- 
spores in whorls one above another on special branches. .Halurus. 

60. Fronds capillary or bushy, densely branching, cortications confined 

to the larger branches, and evidently formed of vein-like descend- 
ing filaments Callithammon, in part. 



190 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

Fronds compressed, ancipital, branches pectinate-pinnate, covered 
everywhere, except at the tips, by polygonal, arealated cells. 

Ptilota. 

61. Fronds dichotomous, tips usually incurved CeraMium. 

Fronds pinnate, main branches corticated throughout with cells 

arranged in transverse bands, secondary branches corticated only 
at the nodes , Spyridia. 

62. Fronds nearly black, substance dense 63 

Fronds rose-colored or purple, gelatinous or rather succulent, some- 
times capillary 64 

63. Fronds dichotomous, cylindrical, cartilaginous, spores borne in ex- 

ternal flesh-colored warts Polyides. 

Fronds filiform, 'rigid, wiry, irregularly branching, forming dense, 

intricate bunches Almfeldtia. 

Fronds small, compressed, pinnate, forming small turfs, spores borne 

on an axile placenta in the enlarged terminal branches . . Gelidium. 

64. Oystocarps immersed in the fronds „ . . . 65 

Oystocarps external, ovate or urceolate 70 

65. Fronds gelatinous, composed internally of a dense mass of slender 

longitudinal filaments, which give off short, corymbose, lateral 

branches, which form the cortex 66 

Fronds succulent, consisting of an internal layer of slender longi- 
tudinal filaments and a cortex composed of roundish polygonal 
cells, which become smaller towards the surface 69 

66. Spores arranged in regular radiating lines 67 

Spores in an irregular mass 68 

67. Oystocarps naked, cortical filaments free, often ending in hairs. 

JSfemalion, 
Oystocarps surrounded by a delicate membranous sack, cortical fila- 
ments ending in large hyaline cells, which are adherent to one an- 
other . . e Scinaia. 

68. Fronds dichotomous, subcompressed, central filaments fine and nu- 

merous Nemastoma. 

Fronds filiform, pinnate, central filaments few, rather large. 

Gloiosiphonia. 

69. Spores arranged in groups around a central placenta EhaMonia. 

Spores grouped in several irregular masses in the interior of the 

fronds Cystocloninm. 

70. Fronds traversed by a distinct central filament or siphon 72 

Fronds without a distinct central filament 71 

71. Fronds succulent, brownish purple, cylindrical, beset with subulate 

branchlets, apices generally hooked, tetraspores zonate . . Hypnea, 
Fronds red, somewhat rigid, filiform, tetraspores cruciate. 

Cordylecladia. 

72. Branches much contracted at base Chondriopsis. 

Branches not contracted at base 73 



THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 191 

73. Fronds long, cylindrical, densely clothed with lake-red hairs . . Dasya. 
Fronds purple or dark red, occasionally blackish, superficial cells 

either throughout or at least in the young branches arranged in 

transverse bands 74 

Fronds dark red, much branched, rather robust, superficial cells 
small, irregularly placed Rhodomela. 

74. Tetraspores borne in the younger branches * Polysiphonia. 

Tetraspores borne in swollen, pod-like branches (stichidia). 

Bostrychia. 

75. Fronds cartilaginous, dense, spores immersed in the substance of 

frond 76 

Fronds delicate or somewhat coriaceous 79 

Fronds gelatinous, livid purple, composed of a single layer of cells, 

spores in marginal bands or spots Porphyra. 

76. Fronds formed internally of numerous anastomosnig filaments which 

divide corymbosely at the surface 77 

Fronds formed of roundish angular cells throughout 78 

77. Fronds plane or slightly channelled Chondrus. 

Fronds beset with small papillae, in which the spores are borne. 

Glgartina. 

78. Fronds with a prominent stipe, which passes into a proliferous la- 

mina, cystocarps external, globose Phyllophora. 

Fronds linear, regularly dichotomous, cystocarps immersed. 

Gymnogongrus. 

79. Midrib present 80 

Midrib wanting 82 

80. Fronds rosy red, leaf-like 81 

Fronds dark brownish purple, narrow, dentate, midrib scarcely dis- 
tinct Odonthalia. 

81. Tetraspores in spots on the fronds, lateral veins usually present. 

Delesseria. 

Lateral veins wanting, tetraspores in thickened portions of the 

fronds Grinnellia. 

82. Fronds narrow, much divided 84 

Fronds palmately or dichotomously divided 83 

83. Fronds deep red, broadly palmate, margins proliferous, tetraspores 

cruciate in patches Rhodymenia. 

Fronds dark red, margins ciliate, tetraspores zonate.. Rhodophyllis. 
Fronds dark purple, deeply divided, tetraspores scattered, cruciate. 

Gracilaria. 

84. Branches alternately secund in threes or fours, the lowest undivided 

and spine-like, the rest pinnate Plocamium. 

Fronds subflabellate, upper divisions divaricately toothed . Euthora. 



192 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 



LIST OF PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED. 



Agardii, C. A. Species Algarum rite cognitae. Gryphiswald, Vol. I, 1821 ; Vol. II. 
1828. 

Systema Algorum. Lund, 1824. 

Icones Algarum Europaearum. Leipsic, 1828-'35. 

Icones Algarum Ineditae. Editio nova. Lund, 1846. 

Agardh, J. G. Algae Maris Mediterranei et Adriatici. Paris, 1842 

Species, Genera, et Ordines Algarum. Vols. I, II. Lund, 1848-'63. 

— Bidrag till kannedonien af Spetsbergens alger. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. 

Akad. Handl. Stockholm, 1887. 

Tillagg till foregaende af handling. Loc. cit., 1868. 

De Laminarieis symbolas offert J. G. Agardh. Universitets Arsskrift, Vol. 

IV. Lund, 1867. 

Bidrag till kiinnedomen af Gronlands Lamineer och Fucaceer. Kongl. Sven- 
ska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. Stockholm, 1872. 

Bidrag till Florideernes systematik. Universitets Arsskrift, Vol. VIII. Lund, 



1871. 

Epicrisis Floridearum. Contin. Spec , Gen., et Ord. Alg. Lund, 1876. 



Ambronn, H. Ueber einige Falle von Bilateralitat bei den Florideen. Bot. Zeit., 

1880. 
Ardissone, F. Prospetto delle Ceramiee Italiohe. Pcsaro, 1867. 

Le Floridee Italiche. Vols. I, II, fasc. 1-3. Milan, 1874-78. 

Areschoug, J. E. Phycaae Scandinavicae Marinae. Upsala, 1850. 

Observationes Phycologicae. Parts I-III. Nova Acta Rog. Soc. Upsala, 

1866-75. 

Om de skandinaviska algformer, som aro niirmast besliigtade med Dictyo- 

siphon famiculacew eller kunna med denna liittast forblandas. Bot. Notis. Lund, 
1873. 

De copulatione microzoosporarum Bnteromorphce Compressor. Bot. Notis. Lund, 

1876. 

De algis nonnullis Maris Baltici et Bahusiensis. Bot. Notis. Lund, 1876. 



Ashmead, S. Remarks on a collection of marine algae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. 
VI. Philadelphia, 1854. 

Marine alga) from Key West. Loc. cit., Vol. IX, 1857. 

Remarks on Griffithsia tenuis. Loc. cit. , Vol. X, 1858. 

Enumeration of the Arctic plants collected by Dr. I. S. Hayes in his explora- 
tion of Smith's Sound, between parallels 78° and 82°, during the months of July, 
August, and beginning of September, 1861. Loc. cit., Vol. XV, 1863. 

Bailey, J. W* Notes on the alg* of the United States. Am. Journ. Sci., 1847. 

Continuation of the list of localities of algae in the United States. Loc. 

cit., 1848. 

Bailey, J. W., and Harvey, W. H. . United States Exploring Expedition during the 
years 1838-'42, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U. S. N. Algae. Philadel- 
phia, 1862. 

Berkeley, M. J. Gleanings of British Algae; being an appendix to the Supplement 
to English Botany. London, 1833. 

Bertiiold, G. Zur Kenntniss der Siphoneen und Bangiaceen. Mittheil. aus dei 
zoolog. Station zu Neapel, Vol. II, 1880. 

Bornet, E., and Thuret, G. Recherches snr la f6condation des Floride'ea. Ann 
Sci. Nat., S-r. 5, Vol. VII. Paris, 1867. 



THE MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 193 

Bornet, E., and Thuret, G. Notes Algologiques: rccueil d'observations sur les 
. algues. Fasc. 1. Paris, 1876. 

Etudes Phycologiques : analyse d'algues marines. Paris, 1878. 

Borzi, A. Sugli spermazi della Hlldebrandtia rivularis. Rivista Scientifica. Mes- 
sina, 1880. Rev. Bot. Centralblatt,,No. 16, 1880. 
Braun, A. Algarum Unicellularum Genera Nova et Minus Cognita. Leipsic, 1855. 

Ueber Chytridium. Abhandl. konigl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1855. 

Castagne, L. Catalogue des Plantes qui croissent naturellenient aux Environs do 

Marseille. Aix, 1845. Supplement, 1851. 
Coiin, F. Ueber einige Algen aus Helgolond. Beitrage zur niilieren Kenntniss und 
Verbreitung der Algen. Ed. L. Rahenkorst. Leipsic, 1865. 

Ueber parasitische Algen. Beitrlige zur Biologie der Pilanzen, Vol. I, Part II. 

Breslau, 1872. 

Untersuckungen iiber Bacterien. Loc. cit., Part III. Breslau, 1875. 



Cornu, M. Sur la reproduction des algues marines. Comptes-Rendus. Paris, 

1879. 
Cramer, Carl. Pkysiologisck-systematiscke Untersuckungen iiber die Ceramiaceen. 

Denksckrift sckweiz. naturf. Gesell. Zurich, 1863. 
Crouan, H. M. and P. L. Etudes microscopiques sur quelques algues nouvelles on 

peu connues constituant un genre nouveau. Ann. Sci. Nat., Ser. 3, Vol. XV. 

Note sur quelques algues marines nouvelles de la Rade de Brest. Loc. cit., 

Ser. 4, Vol. IX. 

Notice sur le genre Hapalidium. Loc. cit., Ser. 4, Vol. XII. 

Florule du Finistere. Brest, 1867. 



Curtis, M. A. Geological and Natural History Survey of Nortk Carolina. Part III, 
Botany ; containing a catalogue of tke indigenous and naturalized plants of tke 
state. Raleigh, 1867. 

De Bary, A., and Strasburger, E. Acetabularia Mediterranea. Bot. Zeit., 1877. 

Decaisne, J. Plantes de l'Arabie Heureuse. Arckives du Museum. Paris, 1841. 

Essais sur une classification des algues et des polypiers calcif eres. Ann. Sci- 

Nat., Ser. 2, Vol. XVI, 1842. 

Decaisne, J., and Thuret, G. Reckerckes sur les antkCridies et les spores de 
quelques Fucus. Ann. Sci. Nat., Ser. 3, Vol. HI. Paris, 1845. 

Derbes, A., and Solier, A. J. J. MCmoire sur quelques points de la physiologic des 
algues. Comptes-Rendus, supplement. Paris, 1853. 

Dickie, G. Notes on a collection of algae procured in Cumberland Sound by Mr. 
James Taylor, and remarks on Arctic species in general. Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. 
London, 1867. 

Dillwyn, L. W. Britisk Confervas. London, 1809. 

Dodel, A. Ulothrix zonata: ihre gescklecktlicke und ungescklccktlicke Fortpflanz- 
ung. Pringskeim's Jakrbiicker, Vol. X, 1876. 

Duby, J. E. Botanicon Gallicum. Pars secunda. Paris, 1830. 

Eaton, D. C. List of marine alga? collected near Eastport, Maine, in August and 
September, 1872, in connection witk tke work of tke U. S. Fisk Commission, under 
Prof. S. F. Baird. Trans. Connecticut Acad. Arts and Sci., 1873. 

Esper, E. J. C. Icones Fucorum. Nuremberg, 1797-1808. 

Farlow, "W. G. List of tke sea-weeds or marine algae of tke soutk coast of Now 
England. Rept. of U. S. Commission of Fisk and Fiskeries for 1871-72. Wash- 
ington, 1873. 

List of tke marine algae of tke United States, with notes of new and imper- 
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S. Miss. 59 13 



194 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

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THE MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 195 

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196 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

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ALG^S EXSICCATE. 

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THE MARINE ALG^G OF NEW ENGLAND. 197 

Farlow, W. G., Anderson, C. L., and Eaton, D. C. Algae Am. Bor. Exsiccat&e. 

Fasc. 3, Sp. 130. Boston, 1877-79. 
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1877-79. 
Wyatt, Mrs. Mary. Algae Danmonienses. Toroay. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 
J. H. Blake and TV. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Glococapsa crepidinum, Thuret. 600 diam. 

2. Isactis plana, Thuret. 600 diam. 

3. Sphcerozyga Carmichaelii, Harv. : a, heterocyst ; b, b, spores. 600 diam. 

4. Lyngbya majuscula, Harv. 400 diam. 

5. Oscillaria subuliformis, Harv. 500 diam. 

6. Calothrix confervicola, Ag. : a, a, liormogonia ; b, b, heterocysts ; c, cell of host- 

plant. 400 diam. 

PLATE II. 
J. H. Blake and TV. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Hormactis Quoyi, (Ag.)Bornet: a, a, heterocysts. 600 diam. 

2. Bivularia atra, Roth : a, a, heterocysts ; the cross-lines represent the gelatinous 

matrix. 500 diam. 

3. Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Thuret: a, free trichomata projecting beyond the 

ruptured sheath. 500 diam. 

4. Spirulina tenuissima, Ktitz. 900 diam. 

PLATE III. 

J. H. Blake and W. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. TJlva Zaetuca, (L.) Le Jolis: a, microzoospores which have escaped from mar- 
ginal cells ; b, cells in which zoospores are forming ; c, cells from which zoo- 
spores have escaped. 500 diam. 

2. BMzoclonium riparium, Kiitz. 20 diam. 

3. Cladopliora Iceievirens, (Dillw.) Harv. 20 diam. 

PLATE IV. 

J. H. Blake and TV. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Bryopsis plumosa, (Huds.) Ag. ; portion of upper division of the unicellular 
frond. 10 diam. 

2. Vaucheria Thuretii, Woronin : a, a, young antheridia ; a', antheridium which 

has discharged its antherozoids ; c, c, oogonia with oospores. 100 diam. 

3. Phyllitis fascia, Kiitz ; section of frond with plurilocular sporangia, a, cover- 

ing the surface. 500 diam. 

4. Derbesia tenuissima, (De Not.) Crouan : a, spores (zoosporangia ?) nearly mature ; 

b, b', cross-partitions forming cell at hase of sporangium. . 100 diam. 

5. Punctaria plantaginea, (Roth) Grev. ; transverse section of frorkl : a, plurilocular 

sporangia with zoospores; a', the same when old, after the zoospores have 
been discharged and the internal cell-walls obliterated. 

199 



200 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

PLATE V. 
J. R. Blake and W. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Leatlmia difformis, (L.) Arescli. ; dissection showing a portion of cortical layer: 

a, a, unilocular sporangia ; b, b, hairs. 400 diaui. 

2. Chordaria flagelliformis, Ag. ; longitudinal section of outer part of frond show- 

ing cortical filaments with unilocular sporangia, a, and a few cells of inter- 
nal layer. 500 diam. 

3. Asperococcus cchinatus, Grev. ; transverse section of frond: a, unilocular sporan- 

gia ; b, hairs. 150 diam. 

4. Stilophora rhizodes, Ag. ; longitudinal section of outer part of frond showing 

sorus with paraphyses and unilocular sporangia. 400 diam. 
6. Balfsia verrucosa, Aresch. ; vertical section of frond with a sorus containing 

unilocular sporangia. 
6. Spliacelaria cirrhosa, (Roth) Ag. ; a portion of frond with propagulum. 200 

diam. 

PLATE VI. 
J. R. Blake and W. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Chorda fllum, L. ; transverse section of portion of a frond showing paraphyses, 

b, and unilocular sporangia, a. 200 diam. 

2. Stilophora rhizodes, Ag. ; portion of sorus taken from PI. V, Fig. 4, more highly 

magnified to show unilocular sporangia, a, a', and paraphyses, b. COO diam. 

3. Ectocarpus littoralis, Lyugb., var. robustus, Farlow; plurilocular sporangia. 

200 diam. 

4. The same with unilocular sporangia. 

5. Myrioncma Leclancherii, (Chauv.) Harv. ; vertical section showing plurilocular 

sporangia. 400 diam. 

PLATE VII. 

J. R. Blake and W. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Castagnea vircscens, (Carm.) Thuret; unilocular sporangium and hair, b. 400 
diam. 

2. Castagnea Zosterce, (Mohr.) Thuret ; transverse section of outer portion of frond 

showing plurilocular sporangia, a, a', and hair, b. 400 diam. 

3. Flachistea fucicola, Fries ; dissection of superficial part of frond, showing uni- 

locular sporangia, a, a', and colored exserted filaments, b. 300 diam. 

PLATE VIII. 

J. H. Blake and W. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Fucus vesiculosus, L. ; fructifying tip of frond : a, air-bladder ; b, conceptacles. 
Natural size. 
2. Laminaria longicruris, De la Pyl. ; section through fructiferous portion of frond 
showing unilocular sporangia, a, and paraphyses, b. 400 diam. 

PLATE IX. 

J. R. Blake and W. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Fucus vesiculosus, L. ; section through a female conceptacle showing oospores 
and paraphyses. 200 diam. 
2. The same ; section through male conceptacle showing antheridia. 200 diam. 



THE MARINE ALGJE OF NEW ENGLAND. 201 

PLATE X. 

J. H. Blake and W. G. Farloiv. 

Fig. 1. Spyridia filamentosa, Harv. ; axis with branch bearing antheridia, a. 
200 diam. 

2. Callithamnion corymuosum, Lyngb. ; branch with antheridia. 200 diam. 

3. Trentepohlia virgatula, Harv. ; showing the undivided spores, a, a. 200 diam. 

4. Griffithsia Bornetiana, Farlow ; tip of mals plant with antheridia. 400 diam. 

5. The same ; portion of tetrasporic plant with tetraspores, a, and involucre, b. 

200 diam. 

PLATE XL 

J. H. Blake and TV. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Callithamnion Baileyi, Harv. ; plant with tetraspores: a, before separation from 
the mother-cell ; a, free from the mother-cell. 200 diam. 

2. The same ; plant bearing binate cystocarp. 

3. Griffithsia Bornetiana, Farlow; plant bearing cystocarp (favella). 200 diam. 

PLATE XII. 

J. H. Blake and TV. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Nemalion multifidum, Ag. ; dissection of outer part of the plant to show the 
cystocarp. 400 diam. 
2. Spyridia filamentosa, Harv. ; tip of female plant with a double cystocarp, the 
right-hand portion of figure representing the cystocarp and branch in sec- 
tion; the left-hand cystocarp being seen superficially. 400 diam. 

PLATE XIII. 

J. H. Blake and W. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Polysiphonia Olneyi, Harv. ; branch with antheridium, a. 200 diam. 

2, 3, and 4. Grinnellia Americana, Harv. : Figs. 3 and 4 represent the antheridia 
seen from above and in section, a ; Fig. 2, section through a cystocarp. 400 
diam. 

PLATE XIV. 

J. H. Blake and W. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Petroceli8 crucnta J. Ag. ; dissection of frond showing the tetraspores, a, d. 400 
diam. 
2. Bhabdonia tenera, J. Ag. ; transverse section of frond showing cystocarp and 
carpostome. 200 diam. 

PLATE XV. 

J. IT. Blake and TV. G. Farlow. 

Fig. 1. Dasya clegans, Ag. ; branch with stichidium bearing tetraspores. 300 diam. 

2 and 5. Champia j)arvnla, Harv. : Fig. 5, portion of frond bearing a cystocarp, a; 

slightly enlarged ; Fig. 2, section through a, showing arrangement of spores, 
carpogenic cell, and carpostome. 400 diam. 

3 and 4. Polysiphonia Harveyi, Bail. : Fig. 4, branch with cystocarp ; Fig. 3, sec- 

tion through the same, showing spores and carpogenic cell. 400 diam. 



INDEX OF GENERA AND SPECIES. 



[The synonyms and species incidentally mentioned are in italics, 
the page where the description is given.] 



The larger-sized figures indicate 



Acctabularia Mcditerranea L.x 

Acroblaste Beinsch • 

Acrocarpus crinalis K.g 

" lubrieus K.g 

Agarum Post. & Eupr 

" fimbriatum Harv 



Page. 

14 

57 

158 

158 

96 

96 

" Turaeri Post. & Eupr ..5,92,96 

A glaiophyllum Amcricanum Mont 1G1 

Ahnfeldtia Pries ..144,146 

" giga.rtinoides Ag ' 146 

" plicata Pries 4,147 

" "v. fastigiata Post. & Eupr 1 47 

Alaria €rrev 97 

" esculenta Grev 97 

" " v. latifolia Post. & Eupr 97 

" PylaiiGrev 98 

Airphithrix K.g 36 

Anabaina marina Breb 30 

Antithamnion Naeg 121, 122 

" cruciatum Naeg 122 

Areschougiece 139 

Arthrocladia Duby 183 

" villosaDuby 183 

Ascophyllum Stack 99 

" nodosum Stack 99 

Asperococcese 17, S8 

Asperococcus L.x 88, 90 

" bullosus L.x 89 

" compressus Griff 88,143 

" echinatus Grev 89 

" sinuosvs Bory 88 

B. 

Bacillus Cohn 32 

Bacteria 11,26 

Bacterium rubescens Lankaster 29 

Balbiania Sirod 108 

BangiaLyngb 110,111,112 

" ceramicola Chauvin 112,113 

" ciliaris Carm 112 

" elegans Chauvin 113 

" fusco-purpurea Lyngb 112 

Batrachospermum Eoth 20, 108, 116 

Boggiatoa Trevisan 12,32 

1 ' alba Treves v. marina Warm 32 

" arachnoidea Eab 32 

" minima Warm 32 

" mirabilis Cohn 32 

Bladder-kelp 15 

Bannemaisonia asparagoides Ag 7 

Bornetia Thuro*, 118,131 

202 



Page. 

Bostrychia Mont 169,175,177 

" rivularis Harv 176 

" scorpioides Mont 176 

Botrydieae 13, 14, 25, 58 

Botrydium granulatum (L.) Grev 14, 58 

" gregarium Farlow 14,58 

Bryopside® 13,14,25, 59 

Bryopsis L.x „ 59 

" hypnoides L.x 60 

" plumosa (Huds.) Ag 14,59 

" tenuissima De Not 60 

Bulbocoleon Pringsh 24,57, 69 

" piliferum Pringsh 57 



Calliblepharis ciliata K.g 5, 152, 153 

" jubata K.g 153 

Callithamnion Lyngb 21, 108, 109, 

118, 120, 131, 142 

Americanum Harv 123 

BaileyiHarv 20,121,127 

" v. laxa Parlow 127 

Barreri Ag 124,126 

brachiatum Harv 126 

byssoideum Arn 121, 127, 128 

" v. fastigiatum Harv 128 

" v. unilaterale Harv 128 

" v. Waltersii Harv 128 

corymbosum Lyngb 121, 123, 128, 129 

" v. secundatum Harv 128 

cruciatum Ag 122 

Davicsii Harv 109 

Dieteiae Hooper 127,129 

tioccosum Ag 122, 125 

graniferum Menegh 123 

Labradorense Reinsch 125 

luxurians Ner. Am. Bor 109 

polyspermum Ag 123 

plumula Lyngb 124 ' 

roscum Harv 125 

Pylaisaei Mont 5, 123,124 

EothiiLyngb 121,170 

secundatum Lyngb 109 

seirospermum Harv ^29 

tenue Harv 130 

tetragonum Ag 126,127 

Tocwottoniensis Harv 130 

versicolor Ag 129 

" v. seirospermum Ag 129 

virgatulum Harv 109 

Callophyllis K.g 144,153 

" cristataK.g 153 



MARINE ALG.E OF NEW ENGLAND. 



203 



Callophyllis laciniata K.g 

Caloglossa Ag . 

" Leprieurii Ag 

Calosiphonia Crouan 



Page. 

7 

163 

163 

120 

Calothrix (Ag.) Tkuret 36,184 

" confervicola Ag 36 

" Crustacea Born. & Thuret 36 

" hydnoidesILsLTY 37 

44 parasitica Thuret 37 

" parietina Thuret 40 

" pulvinata Ag ..„.# 37 

" scopulorum Ag 37,59 

" viviparaJLuTV 37 

Capsicarpella Kjellm.. 68,74 

" sphcerophora Kjellm 74 

Castagnea Thuret 85 

" virescens Thuret 85,86 

11 Zosterae Thuret 86 

Ceramiese 25,107,119,139,141,142 

Ceramium Lyngb 131,134 

" botryocarpum Harv 135 

" Capri-Cornu (Reinsch) 138 

" circinnatum K.g 135 

" corymbosum Ag 138 

• l Deslongchampsii Farlow 136, 137 

41 diaphanum Roth 136,139 

" fastigiatum Harv 137,138 

" HooperiHarv 76,136 

" nodosum Phyc. Brit 138 

41 rubrumAg 4,135,148 

" " v. decurr ens Ag 135 

" " v. proliferum Ag 135 

" " v. secundatum Ag 135 

44 " v. squarrosum Harv 135 

" strictum Harv 136,139 

" tenuissimum Ag 137,138 

" " v. arachnoidoum Ag 138 

" "v. paten tissimum Harv 1 38 

" To ungii Farlow 138 

Ckaetomorpha K.g 45, 46 

44 serea (Dillw.) K.g 46 

" herbacea~K.g - 47 

" Linum (Flor. Dan.) K.g 47 

* 4 Ion giarticulata Harv 48 

" melagoniuni (Web. &. Mohr) K.g 46, 48 

" OlneyiHarv 46,48 

" Picquotiana (Mont ) K.g 47,48 

" sutoria (Berk.) Harv 47,48 

" tor tuosa Harv 49 

" torulosa Zan 47 

Chajtopteris K.g 75,77 

" plumosa K.g 5,77 

" squamulosa K.g 77 

ChampiaHarv 149,154,155 

" parvulaHarv 156 

Chantransia Auct 108 

44 corymbifera Thuret 108,109 

" efflorescens Thuret 109 

" investiens Lenor 108 

Gharacece 10 

Characium A. Br 58 

Chlorodesmis vauchericeformis Harv 60 

Chlorospcrmece 10, 12, 40 

Chlorosporese 13, 25, 40, 44 

Chlorozoosporece, see Chlorosporeae. 



Page. 

ChondriaAg 20,165 

" atropurpurea Harv 167 

" Baileyana Harv , 4,6,166 

" littordHsTLarv 167 

44 nidifica B.axx 167 

" sedifolia Harv 1C6 

" striolata Ag 166 

" striolata Farlow 166 

" tenuissima Ag 4, 166 

Chondriopsis Ag 164, 165, 168 

" atropurpurea Ag 1 67 

" " v. fasciculata Farlow 167 

44 dasyphilaAg 166 

" " v. sedifolia Ag 166 

" littoralisAg 167 

44 tenuissima Ag 166, 167 

" " v. Baileyana Farlow 166 

Chondrosiphon uncinatus K.g 154 

Chondrus Stack 146,148 

" crispus(L.) Stack 4,9,146,148,150 

" Norvegicus Lyngb 146 

Chorda Stack 91 

" filumL 91 

11 " v. lomentaria K.g 63 

44 lomentaria Lyngb 15,63 

44 tomentosa Lyngb , 91 

Chordariacece - 61 

Chordarieas 16,17,83,116 

ChordariaAg 83 

" divaricate A.g 5,8,57,83,84 

44 flagelliformis Ag 4,57^83 

44 44 v. densa Farlow 84 

44 " v. hippuroides Ag 66 

Choreocolax Reinsch 109, 110 

14 Americanus Reinsch 110 

44 mirabilis Reinsch 110 

44 Polysiphoniae Reinsch 110 

44 Rabenhorsti Reinsch 11© 

44 tumidus Reinsch 110 

Chroococcaceae 11, 25, 26 

Chroococcus Naeg 27 

44 turgidusNaeg 27 

Chroolepidece 57 

Chrysymenia 149, 154 

44 rosea Harv 155 

Chthonoblastus anguiformis Rab 33 

44 LyngbeiK.g 33 

44 repens'K.g 34 

Ohylocladia Grev 154 

41 Baileyana Harv 154 

44 rosea Harv 155 

44 uncinate Ag 154,155 

Chytridium A. Br 15,68,73 

41 plnmulaeCohn 122 

44 sphacelarum Kny 76 

Ciliaria fusca Rupr 152 

Cladophora K.g 50 

" albida (Huds.) K.g 51,52,55 

44 arcta(Dillw.) 50 

44 centralis Auct 51 

44 crystallina Roth 53 

44 diffusa Harv 53 

44 expansa K.g 55 

44 flavescens K.g - 58 

44 flexuosa (Griff.) Harv 54 



204 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 



Page. 

Cladophora fracta (Fl. Dan.) K.g 56 

" glaucescens (Griff.) Harv 52,54,55 

" " v. pcctinella Harv 53 

" gracilis (Griff.) K.g 55 

" " v. expansa Farlow 55 

" " v. tenuis Thuret 55 

" Hutchinsiae (Dillw.) K.g 53 

• ' ljetevirens (Dillw. ) Harv 52, 5 3 

" lanosa (Roth) K.g 51 

" " v. uncialis Thuret 51 

" Magdalenao Harv 56 

" Morrisiae Harv 54 

1 ' pseudo-sericea Crouan 52 

" refracta (Roth) Aresch 52 

" Rudolphiana Ag 54 

" rupestris (L.) K.g 51 

u sericea (Huds.) 53 

" vadorum Aresch 55 

" vauchericeformis Ag 50 

Clados-iphon 66 

Cladostephus Ag 15,75,77,132 

" spongiosus Ag 78 

" verticillatus Ag 78 

" "v. spongiosus Farlow 78 

Clathrocystis Henfrey 23, 2S 

" ceruginosa Henfrey 29 

" roseo-persicina Cohn 28 

Codiolum A. Br 58 

" gregarium A. Br 58 

" Nordenskioldianum Kjellm 58 

Codium Stack 58 

" tomentosum Stack ' 8 

Coilonema Aresch 66 

Coleochaete Breb 57 

Conferva cerea Dillw 46 

" arenicola Berk 49 

" arenosa Crouan 49 

" brachiata Engl. Bot 74 

14 collabens Harv 45 

"' implexa Aresch 49 

" implexa Harv 49 

" Linum Crouan 47 

" majuseula Dillw 34 

' ' melogonium "Web. & Mohr 46 

" penicilliformis Roth 45 

" Picquotiana Mont... 47 

" tortuosa Harv. 49 

" Youngana Harv 45 

Corailinoae 25,177 

CorallinaL.x ..178,179 

" officinalisL 4,179 

M squamata~EU 179 

Conjugatece 98 

Cordylecladia Ag 149, 151 

" Hunt ii Harv ! 151 

Corticularia K.g 71 

Corynephora marina Ag 82 

Corynospora Ag 125 

CruoriapellitaKaTV 115 

Cruoriopsis cruciata Dufour 114 

Cryptococcus roseus K.g 29 

Cryptonemia Ag 141 

Cryptonemieae 25, 120, 140, 142, 149 

Cryptophyceae 8, 11, 25, 26 

Cryptopleura, Americana K.g 161 



Page. 

Cutleria Grev 7,90 

" collaris Zan 17 

Cutleriece 9, 17 

Cyanophycece, see Cryptophyceae. 

Cylindrospermum Carmichaelii K.g 30 

" poly sporum K.g 31 

Cystoclonium K.g 147 

" purpurascensK.g 4,110, 147, 148, 159 

41 " v. cirrhosa Harv 147 

Cystoseirece 8, 81, 82, 99 

Cystoseira myrica, Ag • 82 

J>. 

DasyaAg 164,176 

" coccinea Ag 177 

" elegans Ag 4,6,146,162,177 

" pedicellata C. Ag 177 

Dasyactis plana K.g 39 

Delesseria L.x 161, 162 

" alataL.x 5,163 

" " v. angustis8imaSa.Tr 163 

" Americana Ag 161 

" Leprieurii Mont 163 

" sinuosaL.x 4,5,134,154,162 

Delesseriece 161 

Derbesia Sol 59, 6 O 

" Lamourouxii Sol 60 

" marina Sol 60 

" tenuisaima (Do ^ot.) Crouan 60 

Desmarestieae 16, 64 

Desmarestia L.x 64 

" aculeata L.x 5, 65 

" ligulata L.x 65 

" viridis L.x 5, 65,183 

Dcsmiospermece 106 

Dichloria viridis Grev 65 

Dictyosiphon Grev 15, 66, 84 

" fceniculaceus Grev 66 

' ' fceniculaceus Aresch 06 

" hippuroides Aresch 5,66 

Dictyosiphoneae 65 

Dictyotacece 7, 12, 61, 88, 89, 99 

Dictyotece 19 

Dolichospermum polysporum Wood 31 

Dorythamnion Baileyi Naeg 127 

" tetragonum ISTaeg 126 

Dudresnaya Bonnem 21,114, 141, 160 

" coccinea Ag 160 

" purpurif era Ag 160 

Dulse 9 

DumontieaB 25, 139, 142 

Dumontia filiformis Grev 142, 143 

Durvillcea Bory 99 

E. 

Ectocarpacece 61 

Ectocarpeae 16,67 

Ectocarpus Lyngb 15, 6S, 89, 121 

" amphibius Harv 71 

" Anticostiensis Reinsch 73 

" brachiatus Harv 74 

" Chordariae Farlow 69 

" conferroides Le Jolis 68,71 

" " v. hieraalis Kjellm 71,72 

" " v. siliculosus Kjellm 71 



MARINE ALGiE OF NEW ENGLAND. 



205 



Pago. 

Ectocarpus 2K«j ztoe Harv 75 

" Burked Harv 70 

" Farlowii Thuret 73,74 

" fasciculatus Harv 68,72 

" " v. draparnaldioides Crouan 72 

" firmus Ag 72,73 

" granulosus Ag 70 

" " v. tenuis Farlow 70 

4 Griffithsianus Le Jolis 74 

" hiemalis Crouan 71 

" Rooperi Harv ! 75 

" Landsburgii Harv 75 

*' littoralis Lyngb 73,74 

" " v. robustus Farlow 73 

" lutosusHarv 72 

" Mitchells Harv 72 

" pusillus Griff 15,68 

" reptaus Crouan 69 

*' spha?rophora Harv 74 

" tomentosus Lyngb 70,72 

" viridis Harv 71 

Eel-grass 9 

Egregia Arescb 15, 61 

Elachistea Duby 16,80 

" attenuata Harv 81 

" Canadensis Rupr 81 

" flaccida Aresch 80 

" fucicolaFr 80,81 

" lubricaKwpr 80,81 

" pulvinata Harv 80 

" scutulata Duby 80 

Elaionema villosum Berk 183 

Enteromorpha compressa Auct 43 

" intestinalis Auct 43 

" Grevillei Thuret 41 

" Linkiana Grev 44 

" ramxdosa Harv 44 

Entonema Reinsch 69 

Entophysalis K.g 29 

" granulosa~K.g 29 

" Magnolia? Farlow 29 

Erythrotrichia Aresch 110, 111, 112 

" ceramicola Aresch 113 

Euactis amcena KL.g 38 

" atra K.g 38 

" confluens'K.g 38 

" hemisphcerica'K.g 38 

" hospita'K.g 38 

" Lenormandiana K.g 38 

" marinaK.g 38 

" pro nimpens K.g 38 

Eucallithamnion 125 

Eucheuma Ag 158 

Eucladophora 51 

Euthora Ag 149,153,158 

" cristataAg 5,6,8,134, 153 

F. 

Floridese 11,19,25, 106 

Floridese Incertse Sedia 108 

Fucace© 18, 25, 40, 92, 95, 99, 100 

Fucodium nodosum J. Ag 100 

Fucus (L.) D.c.ne & Thuret 100 

" agarum Turn 96 

" b icomis De la Pyl 101 



Page. 

Fucus canaliculatus L 8 

" ceranoides L 101 

" cribrosus Mertens 96 

" distichusl. 102 

" evanescens Ag 5, 18, 100, 101 

" filiformis Gmel 102 

" furcatus Ag 102 

1 ' microphyllus De la Pyl 101 

" natans L 103 

" natans Turn 103 

" nodosusli 18,99 

" pertusus Mertens 96 

" platycarpus Farlow 101 

•• serratus L 101 

" vesiculosus L 18,100, 101,102 

" "v. laterifructus Grev 100, 101 

" " v. spha3rocarpus Ag 101 

" " v. spiralis Auct 101 

Furcellaria fastigiata L.x 160 

Cf. 

Gelidiea? 25, J57 

Gelidium L.x 157 

" corneum L.x 7,158 

" " v. crinale Auct 158 

" crinale Ag 7,158 

Gigartina L.x 1 48 

" mamillosa Ag 148, 149 

" papillata Ag 148 

" plicataL.x : 147 

" tenera J. Ag 159 

Gigartinere 25, 143, 150 

Ginannia furcellata Mont 118 

Giraudia sphacelarioides Derb. & Sol 75 

Gloeogence Cohn 26 

Glceocapsa (K.g) Naeg 23, 27 

" crepidinum Thuret 27 

" Itzigsohnii Bornet 27 

" stegophila Itzigs 27 

Glceotrichia 38 

Gloiosiphonia Carm 120, J 41, 142 

" capillaris Carm 141 

Gongroceras strictum K.g 136 

Gongylospermece 106 

Goniotrichum K.g 110,111,113 

" ccerulescens Zan 113 

" elegans Zan 113 

Gracilaria Grev 161,163 

" compressa Grev 1C4 

' ' confervoides Grov 164 

" lichenoides Ag 164 

" multipartita A g 6,164 

" " v. angustissima Harv 164 

GriffithsiaAg 118,130 

" barbata Ag. 130 

" Bornetiana Fallow 131 

" corallina Ag 131,132 

" equisetifolius Ag 132 

" globifera Ag 131 

" globuliferaK.g 131 

" setacea Ag '131 

" tenuis Ag 130 

Grinnellia Harv 161, 162 

" Americana Harv 6,161 

Gymnogongrus Mart 144, 145 



206 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 



Page. 

Gymnogongrtis Grijjithsice Ag 146 

" Norvegicus Ag ....' 146, 149 

44 plicatus K.g 147 

41 Torreyi Ag 146 

Gymnophloea Ag 142 

H. 

Hcematococcus binalis Hassal 27 

Halidrys Lyngb 81, 99 

Haliseris polypodioides Ag 7 

Halopteris K.g 75 

Halosaccion K.g 81,89,142,143 

" microsporum Rupr 143 

44 ramentaceum Ag 5,143 

44 " v. gladiatum Eaton 143 

HalurusK.g 132 

44 equisetifolius K.g 132 

Halymenia Ag 141 

41 ligulata Ag 159 

Helminthocladia Ag 117 

Helminthocladiece 116 

Helminthora Ag 117 

Herpothamnion Naeg 120 

44 Turneri Naeg 119 

Hildenbrandtia Nardo 115 

44 rivularis J. Ag 116 

44 roseaK.g 4,116 

44 rubra Harv ." 116 

Himanthalia lorea Lyngb 8,99 

Hormactis Thuret 38,39 

44 Balani Thuret 40 

44 Farlowii Bornet 40 

44 Quoyi (Ag.) Bornet 39 

Hormoceras Capri- Oornu Reinsch 138 

Hormatrlchum K.g 44 

44 boreale Eaton 45 

41 Carmichaelii Harv 45 

44 collabens K.g 45 

44 speciosum Eaton , I 45 

44 Tounganum'K.g 45 

Hydroclathrus Bory 89 

Hypnese 25, 156 

Hypnea L.x 156 

44 muscifonnis L.x 156 

44 purpurasccns Harv 147 

Eypoglossum Grayanum Reinsch 163 

44 Lcprieurii K.g 163 

I. 

Iridcea Bory 148 

Irish-moss 9 

Isactis Thuret 38,39 

44 plana Thuret 10,39 

J. 

JcrntaL.x 179 

Ii. 

Laminariacece 12, 61, 92 

Laminarieae 17, 90 

Laminaria L.x 15,92,95,99 

14 agarum De la Pyl 96 

41 apoda Harv 92 

44 Boryi De la Pyl 96 

44 ccespitosa Ag 62 



Pago. 

Laminaria caper ata De la Pyl 93, 94 

44 Clauston i Le Jolis 95 

44 debilis Crown. 62 

44 dermatodea De la Pyl 92,95 

44 digitataL.x 92,94 

44 esculenta De la Pyl 98 

44 44 v. platyphylla Do la Pyl 98 

44 44 v. remotifolia De la Pyl 98 

44 44 v. ta?r/iataDelaPyl 98 

44 fascia Ag 15,62,92 

44 fascia Harv 62 

44 Jlexicaulis Lo Jolis 94,95 

44 latij alia Ag 94 

* 44 Knearis De la Pyl 97 

44 longicruris De la Pyl 5, 10, 92, 93, 94, 

44 loreaAg 92,95 

44 muscefolia De la Pyl 97 

44 phyllitis'H.-XYV 93 

" platymeris De la Pyl 94,95 

44 PylaiiBory 98 

44 saccharina L.x .' 92,93,94 

44 44 v. caperata (DelaPyl.) .., 94 

44 44 v. phyllitis Le Jolis 93 

44 scssilis Ag 92 

44 solidungula Ag 02, 95 

44 stenoloba De la Pyl 94 

44 trilaminata Olney 92 

Laurencia L.x 165, 166 

44 JBaileyana Mont 166 

44 dasyphila Ag 166,167 

44 tenuissima Grev 166, 167 

Laver 9 

Leathesieae 16, 79 

Leathesia S. F. Gray 15,81,82 

44 difformis Aresch S2 

44 tuberiformis S. F. Gray 4, 57, 82 

Leiblcinia K.g 36 

44 amethystca K.g 36 

44 chalybcaK.g 36 

Lemanece 108 

Leptothrix rigidula K.g 32 

Liagorals.x 116 

Linckia atra Lyngb 38 

Lithoderma fatisccns Aresch 88 

Lithophyllum Rosanoff 179, 180 

44 Lcn ormandi Rosanoff 181 

Lithothamnion Phil 1 S2 

1 4 fasciculatum Aresch 5 

44 polymorphum Aresch 179, 182 

Ziitosiphon pusillus Harv 64 

Lomentarieae 149 

Lomentaria Thuret 149, 154, 155, 156 

44 Baileyana (Harv.) 4,6 

44 rosea Thuret 124,149, 155 

44 uncinata Menegh 4, 154, 155 

" " v. fitliformis Harv 155 

Lyngbya Ag 11, 34, 183 

44 aestuarii Liebm 34,36 

44 ceruginosa Ag 34 

44 Carmichaelii Harv 45 

44 crispa Ag 34 

44 Cutlerice. Harv 45 

44 f 'cr ruginea Ag 34 

44 Jlacca Harv 45 

44 /uJua Harv 35 



MARINE ALGJE OP NEW ENGLAND. 



207 



Pago. 

Lyngbya luteo-fusca Ag 35 

" Kutzingiana Thuret 36 

" majuscula Harv 12,34 

" nigrescens Harv 35 

" " v.mijor Farlow 35 

44 speciosa Harv 45 

44 tenerriin a Thuret 35 

OT. 

Macrocystis pyrifera Ag 15,61 

Melanophyceae Reinsch 61 

Melanospermeoe 10 

Melobesia Aresch 179,180,182 

" farinosa Arescli 180 

" farinosa Harv 180 

" farinosaK.g 180 

" farinosa L.x ISO, 181 

" fasciculata Harv 182 

" LeJolisii Rosanoff ISO, 181 

11 Lenormandi Aresch 1S1 

44 niacrocarpa Rosanoff JSt 

" membranacea Arescli 180 

" polymorpha'H.aTV 382 

" pustulate L.x 181 

" verrvcata Harv 180 

Mermaid's hair 12, 34 

MesogloiaAg 83,84, 106 

" divaricata K.g 84 

" multifidaAg 117 

" vermicularis Ag 57,85 



" virescens Carm 

" " v. Zosterce K.g 

" " v. Zostericola Harv 

" Zosterce Aresch 

Microcoleus Desm 

' ' anguiformis Harv 

4 ' chthonoplastes Thuret . . 

" terrestris Desm 

1 • versicolor Thuret 

Microcystis K.g 

" elabcns K.g 

Microhaloa rosea K.g 

MUlcpora Auct. 

" fasciculata L.k 

" informis L.k 

Monostroma (Thuret) Wittr . 



85 

86 

86 

86 

33 

33 

33 

34 

34 

28 

28 



182 

182 

8,41 

" Blyttii Wittr 5,41. 

" crepidinum Farlow 42 

«' Grevillei Wittr 41 

" orbiculat um Thuret 42 

" pulchrum Farlow 41 

" Wittrockii Bornet 42 

MyriactisK.g 80,81 

" pulvinataK.g 81,82 

81 

86 

78 

7,88 

88 

79 

79 

79 

79 

79 

67 



" " v. minor Farlow 

Myriocladia Zosterce Ag 

MyrionemeaB 

Myrionema Grev 15,70,78, 81, 

clavatum Carm 

Leclancherii Harv 

maculiforme K.g 

punctiforme Harv 

strangiclans Grev 

valgare Thuret 

Myriotriehia Harv 



Page. 

Myriotriehia clavseformis Harv 67 

" " v. filiformis 68 

" filiformis Harv 68 

" Harveyana'Na.eg 67,68 

JV. 

Nemaliefe 25, 1 1 6, 142, 178 

NemalionDuby 20, 106, 107, 108, 1 17 

" multifidum Ag 117 

" purpureum Chauv 142 

]STemastoma Ag .- 120, 1 42 

44 Bairdii Farlow 2,142 

44 marginifera Ag 142 

Nematogence Cohn 29 

Nercocystis Post & Rupr 15 

Nitophyllum Grev 7 

44 ocellatum Grev. 7 

Nodularia Mertens 31 

44 Harvey ana Thuret 31 

Nostoc Vauch 12 

Nostochineae 11,25 

Nullipora Auct 179 

O. 

Odontbalia Lyngb 168 

44 dentate Lyngb 6,168 

44 furca ta Iteinsch 168 

(Edogonium Lk 60 

Omphalaria Dur. & Mont 27 

Oncotylus Norvegicus K.g 146 

Oospore® 14,17,25,98 

Oscillaria K.g 11,12,32 

" limosa v. chalybea K.g 33 

44 littoralis Harv 33 

44 subtorulosa (Breb.) 33 

44 subuliformis Harv 33 

Oscillatoriacece 12 

Os<'illatoria, see Oscillaria. 

44 chthonoplastes Lyngb 33 

44 Crustacea Schousb 36 

Ozothallia D.c. ne & Thuret 99 

44 nodosa D.c.ne & Thuret 100 

P. 

Padina pavonia Gaillon 7 

Palmellacece 26 

Pandorina 13 

Pelvetia D.c.ne & Thuret 99 

Petrocelis Ag 115, 116 

44 cruentaAg 5,11.5 

Petrospongium Naeg 10 

Peyssonnclia D.c.ne 114 

44 australis Sond 114 

44 Dubyi Crouan 114 

44 imbricata K.g - 115 

44 squamaria D.c.ne 114 

Phreosporese 13, 14, 25, 61 , 106, 183 

Pha'ozoosporece, seo Phaeosporese. 

Phlebothrrmnion byssoides K.g 127 

44 polyspermum K.g 126 

44 roseum K.g 125 

44 seirospermum K.g 129 

Phloeospora Aresch 5, 06 

44 tortilis Aresch 5 

Phloiocaulon Geyler 77 



208 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 



Page. 

Phormidium K.g 36 

" Kiltzingianum Le Jolis 30 

" Bubtorulosum Breb 33 

Phycochromacece 26, 111 

Phycophila K.g 80,81 

" AgardhWK.g 81 

" ArabicaK.g 82 

" fucorum K.g 81 

Phyllitis Le Jolis 15,17,62,88,92 

" ccBspitosa Le Jolis 62 

•' fasciaK.g 5,62 

" " v. caespitosa Harv 62 

Payllophora Grev 145,146 

" BrodiaeiAg 4,145 

" Clevelandii Fallow 145 

" membranifolia Ag 4,145 

Phycoseris australis K.g 42 

' ' crispata K.g 43 

" giganteaK.g 42,43 

" lanceolata K.g 43 

" myriotrcma'K.g 42 

Physaciis atropurpurea K.g 39 

" obducens K.g 39 

" plicataK.g 39 

Pleonosporium Naeg 124 

Pleurococcus crepidinum Eab 28 

' ' roseo-persicinus Eab 29 

Plocamium Lyngb 1 50 

" Calif 'ornicum K.g 151 

41 coccineum Lyngb 151 

Pcecilothamnion byssoideum Naeg 127 

" corymbosumTX&eg 128 

" seirospermum Naeg 129 

Polyides Ag 21, 160 

" rotundusGrev 4,118,160 

Poly cystis K.g 28 

" elabensK.g 28 

" pallidaK.g 28 

Polysiphonia Grev 168, 1 69, 176, 177 

" affinisTL&rv 1J5 

'* Americana Reinsch 172 

" arctica Ag 5 

" arietina Bailey 172 

" atro-rubescens Grev 174 

'" BrodiceiGrev . 173 

" elongata Grev 172 

" fastigiata Grev 4,175 

" fibrillosa Grev 172,173 

" formosa Harv 170 

" Harveyi Bailey 6,170, 171, 172 

" nigrescens Grev 4,174 

" " v. affinis Ag 174 

" " v. Durkeei Harv 174 

" " v. fucoides A g 174 

" OlneyiHarv 6,130,171,172 

" parasitica Grev 174 

" " Y.dendroidea 174 

" spinulosa Grev 172 

" subcontorta Peck 170 

" subtilissima Mont 170,171 

" " v. "Westpointensis Harv 171 

" urceolata Grev 4,170 

" " v. formosa Ag 170 

" " v. patens Grev 170 

" variegata Ag 4, 173,175,177 



Page. 

Polysipbonia violacea Grev 4, 173 

" " v. flexicaulis Harv 173 

Porpbyreae 25,106,110 

Porpbyra Ag 110,111 

" laciniataAg Ill, 112 

" leucosticta Thuret 112 

" UnearisGrev Ill 

" vulgaris Haw 9 ill 

Potamogeton L 10 

Prionitis Ag 141 

Protococcus crepidinum Thuret 27 

" rosea K.g 29 

" turgidus K.g 27 

Protophy tes 11, 26 

Pseudoblaste Keinsch 109, 1 1 

" irregularis Rein sch 110 

Pterocladia Ag 157, 158 

Pterothamnion Americanum Naeg 123 

" floccosum Naeg 122 

" Pylaiscei Naeg 123 

PtilotaAg 133,174 

" elegans Bonnem 4,133 

" plumosa Ag 134 

" " v. tenuissima Ag 133 

" serrataK-g 6,8,133 

Punctarieae 16, 63 

Punctaria Grev 63, 90 

" latifolia Grev 64 

" " v. Zosterae Lo Jolis 64 

" plantaginea Grev 64 

" tenuissima Grev 64 

Pylaiella Bory 68,73 

" littoralis Kjellm 73 

It. 

Ralfsieae 17,86 

Ealfsia Berk. 15,79,87,88 

" clavata Cronan 79,87, 88 

" doustaJ. Ag 87 

11 deusta Berk 87 

" verrucosa Arescb 5,87 

Kbabdonia Ag 147,149, 158 

" Baileyi Harv 159 

" te'nera Ag 4,6,7, 159 

Bhizoclonium IC.g 48 

" Kocbianum K.g 49 

" Liyium Thuret 47 

" riparium Both 49 

" salinum K.g 49 

" tortuosum K.g 49 

Ehodochorton Naeg 120, 121 

" i2o«/mNaeg 121,133 

Bhodomelese 25,164,177 

Rhodomela J. Ag 165, 168, 176 

" gracilis Harv 169 

" liochei Harv 169 

" subfascaAg 169 

it •• v. gracilior Ag 169 

Ehodonema elegans Martens 177 

Rhodophylleae 149 

Bhodophyllis K.g 149,152,153 

" bifida K.g 152 

" dichotoma Lepechin 153 

" veprecula Ag 5,149,152,153 

" " v. cirrhata Harv 152 



MARINE ALG^E OF NEW ENGLAND. 



209 



Page. 

Bhodospermece 10, 19, 106 

Rhodymenie® 25, 149, 158, 161, 164 

Ehodymenia Ag 145, 150, 151, 152 

" cristeto Grev 153 

4 ' palmata Grev 4, 9, 142, 1 SO 

" " v. Sarniensis .' 150 

Rivularia Roth 11, 37 



" atra Roth 

" hospita Thuret 

" nitida Farlow , 

' ' parasitica Chauvin 

" plicata Carm 

" tuberiformis Engl. Bot 

Rvppia maritima L 

Eytiphlcea Ag 



S. 



38 

38 

39,40 

• 37 

38 

82 

9 



Saccharomycetes 26 

Saccorhiza De la Pyl 92, 95 

" bulbosa De la Pyl 95 

" dermatodea De la Pyl 5,95 

Sargassum Ag 99, 103 

" bacciferum Ag 103 

" M ontagnei Bailey 103 

" vulgareAg. 4,6,103 

" "v. Montagnei Farlo w 103 

Scinaia Bivona 117 

" furcellata Bivona IIS, 142,155 

" " v. undulata Mont 118 

Schizophytce Cohn 26 

Schizosiphon K.g 36 

" fa sciculatus K.g 36 

" lasiopus K.g 36 

" parasiticus Le Jolis 37 

Schizymenia Ag 7 

Scytosiphonese 15 

Scytosiphon Thuret 15,63,66,88,91 

" filum. Ag 91 

' ' fceniculaceus Ag 66 

" bippuroides Lyngb 66 

" comentarius Ag 5, 63, 89 

Seirospora Harv 120, 121, 1 29 

" Griffithsiana Harv 129 

Siphonece 58 

Sol ieriese 25, 149, 1 5S 

Soliera chordalis Harv 148, 159 

Sprnnatochnus rhizodes K.g 90 

Spcrmosira K.g 31 

' ' Harvey ana Thwaites 31 

Spermothamniese 25, 118 

Spermothamnion Aresch 118, 120, 125, 131 

" Jlabellatum Born 119 I 

" hcrmajjhroditumCN&eg.) 119 ; 

" roseolum Ag 119 I 

" Turneri Aresch 119 | 

* : " v. variabile Harv 119 

Sphacelarieaj 16,75 

Sphacelaria Lyngb 15,75 

" cirrhosa Ag 76 

" dcedalea Reinsch 77 

" fiuca Ag 76 

" olivacea Ag 76 

" plumosa Lyngb 77 

" radicans Harv 76* 133 

" tribuloides Menegh -73 

S. Miss. 59 14 



Page. 

Sphrenosiphon Reinsch 61 

" olivaceus Reinsch 61 

" roseus Reinsch . 61 

" smaragdinus Reinsch 61 

Sphceria Hall 10 

Sphcerococcoidece 25, 149, 161 

Sphcerococcus coronopifolius Ag 154 

" cristatus Ag 153 

" Norv egicus Ag 14G 

•' plicatus Ag 147 

" Torreyi Ag 146 

Sphasrozyga Ag 30 

" Carmichaelii Harv 30 

Spirulina Turpin 12, 3 1 

" Thuretii Crouan 31 

" tenuissima K.g 31 

Spongiocarpese 25, 1 60 

Spongltes K.g 179 

Spongomorpha K.g 50, 52 

Spcuagonema tomentosum K.g 70 

Sporochnacece 61, 183 

Sporochnea3 IT, 89 

Sporochnus rhizodes Ag 90 

Spyridieae 25, 139 

Spyridia Harv 140 

" fllamentosa Harv. 8,20, 140 

" " v. refracta Harv 140 

Striaria Grev 90 

" attenuata Grev 90 

Squaniariese ...8,21,25, 113, 178 

Stictosiphonia'K. &H 170 

Stigonema Ag 67 

'• mamillosum Ag 40 

Stilophora Ag 89, 183 

" Lyngby 'ei Ag 90 

" papillosa Ag 90 

" rhizodee Ag 90 

Strehlonema Derb. & Sol 24, 57, 68, 69 

" fasciculatum Thuret 69 

" sphcericum Thuret 69 

Stypocaulon K.g 75 

SymplocaK.g 183 

" fasciculata K.g 183 

Synalissa Fr 27 

T. 

Tceniom,a Ag 177 

Thallophytes 10 

Thamnidium EotJiii Thuret — 121 

Tilopteris K.g 7 

Tremella difformis L 82 

Trentepohlia Pringsh 108 

•' Daviesii Harv : 108, 109 

' ' virgatula (Harv. ) 108, 109 

" " v. secundata (Lyngb.) 109 

U. 

Ulothrix (K.g.) Thuret 44 

" collabens (Ag.) Thuret 43 

" flacca (Dillw.) Thuret 4^ 

" isogona Thuret 45 

" zonataK.g ". 45 

TJlvacece Ill 

Vlvece 8,13 

Hlva (L.) Le Jolis 41, 4 4 J 



210 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 



Page. 

Ulva Blyttii Aresch 41 

" clathrata Ag 44 

" " v. Rothiana Le Jolis 44 

" comptmssa L , 43,44 

" enteroraorpha Le Jolis 43 

" " v. compressa Le Jolis 43 

" " v. intestinalis Le Jolis 43,44 

" " v. lanceolata Le Jolis 43 

" Hopkirlui (McCalla) Harv 44 

" Lactuca Grev 41 

" Lactuca (L.) Le Jolis 4"i 

" " v. Lactuca Le Jolis 43 

" " v. latissima Le Jolis .... 43 

" " v. rigida Le Jolis 42 

" latissima Ag 42 

" latissima Harv 43 

■« LinzaA.uct 41,43 

" rigidaAg 42 

" sobolifcra Fl. Dan 143 

Vrospora penicilliformis Aresch 45 

V. 

Vaucheriese .......: 18,25,104 



Page. 

VnucheriaD.C 14,40,59,60,104 

" clavata Lvngb 105 

" geminata Wn\z 105 

" litorca Nordstedt 105, 106 

" piloboloides Farlow 105 

" ThurctiiWor 104 

" velutina Ag 105 

Verrucaria. 

" maura T. Fr 10 

" mucosa T. Fr 10 

" palodytes~8y\ 28 

XV. 

Wrangeliece 120 

Wrangelia Ag 119, 123 

" penicillata Ag 119 

" Pylaiscei Ag 123 

Z. 

Zannichellia palustris L 10 

Zono trichia h emisph ceriea Ag 38 

Zoster a marina L 9 

Zoospore* 12,17,25,40 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879— Farlow Marine Algaj. 



Plate I. 




Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 






f % 

- 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 




Fig. 6. 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879— Farlow. Marino Algae. 



Plate II. 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. ;}. 




Fig. 2. 



ort U. S. F. C. 1879— Farlow. Marine Algae. 



Plate III. 




Fig. 3. 




Fig. 2. 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879-Fsirlow. Marine Aljrit. 



Plate IV. 




Fig. 5. 





Fig. 1. 




Fig. ->. 




Fig. I. 



Fig. a 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879— Fallow. Marine Algae. 



Plate V. 




Fig. 5. 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879— Fallow. Marine AlgSB. 



Plate VI, 




Fig. 4. 



Fig. 3. 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879— Farlow. Marine Alga). 



Plate ^11. 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879— Fallow. Marine Algae 



Plate VIII. 




Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879— Farlow. Marine Algic. 



Plate IX 




FiG. 1. 




Fig. 2. 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879— Failow. Marine Alga;. 



Plate X. 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 5. 



Fig. 4. 



R port U. S. F. C 1879— Fallow. Marine Algae. 



Plate XL 



■&J 



mm 

is 



♦.• 



Fig. 1 




Fig. 3. 



Fig. 2. 



Keport IT. S. F. C. 1879— Farlow. Marine Algae. 



Plate XIL 




Fig. 1. 




K( port U. S. F. C. 1879— Fallow. Marine Alg®. 



Plate XIII. 




Fig. 4. 



WW" 




Fig. 2. 



Keport U. S. F. C. 1879— Fallow. Marine Alsse. 



Plate XIV. 




Fig. 1. 




Fig. 3. 



Report U. S. F. C. 1879— Fariow. Marine A Ig®. 



Plate XV. 




Fig. 4. 



Fig. 3. 



II.— REPORT ON THE CEPHALOPODS OF THE NORTHEASTERN 
COAST OF AMERICA. 



By A. E. Verkill. 



Part I.— The gigantic squids (Arehiteuthis) and their allies; 

WITH OBSERVATIONS ON SIMILAR LARGE SPECIES FROM FOREIGN 
LOCALITIES. 

The early literature of natural history has, from very remote times, 
contained allusions to huge species of Cephalepods, often accompanied 
by more or less fabulous and usually exaggerated descriptions of the 
creatures* In a few instances figures were attempted which were 
largely indebted to the imagination of their authors for their more 
striking peculiarities. 

In recent times, many more accurate observers have confirmed the 
existence of such monsters, and several fragments have found their 
way into European museums. 

To Professor Steenstrup and to Dr. Harting, however, belongs the 
credit of first describing and figuring, in a scientific manner, a number 
of fragments sufficient to give some idea of the real character and affini- 
ties of these colossal species. More particular accounts of the speci- 
mens described by these and other recent writers will be given farther 
on. 

Special attention has only recently been called to the frequent occur- 
rence Of these " big squids," as our fishermen call them, in the waters 
of Newfoundland and the adjacent coasts. The cod-fishermen, who 
visit the Grand Banks, appear, from their statements, to have been 

*Tlie description of the "poulpe" or devil-fish, by Victor Hugo, in " The Toilers of 
the Sea," with which so many readers have recently become familiar, is quite as fab- 
ulous and unreal as any of the earlier accounts, and even more bizarre. His descrip- 
tion represents no real animal whatever. He has attributed to the creature habits 
and anatomical structures that beloug in part to the polyps and in part to the poulpe 
{Octopus), and which appear to have been derived largely from the several descrip- 
tions of these totally distinct groups of animals, contained in some cyclopedia. These 
he has confounded and hopelessly mixed up. As if to make this confusion worse 
confounded, he applied to his creation the name of " Cephaloptera," the designation 
of a gigantic genuine fish (a " ray") found on our southern coasts, and also called "devil- 
fish" by the fishermen. His account of the general appearance of the Octopus, however, 
is not so bad, and was evidently based on a very' superficial personal examination of 
an ordinary specimen of Octopus vulgaris, 

[1] 211 



212 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [2] 

long* familiar with them, and occasionally to have captured and used 
them for bait. The whalemen have also repeatedly stated that sperm- 
whales feed upon huge squid, and that, when wounded, they often vomit 
large fragments of them, in such a condition as to be recognizable.* 

I have somewhere seen a statement to the effect that a huge squid of 
this kind was cast ashore, many years ago (in the last century, I believe), 
at the Island of St. Pierre, near Newfoundland, but have forgotten the 
authority for the statement. 

The first reliable account, known to me, of specimens actually taken in 
American waters by our fishermen and whalemen was published by Dr. 
A. S. Packard, in 1873. t In that article Dr. Packard described a por- 
tion of a jaw from a large specimen (our No. 1) taken by the Gloucester 
fishermen on the Grand Banks, and a very large pair of jaws taken 
from the stomach of a sperm-whale (our No. 10). Soon after this, in 
1873, a large living specimen (our No. 2) was encountered by Theophi- 
lus Picott and another fisherman, in Conception Bay, and one of the 
tentacular arms which they secured was preserved in the geological ma- « 
seum at Saint John's, Newfoundland, by the Bev. M. Harvey and Mr. 
Alexander Murray. Both these gentlemen wrote good and interesting 
accounts of this specimen, which were extensively copied in the maga- 
zines and newspapers, while a photograph of the arm itself was also 
secured and distributed. 

This important addition to our knowledge of these creatures was 
followed, about two weeks later, by the capture of a nearly perfect speci- 
men (our No. 5) of the same species, near Saint John's. Mr. Harvey 
and Mr. Murray likewise secured this specimen, and published detailed 
accounts of it, which gave a more accurate idea of the character of the 
genus and species than had any previous descriptions. 

My own attention was specially directed to these large Cephalopods, 
at that time, on account of being so fortunate as to secure for study 
most of the preserved portions of all the specimens referred to above, 
with some additional ones, detailed below. For these very interesting 
specimens I am especially indebted to the zeal and kindness of the 
Eev. M. Harvey and to Prof. S. F. Baird. To Dr. A. S. Packard I am 
indebted for the use of the jaws of No. 10. Mr. Pourtales, curator of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, has also kindly sent the specimens 
belonging to that museum, and Mr. W. H. Dall has contributed his speci- 
mens and drawings of a species from Alaska. Special acknowledg- 
ments to others will be found in connection with the descriptions of the 
specimens. + 

Although I have, in several former papers, t given details of the time 

* See Maury's Sailing Directions. Also articles by N. S. Shaler, American Naturalist, 
vol. vii, p. 3, 1373; by Dr. Packard, op. cit., p. 90; and by Mr. W. H. Dall, op. cit., 
p. 4S4. 

t American Naturalist, vol. vii,p. 91, February, 1873. 

t American Jour. Science, vol. vii, p. 158, Feb., 1874; vol. ix, pp. 123, 177, Plates 
II-V, 1875; vol. x, p. 213, Sept., 1875; vol. xii, p. 236,1876; vol. xiv, p. 425, Nov. 



[3] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 213 

and place of occurrence of many of the specimens enumerated below, it 
seems desirable to bring together, in this place, accounts of all these, 
in order that the various descriptions and measurements may be more 
readily compared, and also that errors in some of the former accounts 
may be corrected and new information added. To facilitate the compari- 
son of the general accounts of more than twenty-five examples that I am 
now able to enumerate from our coast, I have given, by themselves, the 
statements of the time and place of their occurrence, with such general 
descriptions and measurements of each as are most available, reserving 
the more detailed special descriptions of the preserved specimens for 
the systematic part of this article. 

This seemed the more desirable because the information concerning 
many of the specimens is so scanty las to render it impossible to refer 
them, with certainty, to either of the species now recognized or named. 
It is probable, however, that only three forms are indicated by the 
large Newfoundland specimens of Architeuthis, and two of these may be 
merely the males and females of one species. One of the principal dif- 
ferences usually indicated by the measurements is in respect to the size 
and length of the shorter arms, one form having them comparatively 
stout, often " thicker than a man's thigh," while the other form has them 
long and slender (usually 3 to 5 inches in diameter, with a length of 
6 to 11 feet). In case these differences prove to be sexual, those with 
stout arms will probably be the females, judging from analogy with 
the small squids nearest related.* In the three specimens, of which I 
have seen the arms, they are long and slender, but in one the arms are 
much longer in proj)ortion to the body than in the others ; there are 
also differences in the denticulation of the suckers of the short arms. 
These differences ai>pear, at present, to indicate two species. 

A few words of explanation may be desirable here, in regard to the rela- 
tive value of the measurements usually given, and also with reference to 
the parts most useful to preserve when, as will usually happen, the whole 

1877. American Naturalist, vol. viii, p. 167, 1874 ; vol. ix, pp. k 21, 78, Jan. and Feb., 
1875 Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist., March, 1874. Transactions Connecticut 
Acad. Science, vol. v, p. 177, Plates XIII-XXV, 1879-'80. 

*By examinations of very numerous specimens of our common squids, Ommastrephes 
illeccbrosus and Loliyo Pealei, I have satisfied myself that the adult females of both 
commonly differ from the males by having the head, the siphon, the arras, and the 
suckers relatively larger and stronger than in the males. In comparing specimens of 
the two sexes having the body and iins of the same length, this difference is often 
very evident. The large suckers of the tentacular arms often show an increased size 
in the female, in a very marked degree. The short arms show a greater increase in 
diameter than in length. In one of my former articles (Amer. Jdurn. Sci., ix, p. 179, 
1875) the increase in size of these parts was erroneously, but inadvertently, said to 
be in the male, but this error has been corrected in my subsequent articles. Still, it 
is true that both sexes vary to a considerable extent in the size of the suckers, even in 
adult specimens of equal size, so that a male may easily be selected with suckers 
larger than those of some females of the same size. In these common squids I have 
found no great variation in the relative size and form of the caudal fins, when adult, 
and of the same sex. I have often found the males more common than the females. 



214 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [4] 

cannot be saved. The measurements of the soft external parts of 
Oeplialopods are, for the most part, only approximate, and they are not 
all of equal value, for some parts are more changeable in size and shape 
than others. The long, contractile tentacular arms, especially, are lia- 
ble to great variation in length according to their state of contraction 
or extension, and therefore their relative length is of little or no value 
in discriminating species. Unfortunately, this, either by itself or com- 
bined with the length of the 'body' as total length, is often the princi- 
pal one given. The circumference of the body varies, likewise, accord- 
ing to its state of contraction or relaxation, and the 'breadth' of the 
body, when such soft creatures are stranded on the shore, will depend 
much upon the extent to which it is collapsed and flattened from its 
proper cylindrical form, and is of less value than the circumference. 
Measurements of the length of the body, to the mantle-edge, and to the 
bases of the arms; length and circumference of the various pairs of 
short arms; of the length and circumference of the head; size of the 
eyes; length and breadth of the tail-fin; size of the largest suckers on 
the different arms; and size of the 'club' of the long arms, are all very 
useful and valuable. The shape of the tail-fin should be carefully noted, 
also the presence or absence of eyelids, and of a sinus or groove at the 
front edge of eyelids. The size and shape of the thin internal 'bone' 
or 'pen' is particularly desirable. All parts of Cephalopods contract 
to a very great extent, when preserved in strong alcohol for some time. 
Even the horny jaws and sucker-rings may decrease as much as 20 per 
cent, in size, and the soft parts much more. Usually it will not be pos- 
sible to preserve the pen in any satisfactory shape by drying, for it 
cracks in pieces and curls up. It may be preserved packed in salt, in 
brine, or in alcohol. The same is true of the beak. The horny rims of 
the suckers can usually be dried, but are better by far in alcohol or 
brine. The parts most useful lor preservation in alcohol or salt, in cases 
when only a portion can be saved, are the long tentacular arms, espe- 
cially their terminal 'clubs,' with the suckers in place; the short arms, 
with their suckers; of these the left arm of the lower, or ventral, pair 
will probably be the most valuable, being usually the one that will 
show the sexual distinction, by the alteration of its suckers, toward the 
tip or in some other part; the lateral arms next to the ventral are next 
in importance; the caudal fin, and if possible the entire head, should be 
preserved; also the 'pen,' if possible. In cases where the head cannot 
be saved entire, even with the arms removed, the beak and tongue, and 
other fleshy parts in and behind the beak, should be carefully preserved, 
as nearly entire as possible, either in strong brine or in alcohol of not 
less than 80 per cent., which is generally the best strength for all kinds 
of Cephalopods. 



[5] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 215 



General description of the several American specimens, and of their occur- 
rence. 

No. 1.— Grand Banks specimen, 1871. (Architeuthis princeps.) 

Plate XI, figures 3, 3a. 

This specimen was found dead and floating at the surface, on the 
Graud Banks of Newfoundland, in October, 1871, by Captain Campbell, 
of the schooner "B. D. Haskins," of Gloucester, Mass. It was taken on 
board and part of it used for bait.* Dr. A. S. Packard has given, in the 
American Naturalist, vol. vii, p. 91, February, 1873, a letter from Mr. 
James G. Tarr, of Gloucester, Mass., containing most of the facts that 
have been published in regard to the history of this individual. But its 
jaws were sent to the Smithsonian Institution by Mr. G. P. Whitman, 
and were sent to me by Professor Baird to be described and figured. 
The horny jaw or beak from this specimen is thick and strong, nearly 
black ; it is acute at the apex, with a decided notch or angle on the in- 
side, about .75 of an inch from the point, and beyond the notch is a large, 
prominent angular lobe. Mr. Tarr states that the mate of the vessel 
measured the body of this specimen with a rule, after it was hoisted on 
board, and that it measured 15 feet in length and 4 feet 8 inches in cir- 
cumference. The arms were mutilated, but the portions remaining were 
estimated to be or 10 feet long and 22 inches in circumference, two 
being shorter than the rest. It was estimated that it weighed 2,000 
pounds, and would have filled eight or ten barrels. 

No. 2. — Conception Bay specimen, 1873. (Architeuthis Harveyi?) 

A large individual, seen resting at the surface, was approached and 
attacked by two men, who were in a small boat, near Portugal Cove, in 
Conception Bay, October 27, 1873. Full accounts of this adventure, 
written by Rev. M. Harvey, have been published in many of the maga- 
zines and newspapers.t Two of the arms, which it threw across the 
boat, were cut oif with a hatchet and brought ashore. One of these was 
a short or sessile arm, the other was one of the long, slender tentacular 

* I have been informed by many other fishermen that these "big squids," as they 
call them, are occasionally taken on the Grand Banks and used for bait. Others state 
that they have seen them in that region, without being able to capture them. Nearly 
all the specimens hitherto taken appear to have been more or less disabled when first 
observed, otherwise they probably would not appear at the surface in the day-time. 
Prom the fact that they have mostly come ashore in the night, I infer that they iinhabt 
chietly the very deep and cold fiords of Newfoundland, and come up to the surface only 
in the night. 

tSeo Amcr. Jour. Science, vol. vii, p. 158, 1874; and Amer. Naturalist, vol viii, No. 
2, p. 120. Feb., 1874, in a letter from Mr. Alexander Murray. Also, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Loud., p. 178, 1874; Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, p. 161, 1873; The Maritime 
Monthly, iii, No. 3, March, 1874, p. 193; The New York World, Nov. 9, 1873; Tho 
Montreal Gazette, Nov. 26, 1873; The Boston Traveller, Nov., 1873. 



216 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [6] 

arms. A portion of the hitter, measuring 19 feet in length, was pre- 
served by the Rev. M. Harvey and Mr. Alexander Murray for the mu- 
seum at Saint John's, Newfoundland. It was photographed, and cuts 
copied from the photograph were published in some of the English mag- 
azines.* Before it was secured for preservation it had been considerably 
injured, many of the larger suckers having been torn off or mutilated. 
Owing to this fact they were originally described by Mr. Harvey as des- 
titute of marginal denticulations, but he subsequently re-examined the 
specimen, at my request, and informed me that they were all originally 
denticulated. Of this specimen I have seen only the photograph and 
some of the smaller suckers. This fragment represents the distal half 
of one of the long tentacular arms, with its expanded terminal portion 
or 'club' originally covered with cup- shaped suckers, about 24 of which, 
forming two central rows, are very large, the largest being 1.25 inches 
in diameter; others, alternating with tliese along each margin, are 
smaller, with the edge supported by a serrated ring. The tip of the arm 
is covered with numerous smaller suckers, in four rows. The part of 
the arm preserved measured, when fresh, 19 feet in length and 3.5 inches 
in circumference, but wider, "like an oar," and 6 inches in circumference 
near the end, where the suckers are situated. 

It is stated that 6 feet of this arm had been destroyed before it was 
preserved, and the captors estimated that they left from 6 to 10 feet 
attached to the creature, which would make the total length between 31 
and 35 feet. According to Mr. Murray, the portion preserved measured 
but 17 feet in length when he examined it, October 31, 1873, after it 
had been a few days in strong brine. The other arm was destroyed and 
no description was made; but the portion secured was estimated by the 
Rev. Mr. Gabriel, who saw it, to have been 6 feet long and 10 inches in 
diameter; it was evidently one of the eight shorter sessile arms, and its 
size was probably overestimated. The fishermen, who were doubtless 
somewhat frightened, estimated the body of this individual to have been 
about CO feet in length and 5 feet in diameter, according to Mr. Harvey; 
but if the proportions be about the same as in the specimens since cap- 
tured (No. 5 and No. 14), as I believe, then the body could not have been 
more than about 10 feet long and 2.5 feet in diameter, and the long 
arms should have been about 32 feet in length.t Allowing 2 feet for 
the head, the total length, would, therefore, be about 44 feet. 

The following extract is from a letter written by the Rev. M. Harvey 
to Dr. J. W. Dawson, and published in the Montreal Gazette, February 
26, 1873: "Two fishermen were out in a small punt, on October 26, 1875, 
off Portugal Cove, Conception Bay, about nine miles from Saint John's. 

* See Annals and Magazine of Natural History, IV, xiii, p. 68, Jan., 1874; and The 
Field, Dec. 13, 1873. The central line of this photograph is reduced four and a quar- 
ter times, while the front part is reduced ahout four times. 

t Doubtless these long arms arc very contractile, and changeable in leDgth, like those 
of the ordinary squids. 



[7] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 217 

Observing some object floating on the water at a short distance, they 
rowed towards it, supposing it to be a large sail or the debris of a wreck. 
On reaching it one of the men struck it with his ' gaff/ when immedi- 
ately it showed signs of life, reared a parrot-like beak, which they de- 
clare was 'as big as a six-gallon keg/ with which it struck the bottom 
of the boat violently. It then shot out from about its head two huge 
livid arms and began to twine them round the boat. One of the men 
seized a small ax and severed both arms as they lay over the gunwale 
of the boat ; whereupon the fish moved off and ejected an immense quan- 
tity of inky fluid, which darkened the water for two or three hundred 
yards. The men saw it for a short time afterwards, and observed its 
tail in the air, which they declare was 10 feet across. They estimate 
the body to have been GO feet in length, 5 feet in diameter, of the same 
shape and color as the common squid, and they observed that it moved 
in the same Avay as the squid, both backwards and forwards. 

"One of the arms which they brought ashore was unfortunately de- 
stroyed, as they were ignorant of its importance; but the clergyman of 
the village assures me it was 10 inches in diameter and 6 feet in length. 
The other arm was brought to Saint John's, but not before 6 feet of it 
were destroyed. Fortunately, I heard of it and took measures to have 
it preserved. Mr. Murray, of the geological survey, and I afterwards 
examined it carefully, had it photographed, and immersed in alcohol; it 
is now in our museum. It measured 19 feet, is of a pale, pink color, en- 
tirely cartilaginous, tough and pliant as leather, and very strong." 

No. 3.— Coombs' Cove specimen, 1872. (Architeuthis Harveyi 2 ?) 

Another specimen (No. 3), probably considerably larger than the last, 
was captured at Coombs' Cove, Fortune Bay, Newfoundland. The fol- 
lowing account has been taken from a newspaper article, of which I do 
not know the precise date,* forwarded to me by Professor Baird, to- 
gether with a letter, dated June 15, 1873, from the Hon. T. E. Bennett, 
of English Harbor, Newfoundland, who states that he wrote the article, 
and that the measurements were made by him, and are perfectly re- 
liable :t 

"Three days ago there was quite a large squid run almost ashore at 
Coombs' Cove, and some of the inhabitants secured it. The body meas- 
ured 10 feet in length and was nearly as large round as a hogshead. 
One arm was about the size of a man's wrist, and measured 42 feet in 
length ; the other arms were only G feet in length, but about 9 inches 
in diameter, very stout and strong. The skin and flesh were 2.25 inches 

* The exact date of this capture I do not know, but it was probably in the autumn 
or winter of 1872. 

t Through Mr. Sanderson Smith, who visited Mr. Bennett after the publication of 
my first article, I learn that this specimen is the same as the one designated as No. 6 
in my early papers, and that the measurements of No. G, as given to me by Mr. Har- 
vey, are incorrect, owing to his mistake in supposing that 42 feet was the total length, 
instead of the length of the longer tentacular arm. 



218 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [8] 

thick, and reddish inside as well as out. The suction-cups were all 
clustered together, near the extremity of the long arm, and each cup 
was surrounded by a serrated edge, almost like the teeth of a hand- 
saw. I presume it made use of this arm for a cable, and the cups for 
anchors, when it wanted to come to, as well as to secure its prey, for 
this individual, finding a heavy sea was driving it ashore, tail first, 
seized hold of a rock and moored itself quite safely until the men 
pulled it on shore.' 7 

Mr. Bennett, in a memorandum subsequently given to Mr. Sanderson 
Smith, and communicated to me by him, states that both the tentacu- 
lar arms were present, and that the shorter one was 41.5 feet in length. 
The large diameter of the short arms, compared with their length and 
with that of the long arms, and their shortness compared with the 
length of the body, are points in which this specimen apparently dif- 
fered essentially from those that have been preserved and are better 
known. It was probably a female. The total length, as I understand 
the measurements,' was 52 feet. 

No. 4. — Bona vista Bay specimen. (Architeuthis Harveyi?) 

Plate III, figures 4, 4a. Plate IV, figures 1, la. 

A pair of jaws and two of the suckers from the tentacular arms were 
forwarded to me by Professor Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution. 
These were received from Eev. A. Munn, who writes that they were 
taken from a specimen that came ashore at Bonavista Bay, Newfound- 
land; that it measured 32 feet in length (probably the entire length, 
including the tentacular arms) and about 6 feet in circumference. The 
jaws are large and broad, resembling those of No. 5 both in size and 
form, but much thinner than those of No. 1, and without the deep 
notch and angular lobe seen in that specimen. The suckers also agree 
with those of No. 5, but are a little smaller. 

No. 5. — Logie Bay specimen, 1873. (Architeuthis Harveyi, type.) 

Plate I. Plate II. Plate III. Plate IV, figures 4-11. Plate V, figures 1-5. 

A complete specimen was captured in November, 1873, at Logie Bay, 
about four miles from Saint John's, Newfoundland. It became entangled 
in a herring-net, and made a desperate effort to escape. It was killed 
by the fishermen, with some difficulty, and only after a struggle, during 
which its head was badly mutilated and severed from the body, and the 
eyes, most of the siphon-tube, and part of the front edge of the mantle 
were destroyed. It is probable that this was a smaller specimen of the 
same species as No. 2. Fortunately, this specimen was secured by the 
Eev. M. JBCarvey, of Saint John's. After it had been photographed and 
measured, he attempted to preserve it entire in briue, but this was 
found to be ineffectual, and after decomposition had begun to destroy 
Koine of the most perishable parts, he took it from the brine and, divid- 



[9] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 219 

ing it into several portions, preserved such parts as were still uu- 
deconrposed in strong alcohol. These various portions have all been 
examined by me, and part of them are now in my possession, and, 
with the photographs, have enabled me to present a restoration, be- 
lieved to be tolerably accurate, of the entire creature (Plate II). In 
this figure the eyes, ears, siphon-tube, and front edge of the mantle 
have been restored from a small squid (Ommastrephes). The other 
parts have been drawn directly from the photographs and speci- 
mens.* There were two photographs of the specimen,! one show- 
ing the entire body, somewhat mutilated anteriorly, the other showing 
the head with the ten arms attached (Plate I, fig. 1). The photographs 
were made by Messrs. McKenuy & Parsons, of Saint John's. The 
body or mantle of this specimen was about 7 feet long and between 5 
and G feet in circumference; the relatively small caudal fin was 
arrow-shaped and 22 inches broad, but short, thick, and very pointed 
at the end ; the two long tentacular arms were 24 feet in length and 
2.5 inches in circumference, except at the broader part near the end ; 
the largest suckers, which form two regular alternating rows, of twelve 
each, were 1.25 inches in diameter, with serrated edges. There is also 
an outer row of much smaller suckers, alternating with the large ones, 
on each margin ; the terminal part is thickly covered with small ser- 
rated suckers; and numerous small suckers and tubercles are crowded 
on that portion of the arms where the enlargement begins, before the 
commencement of the rows of large suckers. The arrangement of the 
suckers is nearly the same as on the long arm of No. 2, but in the 
latter the terminal portion of the arm, beyond the large suckers, as 
shown in the photographs, is not so long, tapering, and acute, but 
this may be due to the different conditions of the two specimens. 
The eight short arms were each 6 feet long ; the two largest were 10 
inches in circumference at base; the others were 9, 8, and 7 inches. 
These short arms taper to slender, acute tips, and each bears more than 
100 large, oblique suckers, with serrated margins, and over 200 smaller 
ones toward the tip. 

*The figure was originally made, from the photographs only, by Mr. P. Rcetter, of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, hut after the arrival of the specimens it had to 
he altered in many parts. These necessary changes were made by the writer, after a 
careful study of the parts preserved, in comparison with the photographs and origi- 
nal measurements. As published in my first paper (1875), the eyes and back of the head 
of the figure were restored as in Loligo. Subsequent studies and additional specimens 
showed that this genus is closely allied to Ommastrephes. Therefore, the head would 
have been more correctly shown had it been restored with reference to that genus, as 
bus been done in tins paper. The most obvious difference is in the eyes, which have 
distinct lids and an anterior sinus. 

tCuts made from these photographs have been published in several magazines and 
newspapers, but they have been engraved with too little attention to details to be of 
much use in the discrimination of specific differences. I have, therefore, prepared 
new figures from these photographs with the greatest care possible (Plate I). These 
figures are particularly valuable, as showing tho arrangement of the suckers on the 
short arms. 



220 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [10] 

The portions of the pen in my possession belong to the posterior part 
of the blade, with fragments from the middle; although neither the 
actual length nor the greatest breadth of this part can be given, we 
can yet judge very well what its general form and character must have 
been. It was a large, broad and thin structure, of a yellowish brown 
color, and translucent. Its posterior portion (Plate III, figure 3) re- 
sembles that of Loligo, but its anterior and lateral edges are entirely 
different, for instead of having a regular lanceolate form, tapering to 
both ends, as in Loligo, it expands and thins out toward the lateral and 
anterior borders, fading out insensibly, both at the edges and end, into 
soft membrane.* The posterior end, for about an inch and a half, rapidly 
narrows to a point, which was probably involute and hooded for a short 
distance ; from this portion forward the width gradually increases from 
1.2 inches to 5 inches, at a point 25 inches from the end, where our 
specimen is broken off; at this place the marginal strips are wanting, 
but the width is 5 inches between the lateral midribs {d, d"), which 
were, perhaps, far from the margin. Along the center of the shell 
there is a strong, raised, smooth, rounded midrib, which is very con- 
spicuous in the middle and posterior sections, becoming angular near 
the end. On each side of the midrib is a lateral rib of smaller size. 
These at first diverge rapidly from the central one, and then run along 
nearly parallel with the outer margin and about .4 of an inch from it, 
but beyond 11 inches from the point the margins are torn off; the lateral 
ribs gradually fade out before reaching the anterior border; near the 
place where they finally disappear they are about 6 inches apart.f 

NO. 6 (OF FORMER ARTICLES) — SAME AS No. 3. 

No. 7. — Labrador specimen. 

Dr. D. Honey man, geologist^ of Halifax, Nova Scotia, has published, 
in a Halifax paper, a statement made to him by a gentleman who claims 
to have been present at the capture of another specimen (No. 7), in the 
Straits of Belle Isle, at West Saint Modent, on the Labrador side: "It 
was lying peacefully in the water when it was provoked by the push of 
an oar. It looked fierce and ejected much water from its funnel ; it did 
not consider it necessary to discharge its sepia, as mollusca of this kind 

* Probably there may have been a narrow prolongation or shaft beyond the portion 
preserved, bat of this there is no fragment. 

tMr. Harvey published popular accounts of this specimen, and of the previously 
captured arm of the larger one (No. 2), in the Maritime Monthly Magazine of Saint 
Johu, New Brunswick, for March, 1874, and in several newspapers. Acknowledgments 
are also due to Mr. Alexander Murray, provincial geologist, who cooperated with Mr. 
Harvey in the examination and preservation of these specimens, and who has also 
written some of the accounts of them that have been published. See also the Ameri- 
can Naturalist, vol. viii, p. 122, February, 1874; American Journal of Science, vol. v-ii, 
p. 460; Nature, vol. ix, p. 322, February 26, 1874; Appletou's Journal, January 31, 
1874 ; Forest and Stream, p. 356 (with iigure), January, 1874. 



[11] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 221 

generally do in order to cover their escape. The men in the boat de- 
termined to secure it. After it had taken the boat in its arms, they 
tried to ship it with their oars. One of these broke, but another boat 
coining to aid in the capture, the squid was taken hold of by a grapnel 
and rolled into a seine-boat. The boats were engaged in the herring- 
fishing. This also appears to have been the squid's occupation about 
the time of its capture. The length of its longest arm was 37 feet ; the 
length of the body 15 feet ; whole length 52 feet. The bill was very large. 
The suckers of its arms or feet, by which it lays hold, about 2 inches in 
diameter. The monster was cut up, salted, and barreled for dog's meat." 
In this account the length given for the " body " evidently includes the 
head also. This creature was probably disabled, and perhaps nearly 
dead, when discovered at the surface, and this seems to have been the 
case with most of the specimens hitherto seen living. Animals of this 
sort probably never float or lie quietly at the surface when in good 
health. 

NOS. 8 AND 9. — LAMA.LINE SPECIMENS, 1870- 7 71. 

Mr. Harvey refers to a statement made to him by a clergyman, Eev. 
A. E. Gabriel, of Portugal Cove, that two specimens (Nos. 8 and 9), 
measuring respectively 40 and 47 feet in total length, were cast ashore 
at Lamaline, on the southern coast of Newfoundland, in the winter of 
1870-'71. 

No. 10.— Sperm-whale specimen. (ArcMteuthis princeps.) 

Plate XI, figures 1, 2. 

This specimen, consisting of both jaws, was presented to the Peabody 
Academy of Science, at Salem, Mass., by Capt. N. E. Atwood, of Prov- 
incetown, Mass. It was taken from the stomach of a sperm-whale, but 
the precise date and locality are not known. It was probably from the 
North Atlantic. The upper jaw was imperfectly figured by Dr. Packard 
in his article on this subject.* It is one of the largest jaws yet known, 
and belonged to an apparently undescribed species, which I named 
ArcMteuthis princeps, and described in my former papers, with figures 
of both jaws. 

No. 11. — Second Bonavista Bay specimen, 1872. 

The Bev. M. Harvey, in a letter to me, stated that a specimen was 
cast ashore at Bonavista Bay, December, 1872, and that his informant 
told him that the long arms measured 32 feet in length, and the short 
arms about 10 feet in length, and were u thicker than a man's thigh." 
The body was not measured, but he thinks it was about 14 feet long 
and very stout, and that the largest suckers were 2.5 inches in diameter. 
The size of the suckers is probably exaggerated, and most likely tbe 

* American Naturalist, vol. vii, p. 91, 1873. 



222 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [12] 

length of the body also. It is even possible that this was the same 
specimen from which the beak and suckers described as No. 4, from 
Bonavista Bay, were derived, for the date of capture of that specimen 
is unknown to me. The latter, however, was much smaller than the 
above measurements, and it is, therefore, desirable to give a special 
number (11) to the present one. 

No. 12. — Harbor Grace specimen, 1874-'75. 

Another specimen, which we have designated as No. 12, was cast 
ashore, in the winter of 1874-'75, near Harbor Grace, but was destroyed 
before its value became known, and no measurements were given. 

No. 13. — Fortune Bay specimen, 1874. 

Plate IX, figure 11. 

A specimen was cast ashore, December, 1874, at Grand Bank, Fortune 
Bay, Newfoundland. As in the case of several of the previous speci- 
mens, I was indebted to the Bev. M. Harvey for early information con- 
cerning this one, and also for the jaws and one of the large suckers of 
the tentacular arms, obtained through Mr. Simms, these being the only 
parts preserved. Although this specimen went ashore in December, 
Mr. Harvey did not hear of the event until March, owing to the unusual 
interruption of travel by the severity of the winter. He informed me 
that Mr. George Simms, magistrate of Grand Bank, had stated in a 
letter to him that he examined the creature a few hours after it went 
ashore, but not before it had been mutilated by the removal of the tail 
by the fishermen, who finally cut it up as food for their numerous dogs ; 
and that the long tentacular arms were 26 feet long and 16 inches in 
circumference 5 the short arms were about one-third as long as the long 
ones; the "back of the head or neck was 36 inches in circumference " 
(evidently meaning the head behind the bases of the arms) ; the length 
of the body "from the junction to the tail" was 10 feet (apparently 
meaning from the ba se of the arms to the origin of the caudal fins). He 
thought that the tail, which had been removed, was about one-third as 
long as the body, but this was probably overestimated. In No. 14 the 
tail, from its origin or base, was about one-fifth as long as the balance 
of the body and head. Applying the same proportions to No. 13, the 
head and body together would have been 12 feet. In a letter to me, 
dated October 27, 1875, Mr. Simms confirmed the above measurements, 
but stated that the long arms had been detached, and that the bases of 
the arms measured as those of the tentacular arms (they had previously 
been cut off about a foot from the head), were triangular in outline, the 
sides being respectively 5, 6, 5 inches in breadth, the longest or outer 
side being convex and the two lateral sides straight. He, moreover, says 
that all the arms were covered with large suckers from the base outward. 
Hence, it is probable that he made a mistake as to these stumps, and 



[13] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 223 

tliat they really belonged to a pair of sessile arms. Probably the tentac- 
ular arms, when extended, had been cut off so close to their contractile 
bases that their stamps had afterwards become contracted within their 
basal pouches, and were therefore overlooked. He adds that the body 
was 3 feet broad (doubtless it was much flattened from its natural form), 
and that the measurements were made while the body lay upon uneven 
ground, so that its exact length could not be easily ascertained, and 
that the caudal fin had been cut off at its base. As the tail-fins of Nos. 
5 and 14 were about one-fifth the length of the rest of the body and the 
head together, this specimen, if belonging to either of those species, 
should have been about 12 feet from the base of the arms to the tip of 
the tail. 

The large sucker in my possession is 1 inch in diameter across the 
denticulated rim, and in form and structure agrees closely with those 
described and figured by me from the tentacular arms of Nos. 4, 5, and 
14 (Plate IV, figures 1, 4, and Plate IX, figures 1, 1 a). 

The jaws are still attached together, in their natural position, by the 
cartilages. They agree very closely in form with the large jaws of Archi- 
teuthis princeps V. (No. 10), figured on Plate XI, but they are about one- 
tenth smaller. 

No. 14. — Oatalina specimen, 1877. (ArcMteuthis princeps.) 

Plates VIII-X. 

A nearly perfect specimen of a large squid was found cast ashore, after 
a severe gale, at Catalina, Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, September 22, 
1877. It was living when found. It was exhibited for two or three 
days at Saint John's, and subsequently was carried in brine to New 
York, where it was purchased by Eeiche & Brother, for the New York 
Aquarium. There I had an opportunity to examine it very soon after 
its arrival.* I am also indebted to the proprietors of the aquarium for 
some of the loose suckers. Other suckers from this specimen were sent 
to me from Newfoundland, by the Kev. M. Harvey. Although some- 
what mutilated, and not in a very good state of preservation when re- 
ceived, it is of great interest, being, without doubt, the largest and best 
specimen ever preserved. The Oatalina specimen, when fresh, f was 9.5 
feet from tip of tail to base of arms ; circumference of body, 7 feet ; cir- 
cumference of head, 4 feet ; length of tentacular arms, 30 feet ; length of 

* See American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. xiv, p. 425, November, 1877. When 
examined by me it was loose in a tank of alcohol. Dr. J. B. Holder gave me valuable 
assistance in making this examination, and also made one of the drawings of the caudal 
I fin. It was afterwards "prepared" for exhibition by a taxidermist, who misplaced 
i the arms, siphon, and other parts, and inserted two large, round, flat, red eyes close 
together on the top of the head! Continued soaking in strong alcohol had reduced its 
dimensions to about one-half their former measurements when examined by me two 
years later. 

t Measurements of the freshly- caught specimen were made by the Rev. M. Harvey, 
at Saint John's, and communicated to me. 



224 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [14] 

longest sessile arms (ventral ones?), 11 feet; circumference at base, 17 
inches ; circumference of tentacular arms, 5 inches ; at their expanded 
portions, 8 inches ; length of upper mandible, 5.25 inches ; diameter of 
large suckers, 1 inch; diameter of eye-openings, 8 inches. The eyes 
were destroyed by the captors. It agrees in general appearance with 
A. Harveyi (No. 5), but the caudal fin is broader and somewhat less 
acutely pointed than in that species, as seen in No. 5 ; it was 2 feet and 
9 inches broad, when fresh, and broadly sagittate in form. The dried 
rims of the large suckers are white, with very acutely serrate margins ; 
the small smooth-rimmed suckers, with their accompanying tubercles, 
are distantly scattered along most of the inner face of the tentacular 
arms, the last ones noticed being 19 feet from the tips. The sessile 
arms present considerable disparity in length and size, the ventral ones 
being somewhat larger and longer than the others, which were, how- 
ever, more or less mutilated when examined by me ; the serrations are 
smaller on the inner edge than on the outer edge of the suckers. On the 
smaller suckers beyond the middle of the arms the inner edge is without 
serrations. 

No. 15. — Hammer Cove specimen, 1876. 

In a letter from Eev. M. Harvey, dated August 25, 1877, he states 
that a big squid was cast ashore November 20, 1876, at Hammer Cove, 
on the southwest arm of Green Bay, in Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland. 
When first discovered by his informant it had already been partially 
devoured by foxes and sea-birds. Of the body, a portion 5 feet long 
remained, with about 2 feet of the basal part of the arms. The head 
was 18 inches broad; tail, 18 inches broad; eye-sockets, 7 by 9 inches; 
stump of one of the arms, 3.5 inches in diameter. 

The only portion secured was a piece of the * pen 7 about 16 inches 
long, which was given to Mr. Harvey. 

No. 16. — Lance Cove specimen, 1877. (Architeuthis princepsf 2 .) 

In a letter dated November 27, 1877, Mr. Harvey gives an account 
of another specimen which was stranded on the shore at Lance Cove, 
Smith's Sound, Trinity Bay, about twenty miles farther up the bay than 
the locality of the Catalina Bay specimen (No. 14). He received his in. 
formation from Mr. John Duffet, a resident of the locality, who was one 
of the persons who found it and measured it. His account is as follows : 
"On November 21, 1877, early in the morning, a 'big squid' was seen 
"on the beach at Lance Cove, still alive and struggling desperately to 
escape. It had been borne in by a i spring tide' and a high inshore 
wind. In its struggles to get off it ploughed up a trench or furrow 
about 30 feet long and of considerable depth, by the stream of water 
that it ejected with great force from its siphon. When the tide receded 
it died. Mr. Duffet measured it carefully, and found that the body was 
nearly 11 feet long (probably including the head), the tentacular arms 



[15] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 225 

33 feet long. He did not measure the short arms, but estimated theni 
at 13 feet, and that they were much thicker than a man's thigh at i heir 
bases. The people cut the body open and it was left on the beach. It 
is an out-of-the-way place, and no one knew that it was of any value. 
Otherwise it could easily have been brought to Saint John's with only 
the eyes destroyed and the body opened." It was subsequently carried 
off by the tide, and no portion was secured. 

This was considerably larger than the Catalina specimen. 

The great thickness of the short arms of this specimen, and of some 
of the others, indicates a species distinct from A. Harveyi, unless the 
sexes of that species differ more than is usual in this respect among 
the smaller squids. The length of the sessile arms, if correctly stated, 
would indicate that this specimen belonged to A. princeps. In the 
female Ommastreplies illccel)rosus y the common northern squid, the head 
is usually larger, the short arms are stouter, and the suckers are often 
larger than in the male, of the same length. 

No. 17. — Trinity Bay specimen, 1877. 

Mr. Harvey also states that he had been informed by Mr. Duffet that 
another very large 'big squid' was cast ashore in October, 1877, about 
five miles farther up Trinity Bay than the last. It was cut up and used 
for manure. No portions are known to have been preserved, and no 
measurements were given. 

No. 18.— Thimble Tickle specimen, 1878. 

The capture of this specimen has been graphically described by Mr. 
Harvey, in a letter to the Boston Traveller of January 30, 1879: 

"On the 2d day of November last, Stephen Sherring, a fisherman 
residing in Thimble Tickle (Notre Dame Bay), not far from the locality 
where the other devil-fish (No. 19) was cast ashore, was out in a boat 
with two other men ; not far from the shore they observed some bulky 
object, and, supposing it might be part of a wreck, they rowed toward 
it, and, to their horror, found themselves close to a huge fish, having 
large glassy eyes, which was making desperate efforts to escape, and 
churning the water into foam by the motion of its immense arms and 
tail. It was aground and the tide was ebbing. From the funnel at the 
back of its head it was ejecting large volumes of water, this being its 
method of moving backward, the force of the stream, by the reaction 
of the surrounding medium, driving it in the required direction. At 
times the water from the siphon was black as ink. 

u Finding the monster partially disabled, the fishermen plucked up 
courage and ventured near enough to throw the grapnel of their boat, 
the sharp flukes of which, having barbed points, sunk into the soft 
body. To the grapnel they had attached a stout rope, which they had 
carried ashore and tied to a tree, so as to prevent the fish from going 
S. Miss. 59 15 



226 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [16] 

out with the tide. It was a happy thought, for the devil-fish found 
himself effectually moored to the shore. His struggles were terrific as 
he fluug his ten arms about in dying agony. The fishermen took care 
to keep a respectful distance from the long tentacles, which ever and 
anon darted out like great tongues from the central mass. At length 
it became exhausted, and as the water receded it expired. 

"The fishermen, alas! knowing no better, proceeded to convert it 
into dog's meat. It was a splendid specimen — the largest yet taken — 
the body measuring 20 feet from the beak to the extremity of the tail. 
It was thus exactly double the size of the New York specimen [No. 14], 
and 5 feet longer than the one taken by Budgell. The circumference 
of the body is not stated, but one of the arms measured 35 feet. This 
must have been a tentacle." 

No. 19. — Three Arms specimen, 1878. (ArcMteuthis princeps f) 

Mr. Harvey has also given an account of this specimen in the same 
letter to the Boston Traveller, referred to under No. 18. This one was 
found cast ashore, after a heavy gale of wind, December 2, 1878, by Mr. 
William Budgell, a fisherman, residing at a place called Three Arms, 
on the south arm of Notre Dame Bay. It was dead when found, and 
was cut up and used for dog-meat. Mr. Harvey's account is as follows: 

u My informant, a very intelligent person, who was on a visit in that 
quarter on business, arrived at Budgell's house soon after he had 
brought it home in a mutilated state, and carefully measured some por- 
tions with his own hand. He found that the body measured 15 feet 
from the beak to the end of the tail, which is 5 feet longer than the 
New York specimen. The circumference of the body at its thickest 
part was 12 feet. He found only one of the short arms perfect, which 
was 16 feet in length, being 5 feet longer than a similar arm of the 
New York specimen, and he describes it as i thicker than a man's 
thigh.'" 

The statement that the sessile arms were longer than the head and 
body together, indicates that this was a specimen of A.princeps, like 
No. 14, but larger. 

No. 20.— Banquereau specimen, 1879. 

This consists of the terminal part of a tentacular arm, which was taken 
by Capt. J. W. Collins and crew of the schooner " Marion" from the 
stomach of a large and voracious fish (Alepidosaurus ferox), together with 
the first specimen discovered of the remarkable squid, Histioteuthis 
Collinsii V. The fish was taken on a halibut trawl-line, north latitude 42° 
49', west longitude 62° 57', off Nova Scotia, January, 1879. This frag- 
ment, after preservation in strong alcohol, now measures 18 inches in 
length. It includes all the terminal club, and a portion of the naked 
arm below it. This club is narrow, measuring but .75 of an inch across its 
front side, while the naked arm is 1.25 broad, and rather flat, where cut 



[17] CEPHALOPODA OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 227 

off. From the commencement of the large suckers to the tip it meas- 
ures 9.25 inches. It had lost most of its suckers, so that it cannot be 
identified with certainty. Part of the large suckers and some of the 
marginal ones still remain, though the horny rings are gone. Diameter 
of large suckers, .50 of an inch ; of marginal ones, about .12 of an inch. 
The suckers have the same form and arrangement as in the larger spec- 
imens of Architeuthis. It may have belonged to a young A. Harvey L 

No. 21. — Cape Sable specimen. (Sthenoteuthis megaptera V.) 

Plate XVI. 

This specimen was found thrown on the shore, near Cape Sable, Nova 
Scotia, after the very severe gale in which the steamer u City of Boston" 
was lost several years ago. It is preserved in alcohol, entire and in 
good condition, in the Provincial Museum at Halifax, where it is well 
exhibited in a large glass jar. It is the type-specimen of Architeuthis 
megaptera, described by me, September, 1878.* It is a comparatively 
small species, its total length being but 43 inches ; its head and body 
together, 19 inches ,• body alone, 14 inches ; its tentacular arms, 22 and 
24 inches j short arms, from 6.5 to 8.5 inches j tail-fin, 13.5 inches broad 
and 6 inches long. 

This species differs widely from all the others in the relatively enor- 
mous size and breadth of its caudal fin, which is nearly as broad as the 
body is long, and more than twice as broad as long. It has been made 
the type of a new generic group. 

No. 22.— Beigus specimen, 1879. 

Mr. Harvey states that portions of another large squid were cast ashore 
near Brigus, Conception Bay, in October, 1879. 

Two of the short arms, each measuring 8 feet in length, were found 
with other mutilated parts, after a storm. 

No. 23. — James's Cove specimen, 1879. 

From Mr. Harvey I have also very recently received an account of 
another specimen, which was captured entire, about the first of Novem- 
ber 1879, at James's Cove, Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland. It seems to 
have been a fine and complete specimen, about the size of the Catalina 
Bay specimen (No. 14). Unfortunately, the fishermen, as usual, indulged 
immediately in their propensity to cut and destroy, and it is doubtful if 
any portion was preserved. The account referred to was published in 
the Morning Chronicle of Saint John's, Newfoundland, December 9, 1879, 
and was credited to the Harbor Grace Standard. The author of the 
article is not given. The following extract contains all that is essential: 
,"A friend at Musgrave Town sends us the following particulars relative 
to the capture of a big squid at James's Cove, Goose Bay, about a month 



228 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [18] 

ago. Our correspondent says : \ Mr. Thomas Moores and several others 
saw something moving about in the water, not far from the stage. Get- 
ting into a punt they went alongside, when they were surprised to see a 
moustrous squid. One of the men struck at it with an oar, and it im- 
mediately struck for the shore, and went quite* upon the beach. The 
men then succeeded in getting a rope around it, and hauled it quite 
ashore. It measured 38 feet altogether. The body was about 9 feet in 
length, and two of its tentacles or horns were 29 feet each. There were 
several other smaller horns, but they were not so long. The body was 
about 6 feet in circumference. When I saw it, it was in the water, and 
was very much disfigured, as one of the men had thoughtlessly cut off 
the two longest tentacles, and had ripped the body partly open, thereby 
completely spoiling the appearance of the creature. The foregoing par- 
ticulars I obtained from Mr, Moores.' n 

No. 24.— The Grand Banks specimen, 1880. 

Plate V, figures 5-7, Plate VI. 

This specimen, which I have designated as ISTo. 24, was found, dead 
and mutilated, floating at the surface, at the Grand Banks of Newfound- 
land, April, 1880, by Oapt. O. A. Whitten and crew of the schooner "Wm. 
H. Oakes," and by them it was well preserved and presented to the 
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. It is of great inter- 
est, because it furnishes the means of completing the description of parts 
that were lacking or badly preserved in the larger specimens, especially 
the sessile arms and the buccal membranes. 

The specimen consists of a part of the head, with all the arms attached, 
and with the suckers in a good state of preservation on all the arms, 
though the tips of all the short arms, except the left of the second pair, 
are destroyed, and all of the arms are more or less injured on their outer 
surfaces. The jaws and buccal membranes, with the oclontophore and 
oesophagus, are intact. Parts of the cartilaginous skull, with some of 
the ganglia and the collapsed eyes, are present, but the external surface 
of the head is gone and the eyelids are badly mutilated. ISTo part of the 
body was preserved. The tentacular arms, with all the suckers, are in 
good preservation. Unfortunately, the distal portions of both the ven- 
tral arms had been destroyed, so that the sex could not be determined. 
The color of the head, so far as preserved, and of the external surfaces 
of the sessile arms, is much like that of the common squids. 

Reproduction of lost parts. 

This creature had been badly mutilated long before its death, as its 
healed wounds show, and to this fact many of the imperfections of the 
specimen are due. At the time of its death, or subsequently, the ex- 
tremities of the ventral arms and of the third right arm appear to have 
been destroyed, besides other injuries. But both the dorsal arms and 



[19] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 22 ( J 

both the lateral arms of the left side had previously been truncated at 
12 to 13 inches from their bases. The ends had not only healed up en- 
tirely, but each one had apparently commenced to reproduce the lost 
portion. The reproduced part consists, in each case, of an elongated, 
acute, soft papilla, arising from the otherwise obtuse end of the arm. 
At its base one or two small suckers have already been reproduced, and 
minute rudiments of others can be detected on some of them. Whether 
these arms would have been perfectly restored in course of time is, per- 
haps, doubtful,* but there can be no doubt that a partial restoration 
would, at least, have been effected. On the basal half of several of the 
arms some of the suckers had also been previously lost, and these were all 
in the process of restoration. The restored suckers were mostly less than 
one-half the diameter of those adjacent, and in some cases less than one- 
third. Among the restored suckers were some malformations. One has 
a double aperture, with a double horny rim. In one case two small suck- 
ers, with pedicels in close contact, occupy the place of a single sucker. 
In another instance a small pediceled sucker arises from the pedicel of 
a larger one, near its base. 

Nos. 25, 26, &C. 

Architeuthis abundant in 1875 at the Grand Banks. 

From Capt. J. W. Collins, now of the United States Fish Commission, 
I learn that in October, 1875, an unusual number of giant squids were 
found floating at the surface on the Grand Banks, but mostly entirely 
dead and more or less mutilated by birds and fishes. In very few cases 
they were not quite dead, but entirely disabled. These were seen chiefly 
between north latitude 44° and 44° 30', and between west longitude 49° 
30' and 49° 50'. He believes that between 25 and 30 specimens were 
secured by the fleet from Gloucester, Mass., and that as many more were 
probably obtained by the vessels from other places. They were cut up 
and used as bait for codfish. For this use they are of considerable value 
to the fishermen. Captain Collins was at that time in command of the 
schooner " Howard," which secured five of these giant squids. These 
were mostly from 10 to 15 feet long, not including the arms, and aver- 
aged about 18 inches in diameter. The arms were almost always muti- 
lated. The portion that was left was usually 3 to 4 feet long, and at the 
base about as large as a man's thigh. 

One specimen (No. 25), when cut up, was packed into a large hogs- 
head-tub having a capacity of about 75 gallons, which it filled. This 
tub was known to hold 700 pounds of codfish. The gravity of the Archi- 
uthis is probably about the same as that of the fish. This would indicate 

more nearly the actual weight of one of these creatures than any of the 

i . 

*That mutilations of the arms in species of Octopus are regularly restored is well 
known, Imt. it lias been stated by Stcenstrup that this does not occur in the ten-armed 
forms. I have repeatedly observed such restorations in Lol'ujo and Ommaslrqthts. 



230 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. * [20] 

mere estimates that have been made, which are usually much too great. 
Allowing for the parts of the arms that had been destroyed, this speci- 
men would, probably, have weighed nearly 1,000 pounds. 

Among the numerous other vessels that were fortunate in securing 
this kind of bait, Captain Collins mentions the following: 

The schooner u Sarah P. Ayer," Captain Oakly, took one or two. 

The " E. R. Nickerson," Captain McDonald, secured one that had its 
arms and was not entirely dead, so that it was harpooned. Its tentac- 
ular arms were 36 feet long (No. 26). 

The schooner " Tragabigzanda," Captain Mallory, secured three in one 
afternoon. These were 8 to 12 feet long, not including the arms. 

These statements are confirmed by other fishermen, some of whom 
state that the " big squids " were also common during the same season 
at the " Flemish Cap," a bank situated some distance northeast from the 
Grand Banks. 

Tbe cause of so great a mortality among these great Cephalopods can 
only be conjectured. It may have been due to some disease epidemic 
among them, or to an unusual prevalence of deadly parasites or other ene- 
mies. It is worth while, however, to recall the fact that these were ob- 
served at about the same time, in autumn, when most of the specimens 
have been found cast ashore at Newfoundland in different years. This 
time may, perhaps, be just subsequent to their season for reproduction, 
when they would be so much weakened as to be more easily overpowered 
by parasites, disease, or other unfavorable conditions. 

Histioteuthis Collinsii Verrill. 

In addition to the foregoing examples, all of which, except No. 21, are 
believed to be referable to the genus Architeuthis, I have, in former arti- 
cles* described a very remarkable large squid, belonging to the genus 
Histioteuthis, in which a broad thin membrane or web unites the six 
upper arms together nearly to their tips, while the lower ones have a 
shorter web uniting them to the rest. Although, small, when contrasted 
with the gigantic specimens of Architeuthis, it is considerably larger 
than any of the common small squids, and as it inhabits the same locali- 
ties with ArcMteuthis, and has some points of resemblance to the latter 
genus, especially in having the smooth-rimmed suckers for uniting to- 
gether the long tentacular arms, I have thought it best to mention it in 
this part of my article, in connection with the species of Architeuthis. 
The only specimen known was obtained (with No. 20) from the stomach 
of a large and voracious fish (Alepidosaurusferox), having a formidable 
array of long, sharp teeth, eminently adapted for the capture of such 
prey. It was taken by Capt. J. W. Collins and crew, of the schooner 
"Marion," in deep water off the coast of Nova Scotia, and presented to 
the United States Fish Commission. This species (H. Collinsii) is fig- 
ured on Plate XXIII, and will be described farther on. 

* American Journal of Science, vol. xvii, p. 241, 1879; vol. xix, p. 29, pi. 14, 1880; 
Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v, pp. 195, 234, pi. 22. 



[21] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 231 
Moroteuthis robusta (Dall, sp.) Verrill. 

In this connection I may also refer to a gigantic Pacific Ocean species, 
obtained by Mr. W. H. Dall, on the coast of Alaska, in 1872, which 
will be described as fully as possible in another part of this article, 
when discussing the foreign species of large Oephalopods (see Plates 
XIII and XIV). Three specimens were observed and measured by Mr, 
Dall. The largest one measured, from the base of the arms to the end of 
the body, 8.5 feet. The ends of all the arms had been destroyed in all the 
specimens. It was originally t briefly described by me under Mr. DalPs 
MSS. name, Ommastrephes robustus, but a more careful study of the 
parts preserved, especially the 'cone 7 of the <pen ? and the odontophore, 
convinced me that it belongs to the family Teuthidce, characterized 
especially by having rows of sharp claws or hooks on the 'club' of the 
tentacular arms, instead of suckers.:} It was of special interest, to add 
another generic type to the list of gigantic species. 

t American Journal of Science, vol. xii, p. 236, 1876. 
t Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v., p. 246. 



232 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [22] 



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[23] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 233 

SPECIAL DESCRIPTIONS OF THE ATLANTIC COAST SPECIES. 
Architeuthis Steenstrup. 

Architcutlius Steenstrup, Oplysninger ora Atlanter, Collossale Blaeksprutl er, 
Forhandlinger Stand. Naturf., 1856, vol. vii, p. 182, Christiana, 1857 (name 
proposed, but no generic characters given). 

Architeuthis Harting, Verh. K. Akad., Weten., Natuurk., IX, 1860. 

Mcgaloteuihis Kent, Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1874, p. 178 (no generic charac- 
ters given). 

Size large. Body stout, nearly round, swollen in the middle. Caudal 
tin, in the typical species, relatively small, sagittate. Head large, 
short. Eyes very large, oblong-ovate, with well-developed lids and an- 
terior sinus. Sessile arms stout, their suckers large, very oblique, with 
the edges of the horny rings strongly serrate, especially on the outer 
margin. The suckers of the basal half of all the arms, except the ven- 
tral ones, differ from the distal ones in being denticulated all around 
and less oblique. The margin has around it a free-edged membrane, 
which closely surrounds the denticles when the sucker is used, and 
allows a vacuum to be produced. Tentacular arms very long and slender, 
in extension, the proximal part of the club furnished with an irregular 
group of small, smooth-rimmed suckers, intermingled with rounded 
tubercles on each arm, the suckers on one arm corresponding with the 
tubercles of the other, so that by them the two arms may be firmly 
attached together without injury, and thus used in concert ; other simi- 
lar suckers and tubercles, doubtless for the same use, are distantly 
scattered along the slender part of these arms, one sucker and one 
tubercle occurring near together. A small cluster of smooth-edged 
suckers also occurs at the tips. The internal shell (imperfectly known 
iu one species only) has a thin and very broad, lanceolate posterior 
blade, expanding forward from the end, with divergent ribs. 

This genus is closely allied to Ommastrephes, from which it may be 
best distinguished by the presence of the peculiar connective suckers 
and tubercles for uniting the tentacular arms together. 

Architeuthis Harveyi Verrill.— (Harvey's Giant Squid.) 

Megaloteuthis Harveyi Kent, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, p. 178. 
Architeuthis monachus Verrill, Ainer. Journal Science, vol. ix, pp. 124, 177, pi. 

2, 3, 4, 1875; vol. xii, p. 230, 1876. American Naturalist, vol. ix, pp. 

22, 78, figs. 1-6, 10, 1875 (f non Steenstrup). 
Ommastrephes Harveyi Kent, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, p. 492. 
Ommastrcphes (Architeuthis) monachus Tryon, Manual of Conchology, vol. i, p. 

184, pi. 83, iig. 379, pi. 84, figs. 380-385, 1879. (Descriptions compiled and 

figures copied from the papers by A. E. V.) 
Architeuthis Harveyi Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v, pp. 197, 259, pis. 13- 

16 a, 26, 1879-'80. Amer. Journal Science, vol. xix, pp. 284, 287, pi. 13, 

1880. 



234 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [24] 

Plates I— VI. 

The diagnostic characters of this species, so far as determined, are 
as follows: Sessile arms unequal in size, nearly equal in length, de- 
cidedly shorter than the head and body together, and scarcely as long 
as the body alone, all bearing sharply serrated suckers; their tips 
slender and acute. Tentacular arms, in extension, about four times as 
long as the short ones ; about three times as long as the head and body 
together. Caudal fin small, less than one- third the length of the mantle, 
sagittate in form, with the narrow lateral lobes extending forward 
beyond their insertions ; the posterior end tapering to a long, acute tip. 
Jaws with a smaller notch and lobe than in A. princeps. Larger suck- 
ers, toward the base of the lateral and dorsal arms, with numerous acute 
teeth all around the circumference, all similar in shape, but those on 
the inner margin smaller than those on the outer. Eemainder of the 
suckers on these arms, and all of those on the ventral arms, toothed 
on the outer margin only. Sexual characters are not yet determined. 

Special description of the specimen No. 5. — The preserved parts of this 
specimen (see p. 8) examined by me are as follows: The anterior 
part of the head, with the bases of the arms, the beak, lingual ribbon, 
&c; the eight shorter arms, but without the suckers, which dropped off 
in the brine, and are now represented only by a few of the detached 
marginal rings ; the two long tentacular arms; which are well pre- 
served, with all the suckers in place j the caudal fin ; portions of the 
pen or internal shell ; the ink-bag ; and pieces of the body. 

The general appearance and form of this species* are well shown by 

*Mr. W. Saville Kent, from the popular descriptions of this species, gave it new 
generic and specific names, viz, Afegaloteuthis Harvcyi, in a communication made to 
the Zoological Society of London, March 3, 1874 (Proceedings Zool. Soc, p. 178; see 
also Nature, vol. ix, p. 3,75, March 12, and p. 403, March 19). My former identifica- 
tion was based on a comparison of the jaws with the jaws of A. monachus, well fig- 
ured and described by Steenstrup in proof-sheets of a paper which is still unpub- 
lished, though in part printed several years ago, and referred to by Hartiug. The agree- 
ment of the jaws is very close in nearly all respects, but the beak of the lower jaw is 
a little more divergent in Steenstrup's figure. His specimen was a little larger than 
the one here described, and was taken from a specimen cast ashore at Jutland in 
1853. Mr. Kent was probably unacquainted with Steenstrup's notice of that specimen 
when he said (Nature, vol. ix, p. 403) that A. monachus "was instituted for the recep- 
tion of two gigantic Cephalopods cast on the shores of Jutland in the years 1639 and 
1790, and of which popular record alone remains." In his second communication to 
the Zoological Society of London, March 18, 1874 (Proc, p. 490), he states (on the 
authority of Crosse and Fischer) that a third specimen "was stranded on the coast 
of Jutland in 1854, and upon the pharynx and beak of this, the only parts preserved, 
the same authority founded his species Architeuthis dux." The specimen here referred 
to is evidently the same that Steenstrup named A. monachus, in 185G. The confusion 
in reference to these names is evidently due to this mistake. 

The statement that Architeuthis dux Steenstrup is known from the beak alone js evi- 
dently erroneous. Steenstrup himself, Harting, and Dr. Packard, in their articles on 
this subject, all state that the suckers, parts of the arms, and the internal shell or 
pen were preserved, and they have been figured, but not published, by Professor Steen- 



[25] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 235 

Plates I and II. The body was relatively stout. According to the 
statement of Mr. Harvey, it was, when fresh, about 213 cm (7 feet) long 
and 5£ feet in circumference. The 'tail' or caudal iin (Plate I, fig. 2, 
and Plate IV, fig. 11) is decidedly sagittate, and remarkably small in 
proportion to the body. It is said by Mr. Harvey to have been 55.9' ra 
(22 inches) across, but the preserved specimen is considerably smaller, 
owing, undoubtedly, to shrinkage in the brine and alcohol. The pos- 
terior termination is unusually acute, and the lateral lobes extend for- 
ward considerably beyond their insertion. In the preserved specimen 
the total length, from the anterior end of the lateral lobes to the tip of 
the tail, is 58.4 cm (23 inches) ; from the lateral insertions to the tip, 48.2 cm 
(19 inches) j total breadth, about 38 cm (15 inches) ; width of lateral lobes, 
15.2 m (0 inches). The eight shorter arms, when fresh, were, accord- 
iDg to Mr. Harvey's measurements, 182.9 cm (6 feet) long, and all of 
equal length,* but those of the different pairs were, respectively, 
25.4 cm , 22.9 cm , 20.3 c,n , and 17.8 cm (10, 9, 8, and 7 inches) in circumference.i 

strap. Harting has also given a figure of the lower jaw, copied from a figure by 
Steeustrup. In the proof-sheets that I have seen this sj)ecimen is referred to as U A. 
tiian," but Harting cites it as A. dux Steenstrup, which is the name given to it by 
Steeustrup in his first notice of it, in 1856. Therefore, two distinct species were con- 
founded under this name by Kent. His rejection of the generic name, Archiieuthis, 
might, perhaps, have been justified on the ground that Steeustrup had never pub- 
lished any definite description of it, and that he had mentioned no distinctive generic 
charactess in his brief notice, had not Harting's article given, indirectly, sufficient 
information to justify us in adopting the genus. But Kent's genus rests on no better 
foundation than Arckiteuthis, for he gave to it no characters that can be considered 
generic. Actual generic characters of ArchiteulMs were first given in my articles in 1875, 
but those theu given for the pen and dentition were erroneous. Previous to that time 
no characters had been published, either by Steenstrup, Harting, or Kent, sufficient to 
distinguish the genus from Ommastrephes and Loligo, much less from Sthenoteuthis, to 
which it is most closely allied. 

I have more recently been led to consider our species distinct from the true A. mo- 
tiachus by correspondence with Professor Steenstrup, from whom I learn that the cau- 
dal fin in his species does not agree with that of the species here described, and that 
in his species the ventral arms differ from the others, both in form and in the charac- 
ter of the suckers. Certain differences in the arms can be detected in the photograph 
of our specimen (reproduced on Plate I), in which, fortunately, the ventral arms are 
well displayed. Unless these differences prove to be sexual characters, which is not 
likely, they would indicate a specific difference. Therefore, I have, for the present, 
adopted the specific name given by Kent to the Newfoundland specimens. The name 
was given as a well-merited compliment to the Rev. M. Harvey, who has done so much 
to bring these remarkable specimens into notice. Nevertheless, it is probable that 
wTien the original specimens of A. monachus shall have been fully described and fig- 
ured, so as to make the species recognizable, one of our species may prove to be iden- 
tical with it. At present I am unable to decide whether the affinities of A. monachus 
may not be with A. princeps rather than with A. Harveyi. Recently I have had an op- 
portunity to study the suckers of a young specimen of our species (No. 24) in place. 
In this the suckers on the basal part of the ventral arms differ from the corresponding 
ones of the other arms in being denticulate only on the outer side. 

*It is possible that they may have been originally somewhat unequal, and that 
mutilation of their tips made them appear more nearly equal than they were in life. 

tin the original statement it is not mentioned to which pairs of arms these dimen- 
sions apply. After having been five years in alcohol, the ventral arms now measure 



236 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES [26] 

They are, except the ventral, compressed trapezoidal in form, and 
taper very gradually to slender, acute tips ; their inner faces, along the 
proximal half of their length, are occupied by two alternating rows of 
large, obliquely campanulate suckers, with contracted apertures, sur- 
rounded by broad, oblique, thin, horny, marginal rings, much broader 
on the outer side than on the inner, and armed with strong, acute teeth 
around their entire circumference, but the teeth are largest and most 
oblique on the outside (Plate IV, figs. 5-8). The suckers gradually 
diminish in size to the tips of the arms, where they become very small; 
those toward the tips of the arms appear to have been denticulate on 
the outer side, and entire, or nearly so, on the inner margin. The ven- 
tral arms still have, as they show in the photograph, the inner face 
much broader than it is in the others, especially near the base, and 
they are more nearly square than any of the others. Their suckers are 
more numerous, farther apart transversely, and closer together in the 
longitudinal series, there being about 46 on the proximal half (36 inches) 
of each, while on each of the subventral arms there are only about 30 on 
the corresponding portion ; the suckers also diminish rather abruptly in 
size at about 2Q to 30 inches from the base, beyond which they are 
scarcely more than half as large as those on the second and third pairs 
of arms, at the same distance from the base; it is probable, judging 
from the small specimen (No. 24), that all the suckers of the ventral 
arms were denticulate only on the outer margin. The largest of these 
suckers are said by Mr. Harvey to have been about an inch in diam- 
eter when fresh. The largest of their marginal rings in my possession 
are 16 mm to 17 mra in diameter at the serrated edge, and 18 mm to 21 mm be- 
neath. 

The horny rings are yellowish horn- color, oblique, and more than twice 
as high on the back side as in front. A wide peripheral groove runs 
entirely around the circumference, just below the denticulated margin; 
it is narrower and deeper on the inner side. On the inner side of the 
largest kind (c, tZ, e, g) the edge is nearly vertical, and the denticles point 
upward or are but slightly incurved; but on the outer side the edge and 
denticles are bent obliquely inward; along the lateral sides the edge is 
more or less incurved, and the denticles are inclined more or less forward, 
toward the inner edge of the sucker (figs. 5, 6, 6a). The denticles are golden 
yellow, or when dry silvery white; those on the outer and lateral mar- 
gins are largest, flat, lanceolate, with sharply beveled lateral edges and 
acuminate tips ; those on the front margin are shorter, narrower, acutely 
triangular, and in contact at their bases. On the largest of these suckers' 
there are forty-eight to fifty denticles. Some of the suckers (figs. 7, 7a, 8) 
of rather smaller size (a, b) are more oblique, with the outer side of the 

7.5 inches in circumference, and one of the lateral ones (perhaps one of the third pair) 
8 inches. The marginal membranes and crests had decayed, apparently, before the 
arms were preserved. The terminal portions of the arms are also gone, so that their real 
length cannot be given. 



[27] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 237 

liorny rings relatively wider and more incurved ; the denticles of the 
outer margin are strongly incurved and decidedly narrower and more 
acute than the lateral ones, which are broad-triangular ; the inner or 
front denticles are rather smaller, acute-triangular, and usually inclined 
gomewhat inward. On these there are forty to forty-six denticles. The 
rings of the smaller suckers are still more oblique and more contracted 
at the aperture than those of the larger ones, with the teeth more in- 
clined inward, those on the outer margin being largest. 

Among the loose sucker-rims there are some which differ from the 
others in having the rim more oblique, and the inner edge with nearly 
obsolete teeth. These suckers of the second kind differ from the cor- 
responding ones of A, princeps in having, on the outer margin, more 
numerous, more slender, and sharper teeth, which taper regularly from 
base to tip and are not so flattened. The larger of these sucker-rims 
(i) are 14.5 mm in diameter across the base; aperture, 9 mm ; height at back, 
7 mm j in front, 2 mm ; number of large denticles on outer margin, ten to 
fourteen • the inner margin, except in the smaller ones, is either finely 
toothed or distinctly crenulated, and there are usually one or more irreg- 
ular, broad, sharp lobes or imperfect teeth on the lateral margins. The 
teeth of the outer margin are regular, strongly incurved, tapering from 
the base to the very sharp tips, and sharply beveled on the edges. A 
smaller one (j), ll mm across the base and 4.5 mm across the aperture, with 
height of back G mm , has five regular sharp teeth on the outer margin, 
two broad irregular ones on each side, while the front edge is nearly 
entire. These are supposed to come from the ventral arms. Others (h) 
are completely intermediate between the two principal forms, having 
very oblique rims, with a small aperture, but distinctly denticulate all 
around, the denticles on the inner margin being distinctly smaller than 
on the outer. 

Measurements of sucker-rims from short arms (in millimeters). 





a. 
(ale.) 


b. 
(ale.) 


c. 

(ale.) 


d. 

(dry.) 


e. 


/• 


9- 


h. 


i. 


3- 




17 
13 

7. 5 

3 
4G 


17 

10 

9 

3 

41 


20 
16 

8 

3.5 
50 


18 

14 

7 

3 

49 


21 

17 

8 

3 

50 


19 
1G 

7.5 

3 

48 


20.5 
16. 5 

7.5 

3 

49 


16 
9.5 
9.5 
3 

34 


14.5 

9 

7 

2 
14 


11 




4.5 


Heigh 1 of horny ring, hack side 

Height of horny ring, front side 


G 
1.5 







The two long tentacular arms are remarkable for their slenderness and 
great length when comxmred with the length of the body. Mr. Harvey 
states that they were each 731.5 cm (24 feet) long and 7 cm (2.75 inches) in 
circumference when fresh. In the brine and alcohol they have shrunk 
greatly, and now measure only 411.5 cm (13.5 feet) in length, while the 
circumference of the slender portion varies from 5.7 cm to 7.25 cm (2.25 to 
3.25 inches). These arms were evidently highly contractile, like those 
of many small species, and consequently the length and diameter would 



238 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [28] 

vary greatly according to the state of contraction or relaxation. ' The 
length given (24 feet) probably represents the extreme length in an ex- 
tended or flaccid condition, such as usually occurs in these animals soon 
after death. The slender portion is nearly three-cornered or triquetral 
in form, with the outer angle rounded, the sides slightly concave, the 
lateral angles prominent, and the inner face a little convex and gener- 
ally smooth (Plate I, fig. 1, e e.) 

The terminal portion, bearing the suckers, is 76.2 cm in length and ex- 
pands gradually to the middle, where it is 11.4 cm to 12.7 cm in circumfer- 
ence (15.3 cm when fresh) and 3.9* m to 4.1 cm across the face. The sucker- 
bearing portion may be divided into three parts. The first region (i to i i) 
occupies about 17.8 cm (7 inches); here the arm is rounded- triquetral, 
with margined lateral angles, and gradually increases up to the maxi- 
mum size, the inner face being convex and bearing about forty irregu- 
larly scattered, small, flattened, saucer-shaped suckers, attached by very 
short pedicels, and so placed in depressions as to rise but little above 
the general surface. The larger ones are 5 mm to G mm in external diameter; 
3 mm across aperture; .1.5 ram high. The smaller ones have a diameter of 
4 n,m ; aperture, 2.5 mm ; height, l mm . The horny ring (Plate IV, Figs. 9, 9ft) 
is circular, thin, and of about uniform breadth all around ; the edge is 
smooth and even, slightly everted ; just below the edge there is a groove 
all around; below this a prominent, rounded ridge surrounds the pe- 
riphery, below which the lower edge is somewhat contracted. A thick, 
soft membrane surrounds the edge. These suckers are at first distantly 
scattered, but become more crowded distally, forming six to eight irreg- 
ular alternating rows, covering the whole width of the inner face, which 
becomes 4.1 cm broad. Scattered among these suckers are about an equal 
number of low, broad, conical, smooth, callous verrucse, or wart-like 
prominences, rising above the general surface, their central elevation 
corresponding in form and size to the apertures of the adjacent suckers. 
These, without doubt, are intended to furnish secure points of adhesion 
for the corresponding suckers of the opposite arm, so that, as in some 
other genera, these two arms can be fastened together at this wrist-like 
portion, and thus may be used unitedly. By this means they must 
become far more efficient organs for capturing their prey than if used 
separately. The absence of denticulations prevents the laceration of 
the creature's own flesh, which the sharp teeth of the other suckers 
would produce under pressure, and the verrucae prevent the lateral 
slipping, to which unarmed suckers applied to a smooth surface would 
be liable. Between these smooth suckers and the rows of large ones 
there is a cluster of about a dozen small suckers, with sharply serrate 
margins, from 5 ,nm to 8 mm in diameter, attached by slender pedicels. They 
are arranged somewhat irregularly in four rows, those ,of the outer 
rows more oblique, and corresponding in form with the larger marginal 
suckers. 

The second division (ii to iii), 3o.G rm in length, succeeds the small suck- 



[29] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 239 

ers. Here the arm is flattened on the face, rounded on the back, and 
provided with a sharp dorsal carina, increasing in width toward the tip. 
It bears two alternating rows of about twelve very large, serrated suck- 
ers, and an outer row of smaller ones, on each side, alternating with the 
large ones. The upper edge is bordered by a rather broad, regularly 
scalloped, marginal membrane, the scallops corresponding to the large 
suckers, while prominent transverse ridges, midway between the large 
suckers, join the membrane and form its lobes. On the lower edge 
there is a narrower and thinner membrane, which runs all the way to 
the tip of the arm. In one (the lower) of the rows of large suckers there 
are eleven, and in the other ten, above 20 mm in diameter. The former row 
has one additional sucker at its proximal end, 15 mm in diameter, and 
three others at its distal end, respectively 16 mm , 12 mm , and 8 mm in diameter. 
The other row, of ten suckers, i;i continued by a proximal sucker 10 mm in 
diameter, and by two distal ones, respectively 15 mm and 13 mm in diameter. 
The number of large suckers in each row may, therefore, be counted 
as 12, 13, or 14, according to the fancy of the describer, there being no 
well-defined distinction between the larger and smaller ones in either 
row. The largest suckers, along the middle of the rows, are from 24 mm 
to 30 mm in diameter (Plate IV, fig. 4, a). They are attached by slender but 
strong pedicels, about 10 mm long and 6 mm to 7 mm in diameter. The outer 
or back side of these suckers is 16 mm to 18 mm high; the inner side 10 mm to 
ll mrn , so that the rim is about 24 inm to 28 mm above the surface of the arm. 
The horny rings are 7 mm to 8 mm high and have the aperture 20 mm to 23 mm in 
diameter. Each one is situated in the center of a pentagonal depressed 
area, about 25 mm across, bounded by ridges, which alternate regularly 
and interlock on the two sides, so as to form a zigzag line along the mid- 
dle of the arm. These large suckers are broadly and obliquely campan- 
ulate, but much less oblique than those of the short arms; the marginal 
ring is strong, and sharply serrate all around ; the denticles are acute- 
triangular and nearly equal. The rings are somewhat calcified and 
rather rigid when dried; a well-marked broad groove runs around the 
entire circumference, below the bases of the denticles. 

The small marginal suckers (fig. 4, b) are similar in structure, but much 
more oblique, and mostly 9 mm to ll mm in diameter; they are attached by 
much longer and more slender pedicels, and their marginal teeth are 
relatively longer, sharper, and more incurved, especially on the outer 
margin. The peripheral groove is broad and deep, but is interrupted on 
the outer side for about a third of the circumference; the outer third 
portion of the horny ring is somewhat flattened from the circular form. 

The terminal division (iii to iv) of the arm is 22.8 c,n long. It gradually be- 
comes compressed laterally, and tapers regularly to the tip, which is flat, 
blunt, and slightly incurved. Just beyond the large suckers, where this 
region begins, the circumference is 9 cm . The face is narrow and bears a 
large number of small pedicelcd suckers (Plate IV, figs. 10, 10 a), ar- 
ranged in four regular, alternating rows, gradually diminishing in size 



240 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [30] 

to near the tip of the arm, where the rows expand into a small cluster 
of about ten smooth-edged suckers. The suckers, except in the final 
group, are much like the marginal ones of the previous division, and at 
first are 5 mm to 7 mnl in diameter, but decrease to about 2.5 mm near the tip of 
the arm. They have sharply serrate, oblique, marginal rings, higher 
on the outer side, with a peripheral groove on the inner and lateral sides 
only. In our preserved specimens the rings are gone from many of these 
small suckers, but those of the two rows next to the lower margin appear 
to have been larger than the others. # 

The suckers of the final group are close to the tip, which is slightly 
recurved over them. They are flat, attached to short pedicels, and pro- 
vided with a narrow horny rim, which has the edge smooth, or nearly so, 
and surrounded by a thick membranous border. The diameter of these 
suckers is from .5 mm to 2 inm . They are rather crowded, and the cluster is 
broader than long. 

The color of the body and arms, where preserved, is pale reddish, with 
thickly scattered, small spots of brownish red. 

The form of the jaws* of this specimen is well shown by Plate III, 
figs. 1, 2. When in place the tips of these jaws constitute a powerful 
beak, looking something like that of a parrot or hawk, except that the 
upper jaw shuts into the lower, instead of the reverse, as in birds. The 
color is dark brown, becoming almost black toward the tip, where its 
substance is thicker and firmer, and smoothly polished externally. The 
upper jaw (Plate III, fig. 1), in 1875, measured 79 mm in total length, 
25 mm in transverse breadth, and 66 mm in breadth or height. The lower 
jaw (fig. 2) was 7G mm long, 70 mm transversely, and G7 mm broad, vertically. 
It was larger when first received, but has subsequently shrunk con- 
siderably more, in alcohol. 

The upper mandible has the rostrum strong, convex, acute, and 
curved considerably forward, with concave cutting edges, and a slight 
notch at its base. The anterior edges of the alee are irregular and 
uneven. The palatine lamina is broad and thin. 

The lower mandible has the rostrum stouter and less curved, the tip 
acute, with a distinct notch just below the tip, the cutting edges nearly 
straight, and with a moderately deep and rather narrow notch at its 
base ; a ridge runs backward from near the tip, in a curved line, cir- 

*In order to explain the terms employed in describing the various parts of the jaws 
of Cephalopoda, as used in this article, I have introduced figures of the jaws of one of 
our common small squids (Loligo pallida V.) from 
Long Island Sound. The nomenclature adopted is 
essentially that used by Professor Steenstrup. 

Fig. 1. Upper mandible: a, rostrum or tip of the 
beak; b, the notch; c, the inner end of ala; d, the 
frontal lamina; e, the palatine lamina; ab, the cut- 
ting edge of beak; be, anterior or cutting edge of 
ala. 

Fig. 2. Lower mandible: a, rostrum; ab, cutting edge; be, anterior edge of ala; d, 
mentum or chin; c, gular lamina. 




[31] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 241 

cumscribing a more flattened area, on which are grooves and ridges 
parallel with the notch. Beyond the notch, on the anterior edges of 
the alse, there is, on each side, a broad, low, obtuse lobe or tooth, be- 
yond which the edge is even and slightly concave to near the end of 
the alae. The lamina of the men turn is short and strongly emarginate 
in the median line. Detailed measurements of the parts are given in 
the table of measurements on a subsequent page. 

The roof of the mouth, or palate, between the anterior portions of the 
palatine laminae, is lined with, a rather firm, somewhat chitinous or 
parchment-like membrane, having its surface covered with strong, acute, 
recurved, yellowish teeth, apparently chitinous in nature, attached b,v 
broad, oval, or roundish flattened bases (Plate V, figs. 4, 5). These 
teeth are mostly curved, and very unequal in size and form, the various 
sizes being intermingled. They are arranged in irregular quincunx, in* 
many indefinite rows. Many irregular, roundish, rough, white, stony 
granules are also attached to this membrane, among the teeth. Similar 
granules (Plate V, fig. 4a) occur in large numbers on the thinner exten- 
sion of this membrane, which everywhere lines the mouth and pharynx, 

The radula is about 64 mm in total length, with, the dentigerous por- 
tion, where widest, about ll ram in width. The teeth are in seven 
rows, with an exterior row of small, unarmed, thin, rhomboidal plates 
on each side, thus conforming to the arrangement in the other ten-armec£ 
Cephalopods. The teeth are deep amber-color to dark brown, and not 
unlike those of Loligo and Ommastrephes in form. Those of the median 
row have three fangs, the central one longest ; those in the next row, 
on either side, have two fangs, while those of the two outer lateral rows, 
on each side, are acute and strongly curved ; the outermost longest and 
simple, the next to the outer often having a small denticle on the outer 
side, near the base. (See Plate V, figs. 1, 2, 3.) 

The membrane of the odontophore is broad, firm, and thick ; ther 
dentigerous portion occupies only about a third of its width, in the* 
middle or broader portion, where it is bent abruptly back upon itself. 
The lower or ventral portion measures, from the anterior bend to the- 
end, 20 mm ; it narrows gradually to the broad, obtuse end, the width of 
the dentigerous portion decreasing from 9 mm to 5 mm , the naked lateral 
membrane decreasing from 8 mm to a very narrow border. The upper 
portion, from the bend to the end, measures 42 mm in length (in a straight 
line). The upper surface is deeply concave and infolded, at first, with 
the lateral membrane broad and recurved; farther back it becomes 
more flattened, with the dentigerous portion broader (ll mm ), while the 
lateral membrane is abruptly narrowed and then extends to the end as 
a very narrow border. Toward the end the rows of teeth become more 
separated and the teeth smaller and paler, while the membrane becomes 
thinner and narrower. 

The internal shell, or pen, was represented by numerous detached 
pieces, which, after much trouble, I succeeded in locating and match- 
S, Miss. 59 W 



242 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [32] 

ing, so as to restore the posterior end and some of the middle portions, 
giving some idea as to what its original structure must have been. The 
texture and structure of this part of the pen was somewhat like that of 
Loligo, but it was thinner, and had less definite outlines, and less of the 
peculiar quill-shape seen in the latter. The anterior end of the blade, 
instead of being even and regular in outline, appears to have been broadly 
rounded, or somewhat abrupt, with an indefinite outline, thinning out 
gradually on all sides into a soft, fibrous membrane, while the shaft, or 
or quill-portion, was not so distinctly differentiated from the broad, thin 
blade, which tapered to the posterior end, and was probably slightly 
hooded at the tip. The fragments in my possession belong to four more 
or less separated sections. The first section includes 11 inches of the 
posterior end, from close to the extreme tip forward ; the second section 
includes about 9 inches, belonging to the posterior portion, and extends 
to about 25 inches from the posterior end, but lacks the extreme lateral 
margins outside the costae (Plate III, fig. 3) ; the third section consists 
of about 7.5 inches, belonging to the middle region, but does not include 
the whole width on either side of the midrib; the fourth section is about 
10 inches in length, and probably came from near the anterior end of the 
blade, apparently representing nearly the whole width on both sides. 

From these fragments we can restore pretty accurately the last 25 inches 
and 12 inches or more of the middle portion, though the precise form of 
the indefinite anterior end of the blade must remain doubtful. The ex- 
treme posterior tip is broken off, but it was evidently pointed and thin 
as in Ommastrephes. At the mutilated end the breadth is now about a 
third of an inch. From this point the lateral edges diverge rapidly, with 
a slightly concave outline, for about 1.25 inches, where the breadth be- 
comes 1.20 inches ; beyond this the margins are nearly straight, and di- 
verge gradually to the end of the first section, at 11 inches from the tip. 
At this place the breadth is 3.10 inches, the marginal portions outside of 
the lateral costae being about .40 of an inch and the midrib about .25 of 
an inch broad. Beyond this point a section about 4.75 inches long is 
entirely wanting, and the succeeding section lacks the marginal por- 
tions, the lateral costse forming the margins on both sides. At 10.50 
inches from the tip the breadth between the lateral costae is 3.75 inches; 
at 25 inches it is 5 inches broad. Whether the marginal portions origi- 
nally extended to this point with a breadth as great as they have at 11 
inches is uncertain, for their breadth decreases somewhat to that point, 
from a point about 4 inches from the tip, where their breadth is .GO of 
an inch. The midrib is strongly marked, being raised into a semi-cylin- 
drical form, and of somewhat thicker material than the lateral portions; 
its breadth and hight steadily increases throughout both these sections 
and the following one, until it becomes nearly half an inch broad, but 
in the section from nearer the middle it is low and narrow, and de- 
creases rapidly toward the end. The lateral costae are well marked, 
considerably elevated, and well rounded ; they run at first close to and 



[33] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 243 

nearly parallel with the midrib, but after the first 3 inches they diverge 
quite regularly to the point, at 25 inches from the end, beyond which we 
cannot trace them, until they reappear in the first part of the anterior 
section, where they are quite small and soon fade out entirely, at some 
distance from the extreme end. Near the posterior end, between the 
principal costre and the margin, there are on each side two additional 
costse, much less distinct, and many faint radiating lines . But these di- 
verge more rapidly, and mostly run into the margin at 6 to 8 inches from 
the posterior end. The anterior portions and posterior portions are pale 
yellow or bluff, fading to whitish at the thin margins, and deepening into 
pale amber at the midrib. Their substance is flexible, translucent, and 
very thin — scarcely thicker than parchment, except at the midrib and" 
costse. 

The third section evidently came from the middle region, where the 
shell was thickest and broadest. This piece is 7.50 inches long and 4. 10 
broad, with a strongly convex midrib, .30 to .35 of an inch broad, run- 
ning through the center, but without any lateral costse. In this portion 
the shell is much thicker and firmer than in the others, and of a decided 
brownish yellow or dull amber-color, but quite translucent ; it is finely 
striated with close, nearly parallel lines. The breadth and form of this 
middle portion must remain undetermined for the present. The ante- 
rior section is quite incomplete, but is over 10 inches long, and shows 
an extreme width of about 6 inches, or 5.75 where the lateral costse dis- 
appear. Some of the fragments extend forward 8 inches or more be- 
yond that point, and gradually fade out, both at the ends and lateral 
margins, into a white, soft but tough, fibrous membrane. So far as this 
portion is preserved, it indicates a broadly rounded and ill-defined an- 
terior margin. 

To this species I refer, with some doubt, the tentacular arm of No. 2, 
preserved in the museum of Saint John's, Newfoundland. It agrees essen- 
tially in form and size, as will be seen from the description and meas- 
urements, with the corresponding arms of No. 5. Still, it must be re- 
membered that, as yet, no reliable distinctions have been made out 
between the tentacular arms of A. Rarveyi and A. princeps. 

The total length of the tentacular arm of No. 2 was estimated at 30 to 
35 feet. The portion saved measured, when fresh, 579.12 cm (19 feet). The 
circumference of the slender portion was 9 cm to 10 cm ; of the enlarged 
sucker-bearing part, 15.24 tm (6 inches); length of the part bearing 
suckers, 70.2 cm (30 inches) ; diameter of the largest suckers, 3.17 cra (1.25 
inches). Calculating from the photograph, the portion bearing the larger 
suckers was about 45.7 cm (18 inches) in length, and about C.35 cm (2.5 
inches) broad across the face; distance between attachments of large 
suckers, 4.27 t,n (1.08 inches) ; outside diameter of larger suckers, 2.95 cm to 
3.18 cra (1.1G to 1.25 inches) ; inside diameter, 1.8G cm to 2.54 cm (.74 to 1 inch) ; 
diameter of the small suckers of the outside rows, 1.02 cm to 1.22 cm (.40 to 
.48 of an inch). Mr. Harvey afterwards sent to me a full series of meas- 



244 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [34] 

urements of this arm, as then preserved. It had contracted excessively 
in the alcohol, and was only 13 feet 1 inch in length (instead of 19 
feet, its original length), the enlarged sucker-hearing portion being 27 
inches j the large suckers occupied 12 inches ; the terminal part bear- 
ing small suckers, 9 inches; circumference of slender portion, 3.5 to 4.25 
inches; of largest part, 6 inches; breadth of face, among large suckers, 
2.5 inches ; from face to back, 1.G2 inches ; diameter of largest suckers 
outside, .75 of an inch ; aperture, .63 of an inch. It will be evident 
from these measurements, when compared with those made while fresh 
and from the photograph, that the shrinkage had been chiefly in length, 
the thickness remaining about the same, but the suckers (which had 
lost their horny rims, and therefore their size and form) were consid- 
erably smaller than the dimensions previously given. Comparing all 
these dimensions with those of the Logie Bay specimen, and calculating 
the proportions as nearly as possible, it follows that this specimen was 
very nearly one-third larger than the latter, but the large suckers ap- 
pear to have been relatively smaller, for they were hardly one-twelfth/ 
larger than in the Logie Bay specimen. As the relative size of the large 
suckers is a variable sexual character in certain species of squids, it is 
possible that the difference may be a sexual one in this case. 

A few of the horny rings from the small distal and lateral suckers 
(Plate IY, figs. 3, 3 a) were sent to me by Mr. Harvey. These agree 
well with the corresponding suckers of No. 5. 

To this species I formerly referred the jaws and two large suckers 
from the 'club' of the tentacular arms of the Bonavista Bay specimen 
(No. 4, see p. 8). In form, size, and proportions the jaws resemble 
those of the specimen (No. 5) described above, so that the size of these 
two individuals must have been about the same. These jaws had been 
dried, and were very badly broken when received, so that only part of 
their dimensions could be ascertained at first, but I have recently par- 
tially repaired them, so as to study them more fully (see table under A. 
princeps). The total length of the upper mandible was about 105 mm ; 
tip of beak to notch, 16 mm ; notch to end of proper cutting edge of aire, 
75 mra . The lower mandible (Plate III, figs. 4, 4 a) shows both sides of 
the rostrum and alee. The notch and tooth are well marked, and the 
tooth in front of it is narrower and much more elevated on one side 
than on tha other, It is, therefore, quite possible that it belongs to A. 
princeps. The suckers (Plate IY, figs. 1, 1 a) had been dried, and 
have lost their true form, but the marginal rings are perfect, and only 
23.4 mm (.92 of an inch) in diameter, but though somewhat smaller than 
in the specimen just described, they have the same kind of denticula- 
tion around the margin. Their smaller size may indicate that the speci- 
men was a male, but they may not have been the largest of those on 
the tentacular arm. 

To this species I also refer a young specimen (No. 24) which was 
found floating at the surface, at the Grand Bank of Newfoundland, 



[35] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 245 

April, 1880, by Capt. O. A. Whitten and crew of the schooner "Win. 
H. Oakes," by whom it was presented to the United States Commission 
of Fish and Fisheries. It furnishes the means of completing the 
description of parts that were lacking or badly preserved in the larger 
specimens described above, and especially of the sessile arms and the 
buccal membranes (Plate VI). 

The color of the head, so far as preserved, aud of the external sur- 
faces of the sessile arms, is a rather dark purplish brown, due to minute 
crowded specks of that color, thickly distributed, with a pinkish white 
ground-color between them. The outer buccal membrane is darker ; 
the inner surfaces of the arms are whitish ; the peduncular portions of 
the tentacular arms have fewer color specks, and are paler than the 
other arms. 

This creature had been badly mutilated, as described on p. 18, long 
before its death, as its healed wounds show, and to this circumstance 
many of the imperfections of the specimen are due. 

Sessile arms. 

With the exception of the left arm of the second pair, noue of the 
sessile arms have their tips perfect. Therefore, it is not possible to gire 
their relative lengths. 

The dorsal arms are the smallest at base, and the third pair largest. 
They are all provided with a rather narrow marginal membrane along 
each border of the front side. These membranes are scarcely wide 
enough to reach to the level of the rims of the suckers, though they may 
have done so in life. The front margin, bearing the suckers, is narrow on all 
the arms, but relatively wider on the ventrals than on any of the others. 
Each sucker-pedicel arises from a muscular cushion that is slightly 
raised and rounded on the inner side; these, alternating on the two 
sides, leave a zigzag depression along the middle of the arm ; from each 
of these cushions two thickened muscular ridges run outward to the 
edge of the lateral membranes, one on each side of the pedicels of the 
suckers. These transverse muscular ridges give a scalloped outline to 
the margin of the membranes. These marginal membranes are nar- 
rowest and the suckers are smallest on the ventral arms. The dorsal 
and lateral arms are strongly compressed laterally, but slightly swollen 
or convex in the middle, and narrowed externally to a carina, which is 
most prominent along the middle of the arms, and most conspicuous on 
the third pair of arms. The dorsal arms are rather more slender than 
the second pair, and were probably somewhat shorter. 

The left arm of the second pair has the tip preserved, with all its 
suckers present. On this arm there are 330 suckers in all. The total 
length of the arm is 26.25 inches. The first 50 suckers extend to 12.25 
inches from the base; the next 50 occupy 4.5 inches; the next 50 cover 3.5 
inches; the next 100 occupy 4.25 inches; the last 80 occupy 1.75 inches. 
This arm is .80 of an inch in transverse diameter near the base ; 1.20 



246 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [36] 

inches from front to back; breadth of its front or sucker-bearing surface 
(without the lateral membranes) is, where widest, near the base of the 
arm, .50 of an inch ; the width gradually decreases to .18 of an inch at 
20 inches from the base : beyond this the arm tapers to a very slender 
tip, with numerous small, crowded suckers in two regular rows. At the 
base (Plate VI, fig. 4) there is first one very small sucker; this is suc- 
ceeded by two or three much larger ones, increasing a little in size ;. 
beyond these are the largest suckers, extending to about the 25th, 
beyond which they gradually change their form and regularly diminish 
in size to the tips. The larger proximal suckers, up to the 25th to 30th r 
are relatively broader than those beyond, and have a wider and more 
open aperture, and a more even and less oblique horny ring, which is 
sharply denticulate around the entire circumference, with the denticles 
rather smaller on the inner than on the outer margin, but similar in 
form. These are about .31 of an inch in external diameter. They show 
a gradual transition to those with more oblique rims and smaller aper- 
tures. Beyond the 30th the horny rims become decidedly more oblique 
and one-sided, with the denticles nearly or quite abortive on the inner 
side, and larger and more incurved on the outer margin, while the aper- 
ture becomes more contracted and oblique. At first there are eight to 
ten denticles on the outer margin, but these diminish in number as the 
suckers diminish in size, till at about 6 inches from the tip there are 
mostly but two or three, and the aperture is very contracted. Still 
nearer the tip there are but two blunt ones; then these become reduced 
to a single bilobed one ; and finally only one, which is squarish, appears 
in the minute suckers of the last two inches of the tip. The first two or 
three suckers at the base of the arm are more feebly denticulated than 
those beyond, with smaller apertures. 

On many of the suckers (Plate IV, fig. 2 a) there are still remaining, 
in more or less complete preservation, a circle of minute horny plates r 
arranged radially, or transversely on the edge of the membrane around 
the aperture, similar in arrangement to those described in another part 
of this article on the suckers of Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Plate XVII, fig, 
9). They are less developed, however, than in that species, being thin- 
ner and more delicate, nor do their ends appear to turn up in the form 
of hooks. They seem to be generally very thin, oblong, scale-like struct- 
ures, with rounded or blunt ends and slightly thickened margins. These 
structures will probably be found to vary with age, and perhaps with 
the season. They appear to be easily deciduous, and are often absent 
in preserved specimens. 

On the dorsal and third pairs of arms the suckers have essentially the 
same arrangement, form, and structure, and on these three pairs of arms 
the larger suckers differ but slightly in size. The character and arrange- 
ment of the suckers on the distal portion of these arms is well shown on 
Plate VI, figs. 3, 3 a, which represent a portion of one of the third pair 
of arms, commencing at the 67th sucker. 



[37] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 247 

The ventral arms are trapezoidal in section at base, and rather stout. 
Breadth of front surface, near the base, exclusive of membranes, .55 of an 
inch $ transverse diameter, .95 of an inch ; front to back, 1.25 inches. The 
sucker-bearing surface is, therefore, broader than in the other arms. 
The suckers are, however, distinctly smaller, and the proximal ones are 
different in form from the corresponding ones on the other arms. They 
are narrower and deeper, with more oblique and more contracted aper- 
tures, more oblique horny rims, which are denticulated on the outer mar- 
gins only. On the larger ones there are 12 to 15 sharp, incurved denti- 
cles. In fact, the proximal suckers on the ventral arms agree better 
with the middle suckers, beyond the 30th, on the other arms, for there 
are none having wide-open apertures, surrounded by nearly even horny 
rims, denticulated all around. The suckers diminish regularly in size, 
and in the number of denticles, till at the 200th (where the arms are 
broken off) there are but three denticles. 



Young A. Harveyi, Xo. 24. — Measurements of arms (in 


inches) 










Near 
base. 


At 
5 in. 


At 
10 in. 


At 
15 in. 


At 
20 in. 


DORSAL PAIR. 




.35 

.20 

.75 

1.05 


.50 
.30 
.60 
.90 


.30 
.20 
.40 
.70 






























SECOND PAIR. 


26.25 








.40 

.25 

.80 

1.20 

.50 

.20 

1.10 

1.08 

.40 

.20 

.98 

1.40 


.50 

.30 

.65 

1.20 

.50 

.25 

.70 

1.60 

.55 

.25 

.90 

1.12 


.35 

.15 
.35 

.85 

.40 

.15 

.40 

1.20 

.30 
.10 


.22 


.18 












.3*6 
.60 


.1? 






.40 


THIRD PAIR. 






























FOURTH PAIR. 

Breadth of front 


































TENTACULAR ARMS. 

Total length . . 


67 

58.75 

.46 

8.25 

4.25 

2.60 

.70 

.60 












































Length of part occupied by 24 largest suckers 

Length of part occupied by small distal suckers . . . 














































" 







Sessile arms, from base to particular suckers. 










To 

25th. 


To 

50th. 


To 

100th. 


To 
150th. 


To 

200th. 


To 

250th. 


To 
300th. 


To 
tip. 


Dorsal pair, base to suckers 

Second pair, base to suckers 

Third pair, base to suckers 

Fourth pair, base to suckers 


7.5 
7.75 
7.25 
6.25 


12.25 
12. 25 
12. 25 
10 














16.75 


20.25 


22.90 


24.50 


25.75 


26.25 


16.50 


20.75 



















248 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [38] 

Measurement* of suckers of sessile arms (in inches). 



15th. 



30th. 50th 



100th. 



On first pair of arms, external diameter — 
On first pair of amis, aperture diameter — 
On second pair of arms, external diameter 
On second pair of arms, aperture diameter 
On third pair of arms, external diameter . . 
On third pair of arms, aperture diameter. . 
On fourth pair of arms, external diameter. 
On fourth pair of arms, aperture diameter. 



.31 
.25 
.31 
.25 
.31 
.22 
.25 
.15 



.16 
.10 
.20 
.11 
.22 
.12 
.16 
.10 



15 



.14 
.07 



Tentacular amis. — (Plate VI, fig. 2.) 

The tentacular arms are both entire, with all the suckers well pre- 
served. The total length is 65 and 67 inches respectively; length of the 
expanded portion or club, 8.25 inches ; diameter of the peduncular por- 
tion varies from .40 to .70 of an inch ; at the base, .90 inch ; breadth of 
<fche proximal part of the club, where it is broadest, .70 inch ; diameter, 
from front to back, 60 inch ; external diameter of the largest suckers, .35 
inch ; height of their cups, .28 inch ; of lateral suckers, .18 inch ; of the 
largest marginal suckers on the distal portion, .14 inch. 

The peduncular portion is somewhat thickened and rounded at the 
base, but through most of its length it is slender, varying in size, and 
nearly triangular in section, with the corners rounded, each side meas- 
uring, where largest, .60 of an inch in breadth. At about a foot from 
the base the small smooth-rimmed suckers and their opposing tubercles 
begin to appear on the inner surface. At first these are placed singly 
and at considerable intervals (2.5 to 3.5 inches), each sucker alternating 
with a tubercle on each arm ; farther out they are nearer together, and 
toward the club they alternate, two by two, on each arm; near the 
commencement of the club they become more numerous, and are ar- 
ranged somewhat in two rows; just at the commencement of the club 
they become more crowded, forming three and then four oblique trans- 
verse rows of suckers, with the same number of tubercles alongside of 
them ; en the basal expansion of the club, which is its thickest portion, 
these suckers and tubercles become very numerous, covering nearly the 
whole inner surface, forming rather crowded and irregular oblique rows 
of six or more. These smooth-rimmed suckers are followed by an irreg- 
ular group of about twenty, somewhat larger, denticulated suckers, oc- 
cupying the entire breadth for a very short distance. Then follow the 
two median rows of large suckers, alternating with a row of marginal 
ones, of about half their size, on each side. The first three or four 
large suckers of each row gradually increase in size ; then follow six to 
eight nearly equal ones of the largest size ; these are followed by two to 
four distal ones, decreasing in size. In one of the rows there are four- 
teen that distinctly belong to the large series ; in the other row there 
are twelve. The distal section of the club is occupied by four regular 



[39] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 249 

rows of small denticulated suckers, more strongly toothed on the outer 
margins, and similar in form to the marginal suckers of the middle 
region. Of these the two rows next the lower margin are decidedly 
larger than those of the two upper rows. Close to the tip there is a 
group of about a dozen minute suckers, with smooth even rims. The 
middle portion of the club is bordered on each side by a rather broad, 
thin, scalloped membrane. The distal section has a broad keel on the 
outer margin. 

Suckers of tentacular arms (in inches). 

Diameter of largest suckers 35 

Higbt of largest 28 

Diameter of lateral 13 

Higbt of lateral 09 

Diameter of smooth-rimmed ones 10 

Diameter of tubercles 03 

Of largest lateral suckers of distal section 14 

Of median lateral ones of distal section 11 

Buccal membranes and jaics. — (Plate VI, fig. 1.) 

This specimen fortunately had the buccal membranes and other parts 
about the mouth perfectly preserved, which has not been the case in the 
larger specimens. The outer buccal membrane is broad and thin, rather 
deeply colored externally. Its margin extends into seven acute angles, 
one of which is opposite each of the lateral and ventral armsj but on 
the dorsal side there is only one, which corresponds to the interval be- 
t wren the two dorsal arms. From each of these angles a membrane 
inns to, and for a short distance along the side of, the opposite arm, ex- 
cept from the dorsal one, which sends off a membrane which divides, one 
part going to the inner lateral surface of each dorsal arm. The mem- 
branes from the upper lateral and ventral angles join the upper lateral 
sides of their corresponding arms ; those from the lower lateral angles 
go to the lower lateral sides of the third pair of arms. The inner surface 
of the buccal membrane is whitish, and deeply and irregularly reticulated 
by conspicuous soft wrinkles and furrows, which become somewhat con- 
centric toward the margin. Beneath this membrane are openings to the 
aquiferous cavities. The inner buccal membrane, immediately surround- 
ing the beak, is whitish, thickened at the margin, and strongly irreg- 
ularly wrinkled and puckered. 

The jaws have sharp, dark brown tips, changing to clear brown back- 
ward, with the laminae very thin, transparent, and whitish. The upper 
mandible has the rostrum regularly curved, with a distinct ridge, in 
continuation with its cutting edges, extending down the sides, and only 
a slight notch at its base. 

The lower mandible has a notch close to the tip, with the rest of the 



250 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [40] 

inner edge nearly straight ; at the base is a rather large and wide, V-shaped 
notch, the tooth beyond it being broad- triangular and rather large; 
beyond the tooth the ala3 are white, soft, and cartilaginous. 

Measurements of jaws (in inches). 

Transverse diameter of buccal mass 1. 50 

Vertical diameter of buccal mass 1.70 

Upper mandible : 

Tip to end of frontal lamina 1.25 

Tip to notch 57 

Tip to lateral border of lamina 77 

Lower mandible : 

Tip to border of mentum 45 

Tip to lateral border of alse 70 

Tip to inner end of alee 1. 02 

Tip to bottom of notch 32 

Hight of tooth 06 

Notch to inner end of alee 80 

Mentum to inner end of alee 1.20 

The portion of the oesophagus preserved is 14.75 inches long and about 
.15 of an inch broad, in its flattened condition. 

The radula (Plate V, figs. 5-7) is amber-colored, .18 of an inch broad. 
The tridentate median teeth have moderately long but not very acute 
points, of which the middle one is a little the longest. The inner lateral 
teeth are bidentate, and somewhat broader and longer than the median 
ones j their outer denticle is well developed, but considerably shorter 
than the inner one. The next to the outer lateral teeth are larger at base 
and much longer, simple, broad, tapering, flattened, slightly curved, 
acute at tip. They appear not to have the small lateral denticle observed 
on the corresponding teeth of the adult ArehiteutMs (see Plate V, figs. 
1, 2). The outer lateral teeth are similar to the preceding, but rather 
longer and not quite so broad at base. The marginal plates are well- 
developed, thin, somewhat rhomboidal. 

The internal cavity of the ears is somewhat irregularly three-lobed, 
with several rounded papillae projecting inward from its sides, very much 
as in those of Ommastrephes. Each ear contained two irregular-shaped 
otoliths, one of which (Plate Y, fig. 8) was much larger than the other, 
in each ear. 

The eyes were both burst, and most of their internal structure was de- 
stroyed. So far as preserved they closely agree with those of Omma- 
strephes. The eyeballs were large and somewhat oblong in form, and 
appear to have been nearly 2 inches broad and 3 long. The eyelids 
are badly mutilated, but the anterior sinus can be imperfectly made 
out. It seems to have been broad and rounded. The aquiferous cavities 
appear to have been like those of Ommastreplies. The form and struc- 
ture of the cartilaginous L brain-box * also appear to be essentially the 
same as in the genus last named. 



[41] CEPHALOPOr.S OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 251 

Architeuthis princeps Verrill. — (King of Giant Squids.) 

Architeuthis princeps Verrill, Amer. Jonr. Science, vol. ix, pp. 124, 181, pi. 5> 
1875. American Naturalist, vol. ix, pp. 22, 79, figs. 25-27, 1877. Trans. 
Conn. Acad., vol. v, p. 210, pi. 17-20, 1879-'S0. Amer. Jour. Science, vol. 
xix, p. 238, pi. 12, April, 1880. 
Ommastrephes (Architeuthis) princeps Tyron, Manual of Conchology, p. 185, 
pi. 85, 1879. (Figures copied and description compiled from papers by 
A. E. V.) 

Plates VII-XI. 

This species is distinguished by the length and inequality of the short 
arms, of which the longest (ventral or subventral) exceed the combined 
length of the head and body by about one-sixth; by the denticulation 
of the suckers of the short arms, of which there are two principal 
forms, some having very oblique horny rings, with the outer edge very 
strongly toothed aud the inner edge slightly or imperfectly denticu- 
lated; the others having less oblique rings, with the denticles similar in 
form all round, though smaller on the inner margin; by the stronger 
jaws, which have a deeper notch and a more elevated tooth on the ante- 
rior edge ; and by the caudal fin, which is short-sagittate in form, with 
the posterior end less acuminate than in the preceding species.* 

This species was originally based on the lower jaw mentioned as No. 
1, and on the upper and lower jaws designated as Xo. 10, in the first 
part of this article. The jaws of No. 10 were obtained from the stomach 
of a sperm-whale taken in the Xorth Atlantic, and were presented to 
the Essex Institute by Capt. X. E. Atwood, of Provincetown, Mass., 
but the date and precise locality of the capture are unknown. The size 
and form of these jaws are well shown in Plate XI, figs. 1, 2. The total 
length of the upper jaw (fig. 1) is 127 mm (5 inches); greatest transverse 
breadth, 37 mm (1.45 inches); front to back, 89 mm (3.5 inches); width of 
palatine lamina, 58.9 nm (2.32 inches). The frontal portion is considerably 
broken, but the dorsal portion remaining appears to extend nearly, but 
not quite, to the actual posterior end, the length from the point of the 
beak to the posterior edge being 8G.4 mra (3.4 inches). The texture is 
firmer and the laminre are relatively thicker than in A. Harveyi. The 
rostrum and most of the frontal regions are black and polished, gradu- 
ally becoming orange-brown and translucent toward the posterior bor- 
der, and marked with faint stae radiating from the tip of the beak, and 
by faint ridges or lines of growth parallel with the posterior margin ; a 
slight but sharp ridge extends backward from the nctch at the base of 
the cutting edge, and other less marked ones from the anterior border 
of the alae. The tip of the beak is quite strongly curved forward aud 
acute, with a slight shallow groove, commencing just below the tip, on 
each side, and extending backward only a short distance and gradually 
lading out. The front or cutting edge is nearly smooth aud well curved, 
the curvature being greatest toward the tip ; at its base there is a broad, 
angular notch, deepest externally. The inner face of the rostrum is con- 

* The possibility thai this and ./. "Harveyi may be only the sexual forms of one species 
is fully recognized by the author. 



252 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [42] 

vex in the middle and concave or excavated toward the margins, which 
are, therefore, rather sharp. The anterior borders of the aloe are convex, 
or rise into a broad but low lobe or tooth beyond the notch, but beyond 
this they are nearly straight, but with slight, irregular lobes, which do 
not correspond on the two sides. The anterior edges of the aloe make 
nearly a right angle with the cutting edges of the rostrum. The pala- 
tine lamina is broad, thin, and dark brown,becoming reddish brown and 
translucent posteriorly, with a thin whitish border. The surface is 
marked with unequal divergent striae and ridges, some of which, es- 
pecially near the dorsal part, are quite prominent and irregular ; the 
posterior border has a broad emargination in the middle, but the two 
sides do not exactly correspond. 

The lower jaw (Plate XI, fig. 2) was badly broken, and many of the 
pieces, especially of the aloe, are lost, but all that remain have been 
fitted together. The extreme length is 92 mm (3.63 inches) ; the total 
breadth and the distance from front to back cannot be ascertained, 
owing to the absence of the more prominent parts of the aloe; from tip 
of beak to posterior ventral border of inentum, 42.6 mm (1.68 inches) ; from 
tip of beak to posterior lateral border of aloe, 55.9 mm (2.20 inches); from 
tip of beak to posterior ventral border of gular lamina, 60 mm (2.37 inches) ; 
from tipt of beak to bottom of notch at its base, 20 mm (.80 inch) ; tip of 
beak to inner angle of gular lamina, 47 mm (1.85 inches) ; height of tooth 
from bottom of notch, 6.25 mm (.25 inch); breadth between teeth of oppo- 
site sides, 15 mm (.60 inch) ; breadth of gular lamina, in middle, 44.5 mm (1.75 
inches). The beak is black, with faint radiating strioe, and with slight 
undulations parallel with the posterior border ; the rostrum is acute, 
slightly incurved, with a notch near the tip, from which a very evident 
groove runs back for a short distance, while a well-marked angular 
ridge starts from just below the notch and descends in a curve to the 
ala, opposite the large tooth, defining a roughened or slightly corrugated 
and decidedly excavated area between it and the cutting edges; the 
cutting edge below this ridge is nearly straight, or slightly convex; the 
notch at its base is rounded and deep and strongly excavated at bot- 
tom; the tooth is broad, stout, obtusely rounded at summit, sloping 
abruptly on the side of the notch, and gradually to the alar edge. The 
anterior edge of the ala, beyond the tooth, is rounded and strongly 
striated obliquely; it makes, with the cutting edge, an angle of about 
110°. The inner surfaces of the two sides of the internal plate of the 
rostrum form an angle of about 45°. 

The lower jaw of No. 1 (Plate XI, figs. 3, 3 a) is represented only by its 
anterior part, the aloe and gular laminoe having been cut away by the 
person who removed it.* It agrees very well in form and color with the 
corresponding parts of the one just described, but is somewhat smaller. 
The lateral ridges of the rostrum are rather more prominent, and the 

* The specimen was given to the Smithsonian Institution by Mr. G. P. Whitman, of 
Rockport, Mass., in 1872. (No. 2524.) 



[43] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 253 

area within it is narrower and more deeply excavated, especially at the 
base of the notch, where the excavation goes considerably lower than 
the inner margin. The notch is narrower and not so mnch rounded at 
its bottom. The tooth is about the same in size as that of No. 10, and 
appears to be even more prominent, because the anterior edge of the 
ala is more concave at its outer base; it is also more compressed and 
less regularly rounded at summit. This jaw measures 32.5 mm (1.30 inches) 
from the tip to the posterior ventral border of mentum; 17 mm from the 
tip to the bottom of the notch ; 4 mm from bottom of notch to the tip of the 
tooth. 

Both these lower jaws agree in having a very prominent tooth on the 
alar edge, with a large and deeply excavated notch between it and the 
cutting edge of the beak, and in this respect differ from the lower jaw 
of A. Harvey i, for in the latter the tooth or lobe is broad and less promi- 
nent, while the notch is narrower and shallower. This seems to be the 
best character for distinguishing the jaws of the two species. But they 
also differ in the angle between the alar edge and the cutting edge of 
the rostrum, especially of the lower jaw, for while in A. Harveyi this is 
hardly more than a right angle, in A. princejps it is about 110°. More- 
over, the darker color and firmer texture of the jaws of the latter seem 
to be characteristic. 

To this species I have referred the Catalina specimen (No. 14, p. 13), 
preserved in the New York Aquarium. The jaws of the latter, which 
were examined and carefully measured by me, agree very closely, both 
in form and size, with those of No. 10, the type of the species, but are a 
trifle larger. The total length of the upper mandible is 133 mn ; greatest 
breadth, 99 mm ; from inner angle of anterior edge to the dorsal end of 
frontal lamina, 95 mm ; tip of rostrum, or beak, to the dorsal end of frontal 
lamina, 92 mrn ; tip of rostrum to bottom of notch, 19 mm ; notch to inner end 
of anterior edge, 3S mm ; transverse breadth between anterior edges, 17 ,nm . 

The total length of the lower mandible is 95 mm ; breadth from gular 
lamina to inner end of aire, 99 mm ; front edge of jaw to posterior end of 
gular lamina, 83 mm ; breadth of aire, 41 m,n ; posterior edge of aire to end 
of gular lamina, 44.5 mm ; tip of beak to bottom of notch, 22 mm ; notch to 
inner angle of aire, 70 m,n ; depth of notch, 3.5 mm . 

The general form of this species is very well shown on Plate VIII. 
This figure has been made from the sketches and measurements made 
by me soon after the specimen was received in New York and before it 
had been "mounted" (see p. 13). The head was, however, so badly in- 
jured that it could not be accurately figured, and this part is, therefore, 
to be regarded as a restoration, as nearly correct as could be made under 
the circumstances. It may require considerable corrections, both as to 
size and form. The caudal fin is remarkable for its small size, as in A. 
Barvcyi. Its breadth is scarcely more than that of the greatest diameter 
of the body. It is short- sagittate in form, with strongly divergent side 
lobes, which extend forward beyond their lateral insertions, and end in 



254 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [44] 

a rounded or blunt angle. The posterior end is somewhat prolonged 
and acute, but less so than in that of A. Harveyi, which it otherwise re- 
sembles. One of the figures (Plate X, fig. 2), was made by me several 
weeks after it had been placed in strong alcohol, and had shrunk con- 
siderably j the other (fig. 1) was made by Dr. J. B. Holder after it had 
been in alcohol only a few days. 

When fresh, the caudal fin was 81 cm in breadth, but when sketched by 
Dr. J. B. Holder its breadth was 71 cra ; its length, from posterior tip to 
lateral insertions, 48.3 cra ; from tip to end of lateral lobes, 61 cm . 

The length of the body and head together, when fresh, was about 
289 cra (9.5 feet), but when measured by me it was about 218 nra . 

The sessile arms were unequal in size and length, the longer ones con- 
siderably longer than the head and body together. Mr. Harvey found 
that the longest arms, said to be the ventral ones, were 335 cm (11 feet) 
long and 43.2 cm (17 inches) in circumference at base. When first exam- 
ined by me the ventral arms measured 10.5 feet, and were longer than 
any of the others, but all the rest were more or less mutilated at the 
tips, and several had thus lost a considerable portion of their length, so 
that it is quite probable that originally the subventral arms (or third 
pair) were actually longer than the ventral ones. The circumference of 
the third pair of arms, when measured by me, was considerably greater 
than that of the ventral ones, the former being 11.25 inches, the latter 
10 inches. Hence, I have inferred that the greatest circumference (17 
inches), measured by Mr. Harvey, applies to the third pair of arms. 

The ventral arms have both outer angles bordered by a strong, thick 
marginal membrane about an inch wide. The arms are all more or less 
trapezoidal in form, and taper to very slender tips. When examined by 
me they had already lost nearly all their suckers. A few remained near 
the base of one of the arms of the third pair. These were 2o mm (1 inch) 
in diameter, with the aperture 15.5 mm (.62 inch) across ; the denticles on 
the outer border of the marginal ring were broad-triangular, acute, and 
strongly incurved, much larger than those on the inner margin. 

Of the detached suckers, I have been able to study with care 18 speci- 
mens from the sessile arms. Part of these are represented only by the 
horny marginal rings. The three largest differ from the rest in having 
the denticles less incurved and more nearly alike all around the margin, 
those on the inner edge being only somewhat smaller and more slender 
than those on the outer margin, while the rings themselves are less ob- 
lique and eccentric. These probably came from the basal half of the 
lateral arms. The other suckers all belong to one type, like those seen 
upon the third pair of arms, described above. They differ, however, 
very much in size, in the number of denticles, and in the presence or 
absence of more or less perfect denticles on the inner margin, this, in 
the smaller ones, often being without any distinct denticles whatever; 
the horny rings are very oblique and the aperture eccentric. Suckers 
of this kind probably originally occupied the entire length of the ventral 



[45] CEniALOFODS OF NORTPIEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 255 

arms and the distal half of the other arms. The diameters vary from 
gmm t0 24 mm externally; the apertures from 3.5 mm to 20 mm . 

One of the most perfect of these suckers (b) is preserved in alcohol, 
with the soft parts (Plate IX, figs. 5, G), and was sent to me from New- 
foundland by Mr. Harvey. This has the greatest external diameter 
22 mm ; diameter of aperture, 10 mm ; height of cup (outside), 16 mm ; height 
at center, 15 mm j height near inner margin, at attachment of pedicel, 6 ,nm ; 
length of pedicel, 14 mm ; diameter of pedicel, 1.5 mm . In a side-view the 
sucker is oblique and gibbous ; the lower surface is convex centrally, but 
has a deep notch or j>it near the front margin, in the bottom of which 
the slender but strong pedicel is attached, and the horny ring has a 
corresponding notch ; the outer or back portion is much swollen and 
produced downward and backward, and here the horny ring is corre- 
spondingly high. The aperture is nearly circular, but is rather shorter 
from front to back than transversely. In this and some of the other 
suckers of similar size the entire circumference of the margin is fur- 
nished with rather large, sharp denticles, which are strongly inclined 
inward and considerably larger on the outer than on the inner margin. 
There are about thirteen of the large teeth, occupying rather more than 
half the circumference ; these are broad at base, beveled off to an acute 
edge on the sides, and somewhat acuminate, with sharp tips. Those on 
the middle of the outer border point inward to the center of the sucker, 
but those along the sides point rather obliquely to the front margin. 
The front margin is occupied by about seventeen smaller, unequal, 
acute denticles, those in its center the smallest and most regular ; these 
are acute- triangular and their points are directed more upward than 
those of the opposite edge. The horny rings are light yellow (when 
dried they are white and osseous), their denticles yellowish white, and 
often silvery white and lustrous at tip and along their edges, especially 
when dried. The large suckers of this form I refer to the basal half of 
the lateral and dorsal arms. The suckers smaller than the above have 
fewer of the larger outer teeth, and usually fewer and less perfectly 
formed teeth along the front margin. Those that have the aperture 
7 mm or less in diameter usually have the front margin of the ring only 
irregularly fissured, with the intervals minutely denticulate or crenulate, 
while the outer half of the margin may bear nine or ten large and well- 
developed denticles, with broad, stout bases and sharp edges aud tips; 
the edges of these teeth along the middle are usually convex, and then 
the outline is incurved to the acute point. One of the smaller suckers 
examined has the aperture about 4.5 mm in diameter, with the same form 
as the larger ones ; this has about six large, sharp denticles, like those 
above described, on the outer half of the margin of the rings, while the 
front margin is nearly entire and smooth. The smallest one (j) is simi- 
lar, with but four distinct large denticles, with another imperfect, lobe- 
like one on one side, and with a smooth front margin. These probably 
came from the distal half of the various arms. 



256 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [46] 

The three largest suckers (Plate IX, fig. 9), supposed to be from near 
the base of the lateral arms, have about 45 marginal denticles, of nearly 
uniform size, and less incurved than in those above described. In these 
the back side of the horny ring is less expanded, and therefore the 
suckers were less oblique than in the smaller ones. The largest of these 
(a) had the aperture 20 mrn in diameter. 

Measurements of suckers of short arms (in millimeters). 





a. | b. c. 


d. 


e. 


/• 


0- 


h. 


i. 


j- 




24 9 1 1 20 


20 
9 

12 
3 

12 

17 


17 ifi 


1G 
7 

11 
3 

10 


10 
5 

..... 


9.5 
4.5 
7 

2 • 
6 


8 




20 

10 

5 

23 

22 


10.5 j 9 

11 

3.5 

13 1 12 
17 | 10 

1 


8.5 
11 

3 

9 
12 


8 
11 

2.5 
12 
15 


3 5 


Hight of horny ring, back side 

Hight of horny ring, front side 


5 

1.5 

4 

















The long tentacular aims agree very closely with those of A. Harvey i 
(No. 5) in form and in the arrangement of the suckers on the * club.' 
When fresh they measured 914. 4 cm (30 feet) in length, with a circumference 
of about 12.7 cm (5 inches), except at the enlarged club, which was 
20.32 cra (8 inches) in the middle. But when first examined by me they 
had shrunk to 731. 5 cm (24 feet) in length, and the circumference of the 
slender portion was 9 cm to 10 cm ; that of the club was 15.24 cm (6 inches). 
At that time the club was 77.47 cm (30.5 inches) long; that portion bear- 
ing the larger suckers was 48.26 cm (19 inches); the wrist or portion bear- 
ing the smaller and partly smooth-rimmed suckers and tubercles was 
15.24 cm (6 inches) long; the terminal portion, bearing small denticulated 
suckers, was 22.86 cm (9 inches) ; the breadth of the front of the club was 
7.62 cm (3 inches). The terminal portion had a strong carina-like mem- 
brane or crest along the back, and was here 5 cm (2 inches) wide from 
front to back. 

The large suckers (Plate IX, figs. 1,1 a) of the tentacular arms are 
nearly circular in outline, and are broad, depressed, little oblique, con- 
stricted just below the upper margin, and then swelled out below the 
constriction to the base. The calcareous ring is strong, white, and so 
ossified as to be somewhat rigid and bone-like. The margin is sur- 
rounded by numerous (about 45 to 50) nearly equal, acute-triangular 
teeth, sometimes separated by spaces equal to their breadth, at other 
times nearly in contact at their bases ; their edges are so beveled as to 
be sharp, while there is a triangular thickening in the middle of each 
at base. A wide, deep, and concave groove extends entirely around the 
rim a short distance below the margin; below this the lower part of the 
rim is somewhat expanded and irregularly plicated, varying in width. 
The largest ring examined by me measures 31 mm in its greatest diameter 
externally ; the aperture is 2G mm and 23 mm across its longer and shorter 
diameters ;* greatest hight or breadth of rim, ll 1 ™ ; least hight, 8™ ; 
breadth of groove, 1.5 mm to 2 mm . 

* Tliis specimen is somewhat warped by drying, so that the aperture is not so cir- 
cular as when fresh. 



[47] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 257 

The marginal suckers (Plate IX, fig. 10), alternating with the large 
ones on the club, are very oblique, with the rings strong and very one- 
sided, the height of the back being more than twice that of the front 
margin. The aperture is not circular, the outer portion of the margin 
being incurved or straight. The groove below the margin is narrow 
and deep, especially on the sides, but only extends around the front 
and sides, being entirely absent on the outer third of the circumference. 
The denticles are about 22 to 24, slender, acute, not crowded, the most 
of them being separated by spaces greater than their breadth at base. 
The outer ones are strongly incurved ; those along the sides are curved 
forward obliquely toward the front margin, while those on the front 
margin point upward and sometimes rather outward. The denticles 
are of nearly equal length, but those of the front margin are both more 
slender and more acute ; they all have sharp, beveled edges and a 
thickened median ridge or tubercle. The largest ring examined was 
14 mm in diameter ; height or breadth of back side of rim, 8" ,m ; of front 
side, 3.5 mm . 

The small suckers, covering the last division of the club, are very 
similar to the marginal ones last described, except that they are much 
smaller and more delicate, with a narrower and less oblique rim. The 
denticles of the inner margin are very acute, and point obliquely out- 
ward and upward. Greatest diameter of the one described, 6 mm ; hight 
of back side of rim, 4 ,run ; of front side, 1.5 mm . 

The small terminal group of smooth rimmed suckers, seen in No. 5, 
were not noticed, but they were not looked for specially. 

To this species I have also referred the specimen (No. 13) from Grand 
Bank, Fortune Bay (see p. 12, where the general measurements are 
given). Fortunately, Mr. Simms was able to obtain the jaws in pretty 
good condition, and also one of the largest suckers of the tentacular 
arms. These specimens were forwarded to me by the Kev. M. Harvey. 
They had been dried, and the jaws, which were still attached together 
by the ligaments, had cracked somewhat, but all parts were present 
except the posterior end of the palatine lamina, Avhich had been cut or 
broken oft'. Although these jaws had undoubtedly shrunken consider- 
ably, even when first received, they were afterwards put into alcohol 
and have since continued to shrink, far more than would have been 
anticipated, so that, at present, the decrease in some of the dimensions 
amounts to 20 per cent., while even the harder portions have decreased 
from 5 to 10 per cent, from the measurements taken when first received 
by me.* When first received, in 1875, the upper mandible measured 

* There is no reason to suppose that the shrinkage has been any more in this case 
than in the others, bnt I have not had an opportunity for making comparative meas- 
urements from the same specimens when recently preserved, and again after long 
preservation in alcohol, except in one other instance (No. 5), in which a similar 
shrinkage was evident. (See table of measurements, p 22.) 
S. Miss. 59 17 



258 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [48] 

lll ,nm in total bight or breadth ; 88 mm from tip of beak to anterior end 
of palatine lamina ; 20 inm from tip of beak to the bottom of the notch. 
The lower mandible measured 96 m,n in total length $ 80 mm from tip of 
beak to inner end of ala3 ; 19 mm from tip to bottom of notch. 

At the present time (January, 1880), the breadth of the upper man- 
dible is about 90 mm ; from tip of beak to anterior end of palatine lamina 
(at junction with anterior edge of alee), 89 msn ; tip of beak to bottom of 
notch, 19 m,n ; breadth of palatine lamina, 58 ,nm ; beak to posterior end 
of frontal lamina, 90 mm ; beak to posterior lateral edge of alae, 43 ,nm ; 
notch to end of anterior edge of alae, 33 mrn ; notch to end of hardened 
or black portion of same (proper cutting edge), 17 mm ; transverse 
breadth at notches, 16 mm . The lower mandible measures, in length, 
82 mm ; beak to inner end of alae, 67 mm ; to bottom of notch, 18 mm ; breadth, 
alae to mentum, 78 mm ; end of alee to outer side of gular lamina, 84 mm j 
inner side of gular to mentum, 50 mm ; breadth of gular, 44 mra ; breadth of 
alae, anterior to posterior edge, laterally, 29 mm ; tip of beak to posterior 
ventral end of mentum, 33 mm ; tip to posterior lateral border of alae, in 
line with cutting edge of rostrum, 45 mm $ posterior lateral border of alae 
to end of gular, 40 mm ; depth of notch, 3 mm ; breadth of tooth, 8 mm ; 
notch to end of cutting or hardened edge of alee, 20 mm ; to inner end of 
alae, 55 mm ; breadth transversely, across teeth, 16 mm . (See also the fol- 
lowing table of measurements of jaws). 

The beak of the upper mandible is sharp, strongly and regularly 
curved, most so near the tip j a radial ridge runs from the notch to the 
lateral borders of the alae ; the anterior or cutting edges of the alae are 
somewhat convex and irregularly crenulate. The lower mandible has a 
sharp beak, with a slight notch close to the tii> 5 the cutting edges of 
the rostrum are otherwise nearly straight ; the notches at the base are 
deep and narrow V-shaped. The teeth are rather prominent, obtuse, 
slightly bilobed at the summit ; the one on the right side of the mandi- 
ble is more prominent than the other, owing to the fact that the edge 
of the ala, beyond it, is more concave in outline. There is also a broad 
and slightly prominent lobe in the middle of the anterior edges of the 
alae. The sides of the rostrum are strongly excavated toward the base 
and around the notches, and radially striated. The jaws are dark 
brown, becoming blackish toward the tips. 



[49] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 259 

Comparative measurements of jaws (in inches).* 



A. Harveyi. 






princeps. 



I" 



UPPER MANDIBLE. 



Length, beak to end of palatine 

Greatest breadth, palatine to frontal 

Greatest transverse diameter 

Inner end of alae to dorsal end of frontal. . 

Tip of beak to same 

Tip to anterior end of palatine lamina 

Tip to bottom of notch 

Notch to end of anterior edge of alas 

Transverse breadth at notch , 

Transverse breadth between edges of alae 

Breadth of palatine lamina 

End of palatine to edge of frontal lamina 
Beak to posterior edge of alae, laterally. . . 



3.55 
2.49 + 



2.84 



2. 37 + 
"."63"' 



2.06 



LOWER MANDIBLE. 



Total length, beak to end of gular 

Mentum to inner end of alae 

Total breadth, gular lamina to end of alae 

Breadth of gular lamina 

Anterior edge of alae to end of gular 

lamina 

Tip of beak to end of mentum, medially. . 
Tip to end of gular lamina, medially. . . . 

Breadth of alae, laterally 

Eud of gular lamina to alas, laterally 

Tii> of lieak to bottom of notch 

Tip to posterior edge of alae, laterally 

Tip to inner end of alae .' 

Tip to inner angle of gular lamina 

Notch to inner angle of alae 

Depth of notch 

breadth of tooth in front of notch 

Spread of jaws between teeth 



3.44 



2.60 + 



3.85 

2.60 

1 

2.50 

2.55 



.61 
1.10 



1.18 



.62 
1.67 
2.33 
1.20 
1.92 
.12 
.30 



1.70 
2.20 
1.40 



3 

2.55 

2.65 

1.50 

2.45 

.85 
1.85 

.93 + 
1.50 

.60 

1. 50 + 
2.10 + 
1.18 
1.77 

.12 



1.30 + 



67 



5 

3.50 + 
1.45 
3 + 
3.40 + 



4.50 



3.75 + 
3.54 + 
1.15 
2.95 + 
3.17 



.75 
1.15 



3.57 

.81 



2.32 
3.15 
1.95 + 



3.63 



.75 

1.30 



1 
2.30 



1.75 

3.15 
1.68 
2.37 
1.50 
1.60 
.80 
2.20 



1.70 



3.24 
3.08 
3.32 
1.74 



.77 
3." 45 



1.85 



1.31 

2.40 

1.15 

1.58 

.71 

1.78 

2.67 

1.28 

2.17 

.12 

.32 



5.25 
3.88 



3.75 
3.62 



.75 

1.50 



.69 

"3."50 



3.75 

"3.*88 



1.62 


1.75 


.87 


"2. 75 


.13 


.38 



Nos. 1 and 10 had been dried for many years. All the others had been preserved in alcohol — Nos. 4 
and 13 for several years ; ISTo. 5 about one year ; No. 14 for only a few days. The amount of shrinkage 
is considerable in those preserved long in alcohol or dried. 



Comparative measurements of Architeuth 


is Harveyi and A. princeps (in inches] 


. 




No. 5. 
A. Harveyi. 


No. 2. 
A. Harveyi. 


No. 14. 
A. princeps. 




Fresh. 


Pre- 
served. 


Fresh - served. 


Fresh. 


Pre- 
served. 


Total length, to tips of short arms 


166? 
382? 

92? 

75? 

10? 

82 

18? 

22 

27? 






246 

480 

114 
95 
14? 

100? 


212 


Total length, to tips of tentacular arms 






372 


From base of arms to tip of tail 






86 


From base of arms to origin of fins 






67 


Head, from base of arms "to mantle (above) 






12 


Body, edge of mantle to tip of tail (above) 






74 


Tip of tail to insertion of tin 


17 
16 
23 
6.5 




19 


Breadth of caudal fin 




33 


28 


From end of body to outer angle of fin 




24.5 


Front edge of tin, outer angle to side of body 

Circumference of body 


2 
66 






10 






84 

48 

360 

36 


66 


Circumference of head 








Length of tentacular arms 


88 
30 

J ■ 72? 

72? 


161 '' 248? 


...._... 


289 


Length of sucker-bearing portion 


30 


30 


30.5 


Length of dorsal arms (first pair) 




81 + 


Length of lateral arms (second pair) 






100 + 


Length of lateral arms (third pair) 722 

Length of ventral arms (fourth pair) 72 






76 + 








132 


126 


Circumference of first pair of arms, at base 


! 1 

1 






9 


Circumference of second pair of arms, at base 

Circumference of second pair, 3 feet from base 


' 




9.50 

7.50 


1 


i 



260 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [50] 

Comparative measuremen to, <,-c. — Continued. 





No. 5. 

A. Harve\ i. 


No. 2. 

A. Harvevi. 


No. 14. 
A. princeps. 






Pre- 

served. 


*■*• L?J5l 


Fresh. 1 Pre \ 
. served. 


Circumference of third pair, at base 


10 8 






17 


11 25 


Circumference of third pair, 3 feet from base 






9 


Circumference of fourth pair, at base 


8 7. 5 








10 


Circumference of fourth pair, 4 feet from base 








8.5 
4 


Circumference of tentacular arms 

Circumference of terminal club of same 


3. 7.-. 


•_'. 75 
4.5 
1.15 
.84 

08 


4 
6 
1.28 


3J-4J 

»; 

1.25 


I 


Diameter of Largest sucker of tentacular arms 




1. 25 1 


Diameter of largest sucker of sessile amis 


1 


1 l 


Aperture of latter 






80 Krt 


DETAILS OF TENTACULAK ABMS. 


31 


an 


30 

18 


27 




30.5 
19 


Of part of club bearing 24 largest suckers 


15 ; 14 

7 7 


14 


Of 'wrist' or part with group of small suckers 


6 


Of terminal part, with small suckers 


9 9 




<j 




g 


Breadth of club in middle 




1.5 

1.0 
• 1.15 
1 75 


2. .", 

2.0 


2. 5 

1.5 

"*L5" 

."). .") 
6 

3i-4* 
1.44 
1.31 

1.24 




3 


Breadth of wrist 




3 


Breadth of slender middle portion 




1 5 


Breadth of tip, from front to back 




2 


Circumference of club 




4.5 
5 






(j 


Circumference of wrist 









Q 




2|-3J 


2J-3* 

1.15 1 1-fiK 


3M 


Distance between pedicels of large suckers 


Distance between pedicels diagonally 




1 


1.32 

1.28 






DETAILS OF SUCKEKS OF CLUB. 

Largest suckers, diameter in middle 


1.25 


1.15 


1.25 
1.15 








.92 




1.15 


Diameter of facets around suckers 




! 

.40 
.32 




1.40 


1.25 


Largest suckers, bight from attachment . . . 




.75 


Largest suckers, length of pedicels 










.50 













.42 






.24 
.40 
.28 
.12 








.44 


Marginal'suckers, diameter of rings 






.48 





.00 
.35 








.28 


























The dried sucker from the tentacular arm appears to have been one 
of the largest (Plate IX, fig. 11). At the present time the transverse 
diameter of the ring, outside, is 28 rnm ; diameters of the edge, 24 ,mn and 
22 mm ; greatest hight of the ring, including denticles, 9.5 mm ; least hight 
on inner side, 6.5' nm . There are forty-eight marginal denticles, which 
are nearly the same in size and form all around. They are narrow, 
triangular, acute, with the edges beveled, sharp, and with a central, 
thickened, triangular ridge on the outside. The ring is white, hard, 
smooth, and osseous in appearance. 

Of the other specimens enumerated in the first part of this paper, it 
is probable, judging from the proportions* given, that Nos. 10', 18, and 
19 also belonged to A. princeps. Xos. 18 and 19 appear to have been 
much larger than any of the examples of which portions have been pre- 
served, and it was verj T unfortunate that the persons who secured them 
did not know their value, for they were both found within a few miles of 
the settlement at Little Bay Copper Mine, on the south arm of Notre 
Dame Bay, and could easily have been taken to Saint John's. 



[51] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 261 

Observations on the specimens described from foreign localities. 
A.— Atlantic ocean species. 

We are largely indebted to Professor Steenstrup and to Dr. Harting for 
our earliest knowledge of the specimens preserved in European museums, 
or cast ashore on the European coasts. Professor Steenstrup* has given 
accounts, compiled from contemporary documents, of a specimen taken 
at Mai mo, Sweden, about 1546 or 1549, and of two specimens of huge 
Cephalopods cast ashore at Iceland, in 1639, and November or Decem- 
ber, 1790. 

The specimen of 1790, described in the MSS. of Svend Paulsen, 1792, 
had tentacles 3 fathoms long; the body (with head) was 3£ fathoms 
long. That of 1639, described in Olafsens og Povelsens Eeise til Island, 
ii, p. 716, was 4 to 5 fathoms long. 

In the article published in 1857, he also briefly mentioned a specimen 
cast ashore at Jutland, December, 1853, of which the jaws were, pre- 
served, and on which he then based the species ArcMteuthis monaclius; 
and another specimen, which he named ArcMteuthis dux, taken by Capt. 
Villi. Hygom in the Western Atlantic. He has also since described and 
figured! the jaws of the specimen of ArcMteuthis monachus obtained at 
Jutland in December, 1853. 

In the same memoir, of which I have seen only the first few pages, there 
are references to a description and figures of U A. Titan? obtained in 
1855 by Captain Hygom in north latitude 31°, west longitude 76°. The 
latter specimen appears to be the same as that referred to in 1856 as A. 
dux, and the same that Harting £ mentioned, under the name u Architeu- 
th is dux Steenstrup," as collected at the same time and place, and of which 
he published an outline figure (see our Plate XII, fig. 4) of the lower jaw, 
copied from a drawing furnished to him by Steenstrup. 

Harting states that the pen or <gladius ? of this specimen is 6 feet 
long. Many important parts of this specimen were secured, and I 
regret that I have been unable to see the figures and description of it, 
referred to by Harting as forming part of Professor Steenstrup's unpub. 
lished memoir. But to judge by the outline figure given by Harting, it 
is a species quite distinct from those described by me. The lower jaw 

*Meddelelse om tvende Kioempestore Blaeksprutter, opdrevne 1639 og 1790 ved 
Islands Kyst, og om nogle andre nordiske Dyr. Forhandlinger Skandinaviske Natur- 
forskeres, v, pp. 950-957, 1847, Copenhagen, 1849. 

Oplysiunger om Atlanter colossale Blaeksprutter, Forhandlinger, Skand. Naturf., 
1856, vii, p. 182, Christiania, 1857. 

tin a paper, of which I have seen some proof-sheets, given by him to Dr. Packard, 
entitled "Spolia Atlantica." This memoir has not been published. The plate (1) 
that I have seen is marked "Vid. Selsk. Skrifter, V. Raekke, naturv. og mathem. 
Afd. iv Bind;" and there are references to three other plates, illustrating "A. Titan," 
&c. 

t Description de quelques fragments de deux Ce'phalopodes gigantesques. Publie'es 
par 1' Academic Roy ale des Sciences a Amsterdam. 1860. 4to, with three plates. 
(Verb. K. Akad. Weten., ix, 1861.) The figures have been partly copied in Tryon's 
Manual of Conchology, i, plates 60 and 86. 



262 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [52] 

resembles that of A. Harveyi more than A. prlnceps, and is a little larger 
than that of our No. 5. The beak is more rounded dorsally, less acute, 
and scarcely incurved j the notch is narrow, and the alar tooth is not 
prominent. 

M. Paul Gervais, in the Journal de Zoologie, ix, p. 90, 1875, gives a 
short description of this species, based apparently on the proof-sheets 
and unpublished plates (not seen by me) of Steenstrup's article referred 
to above. He describes it as follows : A large species, of which a frag- 
ment of an arm preserved in the Museum of Copenhagan is nearly as 
large as the arm of a man. The sucker-bearing surface of the arm is 
extended bilaterally into a membrane exceeding, on each side, the arm 
itself. Diameter of the opening of the suckers 0.020 m ; of the suckers 
themselves 0.030 m . Length of the dorsal bone (pen) 2 m ; breadth [long- 
ueur, by error], measured in the middle of its length [longueur], 0.1 7 m . 
He refers to Steenstrup's Plates III and IV. 

In a letter to the writer, dated September 4, 1875, Professor Steen- 
strup states that, in addition to the specimens above mentioned, there 
are, in the museum of the University of Copenhagen, two complete speci- 
mens of Architeuthis, preserved in alcohol. Both are of comparatively 
small size. One, from the northern coast of Iceland,* he refers to A. 
monachus. It has tentacular arms 10 feet long, and sessile arms 4 feet 
long. The other is a still smaller one, from the warmer parts of the 
Atlantic, possibly the young of A. aux. 

It is evident, therefore, that at no distant day most of the remaining 
doubtful points in respect to the structure and relationship of the spe- 
cies of this genus can be cleared up by Professor Steenstrup, even if 
additional specimens should not be obtained. 

The publication of Professor Steenstrup's detailed memoir upon this 
genus would give great pleasure and satisfaction to all students of this 
class of animals. His thorough knowledge of the group, and his numer- 
ous and important investigations of the Cephalopods, published during 
many years, will give special value to his conclusions. 

Harting, in the important memoir referred to, describes specimens of 
two species, both of which are apparently distinct from all the New- 
foundland specimens enumerated by me. 

The first of these (his Plate I) is represented by the jaws and buccal 
mass, with the lingual dentition and some detached suckers, preserved 
in the museum of the University of Utrecht, but from an unknown local- 
ity. These parts are well figured and described, and were referred to 
Architeuthis dux by Harting. The form of the lower jaw (see Plate XII, 
fig. 1) is unlike that of A. dux, for the beak is very acute, the cut- 
ting edge is concave, the notch shallow and broad, -and the alar tooth 
is somewhat prominent. The size is about the same as our ]S"o. 5. The 
suckers (Plate XII, fig. 2 a, 2 b) are from the sessile arms, and agree 
pretty nearly with those of A. Harveyi. The edge is strengthened by 

*Tkis one is referred to by Dr. Packard, Ainer. Naturalist, vol. vii, p. 94, 1873. 



[58] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA 263 

an oblique, strongly denticulated ring, which, in all the suckers figured, 
including both larger and smaller ones from the short arms, has regular, 
acute, subequal denticles all around the circumference, in this respect 
agreeing with A. Harveyi. The internal diameter of the largest of these 
suckers is .75 of an inch ; the external 1.05 inches. They were furnished 
with slender pedicels, attached obliquely on one side. The lingual teeth 
(see Plate XII, fig. lc, copied from Harting) are in seven regular 
rows, and resemble closely those of Loligo. On that account mainly, in 
a former paper, I proposed to designate it by the name of Loligo Hart- 
ingii. But since that time I have been able to study the dentition of the 
species of Architeuthis and Sthenoteuthis, and now refer Harting's spe- 
cies to Architeuthis, without hesitation, although the dentition is poorly 
figured. Professor Steenstrup, in a letter to me subsequent to the pub- 
lication of my former papers, also expressed the opinion that Harting's 
specimen belongs to A. monachus. If distinct, however, as is possible, 
it may be called Architeuthis Hartingii. 

The other species described by Harting was from the Indian Ocean, 
and belongs to the genus Enoploteuthis (Plate XII, fig. 4, jaws). 

In this genus there are large, sharp, curved claws (see Plate XV, figs. 
5, a, &), both on the club of the tentacular arms and on the sessile arms, 
in place of the suckers of ordinary squids. The teeth of the odonto- 
phore, in Harting's species, are remarkably small and simple (see fig. 
5, c) d, after Harting). As this species does not appear to have had a 
special name, I propose to call it Enoploteuthis Hartingii. 

D'Orbigny* gave the name Enoploteuthis Molince to a large species, of 
which the body was estimated to be about 4 feet long, found floating 
and mutilated in the South Pacific, south latitude 30° 44', west longitude 
110° 33', by Banks and Solander, in 1769, on Captain Cook's second 
voyage. Of this, fragments are preserved in the Museum of the College 
of Surgeons, London.t 

A similar species, perhaps based on the same specimen, was recorded 
by Molina, from off the coast of Chili, as Seppia unguiculata. 

Lieutenant Bouyer, of the French steamer "Alecton," encountered a 
huge Cephalopod, in November, 18G0, between Madeira and Teneriffe. 
Its body was estimated to be between 15 and 18 feet in length. A long 
and laborious attempt was made to capture it, and a slip-noose was 
passed around the body, but on attempting to hoist it on board, the rope 
cut through the soft llesh and the tail alone was secured. A sketch of 
the animal was made by one of the officers. 

The original account of this occurrence, given in the Comptes-Bendus 
of the French Academy of Science for 1861, is as follows: 

M. Flourens read the following report made to the minister of the 
marine by M. Bouyer, lieutenant commanding the a Alecton."| 

* Histoire Nat. des Cephalopodes Acetabuliferes, p. 339, 1&45. 
tSee also Todd's Cyclopedia of Anatomy and Physiology, i, p. 529. 
t Comptes-Rendus Acad, of Sciences, vol. liii, p. 1263. For the following transla- 
tions I am indebted to Mr. .Sanderson Smith. 



264 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [54] 

"Sainte Croix de Teneriffe, 

"'Alecton; December 2, 1861. * 

"Monsieur le MlNISTRE: I have the honor to inform your excellency 
that I anchored at Teneriffe the 1st of December, at eight o'clock in the 
morning. 

"From Cadiz to Ten&riffe, that is to say. from the 27th of November 
to 1st of December, I have encountered the most favorable weather; 
thus, making use of my sails, setting the safety-valve at 0.30 — in a word, 
economizing fuel as much as possible, I have been sometimes able to re- 
duce the consumption to 6 tons a day, going to 7 or 8 knots, with a 
moderate breeze from the northeast. 

"A singular incident has marked my voyage. On the 30th of Novem- 
ber, 40 leagues from Teneriffe, at two o'clock in the afternoon, I encoun- 
tered a. monstrous animal which I recognized for the gigantic cuttle-fish 
[poulpc geant], the contested existence of which seems to have been 
consigned to the realm of fable. 

"Finding myself in the presence of one of these strange beings that 
the ocean sometimes produces from its depths as if to offer defiance to 
science, I resolved to study nearer by, and try to gain possession of it. 

"Unfortunately, a heavy swell, taking us on the side, caused the 'Alec- 
ton' to roll irregularly, and interfered with the evolutions, whilst the 
animal itself, though almost always at the surface of the water, moved 
itself with a kind of intelligence, and seemed to wish to avoid the vessel. 

"After several encounters, which permitted only of its being struck by 
several balls, I succeeded in approaching near enough to place a har- 
poon in it, as well as to get a running noose around it. We were pre- 
paring to multiply the fastenings when a violent movement of the ani- 
mal caused the harpoon to come out ; the part of the tail where the cord 
was fastened broke off, and we brought on board only a fragment, weigh- 
ing 20 kilograms [about 44 pounds]. 

"We had seen the monster near enough to make an exact painting of 
it. It is the giant squid [encomet], but the form of the tail seems to 
make of it an undescribed variety. It seemed to measure 15-18 feet to 
the head, shaped like a parrot's beak, and enveloped by 8 arms, from 
5 to 6 feet long. Its appearance was frightful, its color a brick-red, and 
this half-formed being [Stre ebauche], this colossal and slimy embryo, has 
a repulsive and terrible appearance. 

"Both officers and men begged me to have a boat lowered and to go 
and seize again upon the animal and bring it alongside. They would, 
perhaps, have succeeded, but I feared that in this hand to hand encoun- 
ter the monster might throw his long arms, furnished with suckers, over 
the sides of the boat, upset it, and perhaps strangle some sailors with 
his formidable scourges, charged with electrical effluvia. 

"I thought that I ought not to expose the lives of my men to satisfy 
a sentiment of curiosity, even though this curiosity had science for its 
basis, and, notwithstanding the fever of excitement which accompanies 



[55] CEPE[ALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 265 

such a chase, I was obliged to abandon the mutilated animal, which, by 
a sort of instinct, seemed to carefully avoid the vessel, dived, and passed 
from one side to another when we again approached it." 

The following is a translation of a letter addressed to M. Moquin 
Tandon by M. Sabin Bertholet, consul of France, which was also read 
before the Academy. It contains some additional particulars: 

"Sainte Croix de Teneriffe, December 12th, 1861. 

"On the 2d of November last the steam dispatch-boat 'Alecton,' com- 
manded by M. Bouyer, lieutenant commanding, anchored in our har- 
bor on its way to Cayenne. This dispatch-boat had encountered in the 
sea, between Madeira and Teneriffe, a monstrous cuttle-fish \Poulpe\. 
which was swimming at the surface of the water. 

"This animal measured from 5 to 6 meters in length, without count- 
ing its eight formidable arm's, covered with suckers, which crown its 
head. Its color was brick-red. Its eyes, not rising above the sur- 
face of the head, had a prodigious development and frightful fixity. Its 
mouth, shaped like a parrot's beak, might have measured [offrir] 
about half a meter. Its body, spindle-shaped, but very much swollen 
towards the center, presented an enormous mass of which the weight 
has been estimated at more than 2,000 kilograms [4,400 pounds]. Its 
fins, situated at the posterior extremity, were rounded into two fleshy 
lobes of very great size. It was on the 30th of November, about 
half-past twelve, that the crew of the 'Alecton' perceived this terrible 
Cephalopod swimming alongside. The commander immediately stopped 
the vessel, and notwithstanding the dimensions of the animal he ma- 
neuvered to obtain possession of it. A running noose was arranged 
in order to catch it, guns were loaded, and harpoons prepared in all 
haste. But at the first balls which w r ere fired at it the monster dived, 
passing under the vessel, and speedily reappeared on the other side ; 
again attacked with harpoons, and after having received several shots, 
it disappeared two or three, times, each time showing itself some min- 
utes afterwards at the surface of the water, agitating its long arms. But 
the vessel followed it continually, or slackened its speed according to the 
movements of the animal. This chase lasted more than three hours. 
The commander of the c Alecton' desired, at any cost, to dispose of this 
enemy of a new kind ; still, he did not dare to risk the lives of his sailors 
by lowering a boat, which this monster might upset by seizing it with 
a single one of his formidable arms. The harpoons, which were thrown 
at it, penetrated into the soft flesh and came out without success j sev- 
eral balls had traversed it uselessly. However, it received one which 
seemed to wound it grievously, for it immediately vomited a great 
quantity of foam and blood mixed, with glutinous substances which had 
a strong odor of musk. It was at this instant that they succeeded in 
seizing it with the running noose; but the rope slipped along the elastic 
body of the mollusk, and stopped only near the extremity where the 



266 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [56] 

two fins originate. They tried to hoist it on board. Already the greater 
part of the body was out of water, when the enormous weight of this 
mass caused the running noose to penetrate the flesh and separated the 
posterior part from the rest of the animal. Then the monster, released 
from this noose, fell back into the sea and disappeared. They showed 
me, on board the i Alecton,' this posterior part. I send you a sufficiently 
exact drawing of this colossal poulpe, made on board by one of the of- 
ficers of the i Alecton.* 

" I ought to add I have myself questioned old fishermen of the Cana- 
ries, who have assured me that they have several times seen, in the open 
sea, great reddish calamaries, 2 meters or more long, which they did 
not dare to capture." 

Messrs. Crosse and Fischer have, from the figure and this narrative 
of the officers,! proposed to establish for this specimen a species, which 
they named Loligo Bouyeri. The figure is imperfect, but evidently rep- 
resents a ten- armed cuttle-fish, though only eight arms are shown, and 
the tail is represented as truncated-! In fact, these figures and the de- 
scription are not sufficient to indicate specific or exact generic characters. 
The eight short arms, shown in the figure, are stout, tapered, and less 
than half the length of the head and body together. It was most prob- 
ably a species of Architeuthis, to judge from the caudal fin, described as 
consisting of two lobes of small size. It may be designated provision- 
ally as Architeuthis Bouyeri. 

In a popular work entitled " Les Monstres Marins," by Armand Lan- 
drin, Paris, 1867, there is also a detailed account of this encounter, 
which, while agreeing in most points with those already quoted, con- 
tains some additional particulars. Although it is put in quotation- 
marks, and is stated to be by M. Bouyer himself, the original place of 
publication is not given, and I have not been able to ascertain its 
origin. In this account the eyes are said to have been " flat, glaucous, 
and as large as saucers [assiettes]? " The part of the tail that we had 
on board weighed 14 kilograms ; it was of a soft substance, exhaling 
a strong odor of musk. The part which corresponds to the backbone 
[pen] began to attain a sort of relative hardness. It broke easily, with 
an alabaster- white fracture. The entire animal, according to my esti- 
mate, weighed two or three tons [4,000 to G,000 Iwres]. It, blowed 
[soufflait] energetically, but I did not observe that it ejected the black 
ish substance by means of which the small calamaries of Newfoundland 
destroy the transparency of the water in order to escape from their 
enemies. The sailors told me that they had seen to the south of Good 
Hope poulpes similar to this, although of less size." 

The description in this work is accompanied by a cut representing 

* This colored drawing was shown to the academy. 

+ Journal de Conchyliologie, 3d ser., vol. ii, p. 138, 1862. See, also, Tryon'sManua 
of Conchology, vol. i, p. 87, pi. 59, 1879 (figure copied from "The Universe")' 

t One of the published figures, as explained above, shows ten arms and all the other 
essential characters of Architeuthis. 



[57] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 267 

the creature swimming just beneath the surface of the sea. This is 
unlike either of the other two illustrations that I have seen, but the 
origin of this figure is not given. In the popular work " The Ocean 
World,'' by Louis Figuier (London edition, 1869, p. 462), there is also an 
account of this encounter, which is for the most part a translation 
from the original accounts given above, accompanied by a figure which, 
as the author states, "is copied from M. Berthelot's colored representa- 
tion of this scene." This is a very fair representation of a genuine ArcM- 
teuthis, and is of especial interest, if we recollect that when this figure 
was made there was no figure extant, nor any authentic description of 
the form and structure of Architeuthis. The head is undoubtedly rep- 
resented too large, but the form and proportion of the, body caudal fin, 
arms, and tentacles are very much like those of the Newfoundland ex- 
amples. 

Popular accounts of this, as well as of other large Cephalopods of ear- 
lier occurrence, are contained in many other general works besides those 
referred to above. * 

In "Les Monstres Marins" (p. 44), referred to above, there is the 
following account, inclosed in quotation marks, but without any state- 
ment of the source from which it was taken : 

"An American captain, whom I knew very well, in JSTew York," says 
B. H. Bevoil, "told me that in 1836, when he was in the neighborhood 
of Lucayes Islands, his ship had been attacked by a cuttle-fish, which, 
stretching out its gigantic arms, had reached and dragged into the sea 
two men of his crew. With a blow of his hatchet, the chief steersman 
cut off one of its arms. This monstrous appendage measured 3 J meters 
(11£ feet) in length, and its thickness was that of a man. I have seen 
this curious specimen of natural history in the museum of Mr. Barnum, 
in New York, where it is preserved, shriveled and folded on itself, in an 
enormous jar full of alcohol." 

Some of our older readers may, perhaps, have seen such a specimen in 
Barnum's Museum, which, however, has not been regarded in this coun- 
try as a very reliable source of scientific information on such subjects. 
Possibly this specimen, as well as the story, may have been an ingenious 
invention. 

According to Jeffreys (British Conchology, vol. v, p. 124), a huge 
€ephalopod was stranded in 1860 or 1861, between Hills wick and Scal- 
loway, on the west of Shetland. "From a communication received by 
Professor Allman it appears that the tentacles were 16 feet long, the 
pedal arms about half that length, and the mantle-sac 7 feet ; the man- 
tle was terminated by fins ; one of the suckers examined by Professor 
Allman was f inch in diameter." 

Mr. Kent, in the articles t already referred to, mentions a sessile arm 

* Among these popular works, of permanent value, containing such accounts should 
be cited "The World of the Sea," translated and edited by the Rev. H. Martyn Hart, 
London, Cassell, Petter & Galpin, from "Le Monde de la Mer," by M. Moquin Tandon. 

t Proceedings Zoological Society of London for 1874, pp. 178 and 493. 



268 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [58] 

of a giant Oeplialopod which has been long preserved in the British 
Museum, but of which the origin is unknown. He states, in the first 
article, that it is just 9 feet long and 11 inches in circumference at the 
base, tapering off to a fine point. There are about 150 suckers in each of 
the two alternating rows, those at the base being .75 of an inch in 
diameter. 

In his second article he refers this arm doubtfully to Ommastrephes 
todarus, and gives the following description : 

"The length of this arm, from one extremity to the other, is just 9 
feet ; the circumference at the base 11 inches ; and from this it grad- 
ually decreases, terminating in a fine point. The suckers are arranged 
in two rows throughout the extent of the arm, numbering, approxi- 
mately, 150 to each row, or a total of 300 to the whole organ. Forty- 
three suckers only are stationed on each side in the first or proximal 
half of the arm; one hundred on each side occupy the whole length, 
with the exception of 14 inches, this smaller length including the re- 
maining fifty on each side, which are very minute and crowded together. 
The comparative distances between the suckers throughout the whole 
length in each row are as follows: Between the first and second sucker, 
1J inches ; half way up the arm, 1 inch ; at three-quarters of the entire 
length, i inch ; and within 6 inches of the distal extremity, J inch. 
The relative diameters of the suckers at similar distances are : At the 
base, extreme outside measurement, f inch; inside measurement of 
corneous ring, -J inch ; and, those suckers a little past the first few being 
the largest, half way down, J inch outside and J inch inside measurement; 
at three-quarters length, \ inch; and at. 6 inches from the extreme 
point, i inch outside measurement, gradually diminishing from here to 
the size of a pin's head. 

"The shape and structure of the suckers upon this British Museum 
specimen agree with those of Ommastrephes todarus, as given by D'Or- 
bigny, corresponding also with those figured by Harting, referred by 
him to the same species, and anticipated by the same authority to be 
also identical with Professor Steenstrup's Architeuthis dux. More mi- 
nutely they may be described as hemispherical in shape, the stalk or 
peduncle being attached laterally at the base of the hemisphere, the 
point of insertion of the same in the cup being marked by a conspicuous 
pit-like depression. The horny ring is obliquely set, and much deeper 
at the side opposite the insertion of the stalk ; the inner margin is ser- 
rated ; and in most examples the serratures bordering the deeper side 
are considerably larger than in the other portions of the circumference ; 
in some instances the serratures, except at the particular point men- 
tioned, are altogether aborted, having the inner margin of the ring quite 
smooth ; in other examples, and more especially among the larger suckers, 
fche teeth or serratures are equal or subequal. The average number of 
the teeth of the largest rings is twenty." 

Mr. Kent, unfortunately, does not state to which pair this arm 



[59] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 269 

belongs. But from his description of the two forms of suckers, it is 
probably one of the lateral arms, if it is in this respect like our young 
A. Rarveyi (No. 24). It evidently belongs to an Architeuthis, and is 
very near to our A. princeps. 

In the Zoologist, London, 2d series, No. 118, p. 452G, July, 1875, there 
is an article entitled "Notice of a gigantic Cephalopod (Dinoteuthis 
proboscideus), which was stranded at Dingle, in Kerry, two hundred 
years ago. By A. G. More, F. L. S." The article is chiefly a reprint of 
the rude but interesting popular accounts written at the time of the 
capture, and upon these Mr. More proposed to found a new genus and 
species. The character which he mainly relied upon, as of generic value, 
is the power of projecting the beak in the form of a proboscis. But this 
is habitually done by the various common species of Ommastrephes, Lo- 
ligo, &c, and perhaps by all ten-armed Cephalopods. There is not suf- 
ficient evidence, from the published accounts, that this specimen differed 
in any way from the Architeuthis monachus. It was described as 19 feet 
in total length; the long arms having been mutilated, the part remain- 
ing was 11 feet long, and as thick as a man's arm; the short arms varied 
from G to 8 feet in length, and were as thick as a man's leg, and hftd two 
rows of large serrated suckers; the proboscis (buccal mass with beak) 
was the size of a man's fist; the beak was " somewhat like to an Eagle's 
Bill, but broader." The whole animal was said to have been as large as 
a large horse. The length of the head and body together was 8 feet. 

Mr. More has kindly sent me a tracing from the original figure. This 
shows a broad, oval, flat body, and a small caudal fin. The body or 
mantle had evidently been split open and spread out flat. 

This fact is also evident from the original descriptions, reprinted by 
Mr. More, in which the sides of the mantle are described as follows: 
".Over this Monster's back was a mantle of a bright Red Color, with a 
fringe round it ; it hung down on both sides like a Carpet on a table, 
falling back on each side, and faced with white." The liver, according 
to the descriptions, had been removed: "When it was dead and opened 
the liver wayed 30 pound." The proboscis had also been removed be- 
fore it was exhibited, and it is therefore very probable that the figure 
and descriptions represent it as more extended than was natural. 

The measurements given indicate a specimen smaller than several of 
the American examples, and but little if any larger than our No. 5, from 
Logie Bay. 

The more important of these ancient letters are here reproduced: 

"Letter No, 2, from Thomas Hooke (Dublin) to Mr. John WicJcins (Lon- 
don) December 23, 1G73. 

" Loving Friend : I send you this onely pursuant to my former of the 
Fish, which I now confirm to be as I gave you the first Account with 
this addition of certainty, that knowing the man by name James Stew- 
ard, and hearing two or three nights since of his being at a Printers 



270 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [60] 

neer our house to get the Lord Lieutenants Order Printed, which he 
gave him for exposing what he hath of the fish to view, I sent, desiring 
to speak with him, and he came, having then the Picture with him of 
the Fish, and lie gave me himself the full account of it, viz. 

" That in the month of October last, I think about the loth day he 
was alone riding by the sea-side, at Dingle-I-cosh and saw a great thing 
in the Sea, which drew his eye towards it, and it came just to him ; when 
he discerned the horns it began to look frightfully, he said he was some- 
times afraid to look on it, and when he durst look on it, it was the most 
splendid sight that ever he saw ; The Horns were so bespangled with 
those Crowns, as he calls them ; they shewed he saith like Pearls or 
precious Stones ; the Horns it could move and weild about the Head as 
a Snail doth, all the ten; the two long ones it mostly bore forwards, the 
other eight inov'd too and fro every way ; When it came to shore its 
fore parts rested on the shore, and there lay ; He got help after awhile, 
and when he saw it stirred not to fright them, he got ropes and put 
them about the hinder parts, and began to draw it on shore, and saw it 
stir'd not to hurt them, they grew bold, and went to pull with their hands 
on the Horns, but these Crowns so bit them, that they were forced to quit 
their hold j the crowns had teeth under every one of them, and had a 
power to fasten on anything that touched them ; they moved the Horns 
with handspikes, and so being evening they left it on the shore, and 
came in the morning and found it dead. The two long Horns are about 
one 11 foot, the other 9 ; the other 8 Horns, about G and 8 foot long a 
peice, and as thick as a man's arm every one of them. He hath brought 
up to Dublin but two short Horns of the Crowned ones, and the little 
Head, being not able to bring the rest the way is so long. 

"The certainty is attested by many at the place, and is no doubt a 
very certain truth, the mantle was all red on the out-side, which for the 
colour sake he kept a peice of it, it was five inches thick, and white un- 
der ; when they cut the Fish it had not a drop of blood, nor scale, nor 
fin, my man took a draught of the Picture which I have here enclosed, 
he said it was as big as any horse as ever he saw, it had no leggs. 
"Your loving friend, 

"THOMAS HOOKE." 

" Letter No. 3, from Thomas Clear to his son, dated Drangon, neer Clonmell, 

December 19, 1673. 

"Bear Son: I did the last week write to you, which 1 hope you 
have received, to which I refer you. This inclosed paper is a form of a 
strange and monstrous Fish, that was cast on shore in the County of 
Kerry in Ireland, about a month since by a storm, you need not doubt 
the truth of it, for I have myself seen part of it, and have one of the 
Crowns by me to produce, I refer you to the paper for a relation of it ; 
remember your duty both to God and man; be carefull in both, and the 



[61] OEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 271 

Lord direct you with all our Dear loves to you and all friends, concludes 
him that is your very affectionate loving Father. 

"THOMAS CLEAE." 

" The Monster Described. 

"This Monster was taken at Dingle-I-cosh in the county of Kerry, 
being driven wp by a great storm in the Month of October last 1673 ; 
having two heads, one great head (out of which sprung a little head 
two foot, or a yard from the great head) with two great eyes, each as 
big as a pewter dish, the length of it being about nineteen foot, bigger 
in the body than any horse, of the shape represented by this figure, 
having upon the great head ten horns, some of six some of eight or ten, 
one of eleven foot long, the biggest horns as big as a man's Leg, the 
least as his wrist, which horns it threw from it on both sides; And to it 
again to defend it self having two of the ten horns plain, and 'smooth 
that were the biggest and middle horns, the other eight had one hundred 
Crowns a peece, placed by two and two on each of them, in all 800 
crowns, each Crown having teeth, that tore any thing that touched 
them, by shutting together the sharp teeth, being like the wheels of a 
watch, The Crowns were as big as a man's thumb or something bigger, 
that a man might put his finger in the hollow part of them, and had in 
them something like a pearl or eye in the middle ; over this Monster's 
back was a mantle of a bright Eed Colour, with a fringe round it, it 
hung down on both sides like a Carpet on a table, falling back on each 
side, and faced with white; the crowns and mantle were glorious to 
behold : This monster had not one bone about him, nor fins nor scales, 
or feet, but had a smooth skin like a man's belly. It swoom by the 
lappits of the mantle ; The little head it could dart forth a yard from 
the great, and draw it in again at plesure, being like a hawk's beak 
and having in the little head two tongues by which it is thought it 
received all its nourishment ; when it was dead and opened the liver 
waved 30 pounds. The man that took it came to Clonmel the 4th of 
this instant December, with two of the horns in a long box with the 
little head, and the figure of the fish drawn on a painted-cloth, which 
was the full proportion of it, and he went up to Dublin, with an intent 
to shew it to the Lord Lieutenant." 

" Letter No. 4, manuscript. 

"In a Letter from a very Sober person in Dublin dated 27th of 
December 1G73. 

"Yesterday I went to See part of the Sea Monster, which was taken 
at Dingle, viz. the two Bigg Homes and the little head, the Homes are 
neare foure foot long, and about six inches thick towards the Boot, and 
full of little Coronetts about the Compass of a groat, and teeth in every 
one of them, they were fixt to the Home, with a string like a Veine, by 
which I conceive they received Xourishmeut, rather then that the nour- 



272 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [62] 

ishment .should be conveyed through them downe the Homes to the 
Beast. The head was not soe bigg as my fist, the mouth and two hard 
shells upon it very black and shap'd somewhat like to an Eagles Bill, 
but broader; In the mouth there was two tongues, and (as the Man 
declared that tooke this monster) the Beast had natural! power to draw 
this head in or putt it out of the Body as necessity required." 

In the Zoologist, June, 1875, p. 4502, and August, p. 4569, and in the 
August number of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, vol. 
xvi, p. 123, Mr. More also gave an account of the capture, and briefly 
described the beak, odontophore, and portions of the tentacles and arms 
of another specimen, taken off Boffin Island, on the west coast of Ire- 
land, April, 1875. The tentacular arms are said to have been 30 feet 
long; the expanded portion, 2 feet 9 inches; the large central suckers, 
nearly 1 inch in diameter; those of the outer rows, .5 of an inch; one 
short arm is said to have been 8 feet long and 15 inches in circumference 
at the base when fresh. It had small suckers without teeth on the 
horny rings, on the ' wrist' of the L club ' and scattered along the tentacular 
arms, as do our specimens. The rounded tubercles that always accom- 
pany these smooth-rimmed suckers are not mentioned, but doubtless 
they were also present. The beak was 5.25 inches long and 3.o inches 
broad, dark reddish brown, " with a large tooth iu both margins of the 
inner mandible and a much smaller notch on each side of the outer 
mandible." 

Mr. More believed this to be distinct from the Newfoundland species, 
and referred it to A. dux, but his description agrees closely with the cor- 
responding parts of A. Harveyi (No. 5) described by me, except in the 
relatively somewhat greater size of the sessile arms at base. In this 
respect, however, it is equaled or surpassed by our No. 14, and by others 
of the Newfoundland examples. This may also be only a peculiarity of 
the female. The measurements indicate a specimen intermediate in size 
between our Nos. 5 and 14, but the description is not sufficient to indi- 
cate with certainty to which ot our species it was nearest related. A 
more detailed description, with figures of the suckers and odontophore r 
would probably settle this point. Mr. More supposed that the lateral 
suckers of the tentacular club were larger in his example than in A* 
Harveyi, but that is not the case. 

Prof. G. O. Sars, in his recent work (Mollusca Beg. Arct. Norvegise, 
p. 377), also mentions a specimen of Architeuthis (12 feet long) cast 
ashore on the Norwegian coast, at Foldenfjord, in 1874. He refers it 
doubtfully to U A dux Steenstrup" (from the Kattegat), by which we 
should understand A. monachus, without doubt. 

In " Nature," vol. xxii, No. 25, October 21, 1880, p. 585, under the 
caption "An Octopus," there is an account of the stranding of a large 
Oephalopod, early in October, at Kilkee, County Clare, Ireland, from a 
letter of the Be v. R. J. Gabbett. The description, though very imper- 
fect, is sufficient to show that it was not an Octopus, but probably an. 






[63] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 273~ 

Architeuthis, which had lost its tentacular arms, as is often the case 
with stranded specimens. The length of the head is given as about 3 
feet, and its diameter is given as 1J inches — probably a mistake for 1£ 
feet. The more important points are as follows: "Its arms had been 
partially broken ; there were eight of them, each as thick as a. strong 
man's upper arm, and beneath each were two rows of suckers like cup- 
ping-glasses, more than a shilling size in circuit. When perfect, each 
of these arms must have been from 12 to 15 feet long, and from the 
point of one arm to that of its opposite was a length of nearly 30 feet. 
The animal's length, from the insertion of its suckers to the end of its 
body, must have been nearly 20 feet — perhaps more. Its mouth, like a 
parrot's beak, was as large as two joined hands of a large man, with 
the fingers outstretched. It weighed about 4 cwt." 

Examples from the Indian Ocean and New Zealand. 

In the Journal de Zoologie, vol. iv, No. 2, p. 88, 1875, M. Paul Gervais 
has given a partial summary of the gigantic Cephalopods previously 
known, and has mentioned an additional species (Architeuthis Moucliezi 
Velain), of which portions were brought to Paris by M. Velain, from the 
Island of Saint Paul, Indian Ocean, where it was cast ashore in Novem- 
ber. He also quotes the brief notice of the animal by M. Velain (in 
Comptes-Rendus, t. lxxx, p. 1002, Seance du Avril 19, 1875). It is stated 
that this example belongs to the same group with Ommastrephes. A 
description and, a rude figure of it, made from a photograph taken in 
the position in which it lay upon the shore, has also been published by 
M. Velain in the Arch, de Zool. Exper., vol. vi, p. 83, 1877. The figure 
has been copied in Tryon's Manual of Conchology, vol. i, pi. 82. Ac- 
cording to this figure, the tentacular arms were very long and the short 
arms were truncated, probably owing to mutilation. One of the tentacu- 
lar arms was saved, and, with the beak, was preserved in Paris. The 
caudal fin was narrow and lanceolate, adhering to the sides of the body 
by its entire length. In the latter feature this is very different from 
any of the northern species. 

In the Archives de Zool. Experimentale, vol. vi, 1877, M. Velain has 
proposed a new genus (Mouchezia) for this specimen. The peculiarity 
of the pen appears to be the only character of any special importance 
referred to by him. 

Mr. T. W. Kirk, in the Transactions of the Wellington Philosophical 
Society, for October, 1879, p. 310, has published accounts of the occur- 
rence of five specimens of " giant cuttle-fish " on the coast of New Zeal- 
and: 

No. 1. The first of these was cast ashore at Waimarama, east coast, 
in September, 1870. Of this the beak was preserved and sent to Mr. 
Kirk by Mr. Meinertzhagen, whose account of the occurrence, with a 
rather crude description and some measurements made by an eye-wit- 
ness, Mr. Kirk has printed. He gives no description of the beak, un- 
S. Miss. 59 18 



274 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [64] 

fortunately. The dimensions given are as follows : Length from tip of 
tail to root of arms, 10 feet 5 inches ; circumference, 6 feet ; length of 
arms, 5 feet 6 inches. " The beast had eight tentacles, as thick as a 
man's leg at the root ; horrid suckers on the inside of them, from the 
size of an ounce bullet to that of a pea at the tip ; two horrid gogglo 
eyes ; and a powerful beak between the roots of the arms. His head ap- 
peared to slip in and out of a sheath. Altogether he was a most repul- 
sive looking brute." 

It is probable that this specimen had lost its two tentacular arms be- 
fore death, and that it was actually of the same species as the other 
specimens recorded by Mr. Kirk. Mr. Kirk, however, seems to think 
that the above description refers to an Octopod. 

No. 2. " The beak of number 2 was deposited in the Colonial Museum 
by Mr. A. Hamilton. The animal was captured at Cape Campbell by 
Mr. C. H. Eobson, a member of this society, who very kindly furnished 
me with the following information. Writing on the 19th June, 1879, he 
says: 

" ' In reply to yours of the 12th about the cuttle-fish, I may state that 
while stationed at Cape Campbell I found several specimens of large 
size, all, however, more or less mutilated, except one, the beak of which 

I gave to Mr. Hamilton. It was alive and quite perfect, the body being 
7 feet long, eight sessile arms 8 feet long, and two tentacular arms 12 
feet. I am, however, only writing from memory. Mr. Hamilton has 
the exact measurements, and I remember distinctly that the total length 
was close on 20 feet/ 

" I am sorry to say that Mr. Hamilton has mislaid the notes and meas- 
urements, but those given above cannot be far out." 

No. 3. The third specimen was examined and measured by Mr. Kirk, 
personally, where it lay on the beach. He also made a drawing of it, but 
it has not yet been published to my knowledge. It was found on the 
beach at Lyall Bay, May 23, 1879, by three boys. Mr. Kirk states that 
it had been somewhat mutilated by the natives before he saw it, and the 
pen or bone had been cut across ; but he preserved all the pieces of the 
pen, the beak, tongue, and some of the suckers. Most of the suckers 
had been torn off. 

" The length of body from tip of tail to anterior margin of the mantle 
was 9 feet 2 inches, and 7 feet 3 inches in circumference; the head from 
anterior margin of mantle to roots of arms, 1 foot 11 inches; making the 
total length of the body 11 feet 1 inch. The head measured 4 feet in 
circumference. The sessile arms measured 4 feet 3 inches in length, and 

II inches in circumference. Each of these arms bore thirty-six suckers, 
arranged in two equal rows (as shown by the scars), and measuring from 
it to J of an inch in diameter. Every sucker was strengthened by a 
bony ring armed with from forty to sixty sharp incurved teeth. The 
tentacular arms had been torn off at the length of 6 feet 2 inches, which 
was probably less than half their original length. 



[65] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 275 

" The fins were posterior, and were mere lateral expansions of the 
mantle. They did not extend over the back, as in the case with Onycho- 
teuthis, &c. Each measured 24 inches in length and 13 inches in width. 

" The cuttle-bone, when first extracted, measured 6 feet 3 inches in 
length and 11 inches in width, but has since shrunk considerably. It 
was broadly lanceolate, with a hollow conical apex 1J inches deep." 

No. 4. "Another specimen, measuring 8 feet in length, was lately 
caught by a fishing party near the Boulder Bank, at Kelson, concerning 
which I have only seen a newspaper cutting, and have not been able to 
obtain particulars." 

No. 5. "A fifth was found by Mr. Moore, near Flat Point, east coast. 
A description was sent to Mr. Beetham, M. H. B., who, I believe, in- 
tends communicating it to this society." 

From the above descriptions it is not possible to decide with certainty 
whether these specimens belong to the Architeuthis- group or whether 
they are more nearly allied to the Onychoteuthis-gYOUV, like Moroteuthis, 
for the armature of the tentacular arms is not known. The broad- 
lanceolate form of the pen, with a small conical hood at the end, would 
seem to indicate affinities with Architeuthis ', and the presence of true 
suckers on the sessile arms, and small size of the fins, are favorable for 
that view. Altogether, the descriptions indicate that this New Zealand 
species is related to, and perhaps identical with, the one discovered at 
the Island of Saint Paul, and first named by M. Velain Architeuthis 
Mouchezi. It is to be hoped that Mr. Kirk will soon give detailed de- 
scriptions and figures of the portions in his possession. 

C. — Examples from the North Pacific. 

The following species, although the specimens when found had lost 
some of their most characteristic parts, appears to be nearly related to 
Onychoteuthis, a genus having sharp claws instead of suckers on the 
'club' of the tentacular arms, and a cluster of small tubercles and 
smooth suckers on its ' wrist,' to unite the arms together. It probably 
is nearly related to the group Lestoteuthis, characterized below. 

Moroteuthis robusta (Dall, sp.) Verrill, 1881. 

Ommastrephes robustus (Dall, MSS.) Verrill, Auier. Journ. Sci., vol. xii, p. 236, 

1876. 
Onychoteuthis (Lestoteuthis) robusta Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v, pp. 195, 

246, 252, pis. 23, 24, 1880. 

Plate XIII. Plate XIV. 

This large and very interesting species* was discovered by Mr. W. 
H. Dall, near Iliuliuk, Unalashka Island, oft' the coast of Alaska.t He 

* This is the species referred to as perhaps Onychoteuthis Bcrgi by Mr. Dall in his 
note upon large Cephalopods, in the American Naturalist, vol. vii, p. 484, 1873. 

t The first specimen was found by Mr. M. W. Harrington, of Mr. Dall's party, on the 
west shore of Amaknak Island, Captain's Harbor, Unalashka, April 26. 



27G REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [G6] 

found three specimens thrown upon the beach, April 2G and May 8, 
1872. He made descriptions, measurements, and some very valuable 
drawings of them, while fresh. The specimens had all been more or less 
mutilated by the ravens before they were discovered. He preserved the 
pharynx, beak, and odontophore of No. 1, part of the 'bone,' a piece 
of the caudal fin, and the basal part of one of the ventral arms, with live 
of the suckers adhering, from one of the other specimens (No. 2), and 
has generously placed them in my hands for examination, together with 
his drawings, measurements, and notes. 

The parts remaining of the largest specimen (No. 3) when found had 
a total length of 427 cm (14 feet), but the ends of the tentacular arms had 
been destroyed; length from tail to base of tentacular arms, 559 cm (8 
feet, 6 inches); to front edge of mantle, 232.4 cm (7 feet, 7 J inches); width 
across fins, 107 cm (42 inches); diameter of body, 45.7 cm (18 inches); slen- 
der basal portion remaining of tentacular arms, 155 cm (Gl inches) ; their 
diameter, G.3 cm (2.5 inches) ; short arms (ends gone), 7G c,n to 102 cm (30 
to 40 inches); length of pen, 226 cm (7 feet, 5 inches). 

According to Mr. Ball's note the color was reddish, in fine red dots 
on a whitish ground, with a darker stripe on the outer median line of 
the arms. The eyes were bluish black, furnished with lids, and with a 
small sinus in front ; diameter of the opening, 2.5 cm (1 inch). 

The mandibles retracted into a short, yellow, puckered muzzle, 
which was included iu a longer, plain, proboscis-like tube, extending 
an inch or two beyond. Siphon, short and thick.* Eegiou of the eye 
somewhat raised. The nuchal collar is well marked, and slightly above 
it, on each side, is a raised epidermal ridge, from which three wavy 
raised crests or frills, attached at their inner edge, pass obliquely back- 
ward, on each side. No cranial cartilage was observed. Mantle firm 
and dense. The neck has one median dorsal and two ventral facets, 
long, oval-shaped, with a median depressed line, but otherwise smooth 
and white ; the dorsal moves on a smooth part of the inside of the man- 
tle ; the ventrals move on similar raised facets of the mantle beneath. 
The caudal fin was rather broad, lanceolate or spear-shaped, acute at 
tip. Gills yellowish olive, with obliquely transverse laminae. Gizzard 
yellowish, the muscles laid like a coil of spun-yarn, in layers transverse 
to one another. 

The pen (Plate XIII, figs. 4, 5) was gone from the first specimen 
(No. 1) and broken in the others. It was found unattached in the dor- 
sal cavity. It had a thickened median rib, but becomes very thin at 
the sides, and is divided by sharp, stiff ribs or folds into three longi- 
tudinal areas on each side (Plate XIII, fig. G). The posterior end is 
one-sided, funnel-shaped close to the tip, which is inserted into a long, 
round, thick, firm, cartilaginous cone, which tapers to a point posteri- 

* No valve is shown in Mr. D all's sketches. 



[67] CEPIIALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 277 

orly. The portion of the pen (of No. 2) preserved* and forwarded to 
me includes all the cone and a part of the posterior end of the quill-por- 
tion, attached within the concavity of the cone (Plate XIV, fig. 7). 
The anterior end of the cone is concave and very obliquely terminated, 
the dorsal side extending forward some distance along the dorsal side 
of the quill. The whole length of the preserved cone (doubtless much 
shrunken by the alcohol) is 44.5 cm (17.5 inches); of the oblique anterior 
termination 15.25 cm (6 inches); greatest diameter 4 cm (1.6 inches). The 
cone is nearly round, firm, translucent, brownish or deep amber-color, 
and composed of numerous distinct concentric layers. The concavity of 
the anterior end firmly embraces the remnant of the funnel of the quill, 
which has numerous small costse converging to the apex ; two of the 
dorsal costae are much stronger than the rest, forming a strong ridge 
each side of the smaller median costa, which lies in a deep median de- 
pression or furrow. 

The tentacular arms had lost their clubs j but the part remaining was 
cylindrical, 2.5 inches in diameter. The other arms were somewhat 
thicker. The few suckers remaining on them were attached by slender 
pedicels, and arranged in two alternating rows ; they were furnished 
with horny rims having the edge entire, except where irregularly broken 
away ; those of the distal part of the arms were gone. 

The portion of the arm of the second specimen preserved in alcohol 
and sent to me came from the base of the left ventral arm. It is 65 mm in 
length ; diameter from inner to outer surface, not including marginal 
membrane, 45 n,m j including membrane, G4 mm . It is well rounded on the 
inner face, but more flattened on the upper side, while the outer surface 
is broadly rounded ; the outer angle has a strong, thick marginal mem- 
brane, 19 mm wide (see section of this arm, Plate XIV, fig. 8, c). The 
sucker-bearing surface is broad, with a slight marginal membrane along 
each margin (&, & 1 ), rising into broad, flat, somewhat thickened, blunt 
lobes alternating with the suckers. Two alternating -rows of firm, 
smooth, rather irregular-shaped tubercles run along the median region, 
between the rows of suckers, with which they alternate, on each side. 

This segment of the arm still bears five suckers, which appear to rep- 
resent the first, second, and fourth pairs, though there may possibly 
have been others before the first of these. They are all similar, rather 
small in proportion to the arm, round, but little oblique, decidedly con- 
vex beneath, and with a rather long, slender pedicel (fig. 8, a). *The 
horny marginal rings are dark brown, yellowish at the thin edge, which 
is entire and nearly smooth, except where broken. The largest of these 
remaining suckers are 8.5 inm in diameter outside ; aperture, 5 m " ; height 
of cup, 7 mm ; length of pedicel, 3 mm . 

" * Mr. Dall states that he attempted to dry the rest of this pen, and that of No. 3, 
hut they turned brown, and then hlack, effloresced, and decomposed. Ho also states 
that the pen, when fresh, was translucent whitish, and that it changed to brownish 
yellow in the alcohol. 



278 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [68] 

The exposed parts of the jaws are black and polished; their internal 
laminae are reddish brown, becoming translucent yellowish toward the 
margins. 

The upper mandible (Plate XIV, fig. 5) has an elongated, tapered, 
considerably incurved, and sharp rostrum ; the notch is rather narrow 
and deep, and a well-developed, triangular, lateral groove runs down 
from the notch for some distance, its upper border being in line with 
the cutting edge of the rostrum. The anterior edge of the ala3, so far 
as normally exposed, is nearly straight, but slightly undulated. 

The lower mandible (Plate XIV, fig. 6) has the cutting edges of the 
rostrum slightly concave, with a slight notch close to the tip, which is 
small and incurved ; the notch at the base is broad and shallow, bor- 
dered externally by a slight, angulated ridge ; the exposed anterior 
edges of the alae have each two slight lobes, but are otherwise nearly 
straight ; the alae are broader toward the inner end, which is obtusely 
rounded. 

The lower mandible now measures, from the tip of the rostrum to the 
posterior dorsal border of the mentum, 13 mm ; tip to the extreme pos- 
terior end of the gular lamina, 50 mm ; to the dorsal angle of the same, 
33 mra ; tip to the inner end of the alee, 46 mm ; to the bottom of the notch, 
13 mm ; breadth of alae, 24 ram ; transverse breadth at notches, 12 mm . 

The upper mandible, from the tip of the beak to the end of the 
palatine lamina, is 71 m,n long; from tip of beak to end of frontal lamina, 
53 mm ; to bottom of notch, ll mm ; length of exposed (dark) portion of 
anterior edge of alae, 14 mm . 

The odontophore (Plate XIV, figs. 1-4) has a very broad, thin, mar- 
ginal membrane, yellowish white in color, becoming brown and thick- 
ened toward the dentigerous portion, where there is a row of very small, 
thin plates, bordering the outer row of teeth; the ventral portion of the 
dentigerous band is dark brown, regularly convex, and narrowed grad- 
ually to the obtuse end; the dorsal portion is considerably longer, 
abruptly bent backward, with the borders incurved, gradually decreas- 
ing to the posterior end ; on this part the teeth become much smaller 
and paler. 

The outer lateral teeth, on the anterior portion, are long, slender, 
sharp, and strongly curved ; the median ones are much shorter, with 
a sharp, strongly curved central point, and a very small, almost rudi- 
mentary denticle on each side; the inner laterals are a little longer than 
the median, with a stout incurved point ; on the outer side of its base 
there is a small denticle; the teeth of the two outer rows, on each side, 
are simple. 

Length of odontophore, from anterior bend to posterior tip of dorsal 
end, 22 mm ; to tip of ventral end, 14 mm ; breadth of lateral membrane, 
in middle, ll mrn ; of dentigerous belt, anteriorly, 3 mm . 

The following measurements were made by Mr. Dall froir the fresh 
specimens: 



[69] CEPIIALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 279 

Table of measurements (in inches). 



No. 1. 



No. 2. No. 3. 



Total length (to mutilated ends of tentacles) 
Base of arms to tip of tail (head and body) . . . 

Base of arms to edge of mantle (head) 

Edge of mantle to tip of tail (body) 

Length of tail-fins (insertion to tip) 

Breadth of tail-fins 

Length of ' pen ' 

Breadth of pen, in middle 

Length of tentacular arms (ends gone) 

Length of longest sessile arms (ends gone) .. 

Diameter of body 

Breadth between insertions of fins 

Diameter of eye 



80 + 
51 
5 
46 



110 + 
67 
6 
61 

33.75 
25.5 
60 



30 + 

30 + 

7.5 



43 + 
23.5 + 



3.5 

1 



167 + 

102 
10.5 
91.5 
48 
42 
89 

12.25 
61 + 
40 + 
18 
5 
1.25 



The generic affinities of this species must be regarded as still some- 
what doubtful, owing to the absence of the tentacular clubs, and most 
of the suckers of the sessile arms. The characters of the ' pen ; 7 of 
the dentition, especially of the median teeth ; of the nuchal frills ; of 
the siphon; and of the cartilaginous facets, constituting the mantle 
fastenings, all indicate that it belongs in the family Teuthidce, near 
Onychoteuthis. But in this family there is a great diversity as to the 
arrangement of the hooks and suckers constituting the armature of the 
arms. Some of these combinations are as follows: 



TEUTHIDJE. 

Sessile arms with suckers only. 

Onychia. — Tentacular club with two central rows of hooks, rows of 
small suckers along each margin, and a cluster of suckers and tubercles 
on the ' wrist.' Sessile arms with smooth suckers. (TeleoteuthisV.) 

Onychoteuthis (typical). — Tentacular club with two rows of hooks, 
with an apical cluster of suckers, and with a cluster of suckers and 
tubercles on the wrist. (Plate XV, figs. 6, a-c.) Sessile arms with 
suckers in two rows. 

Ancistroteuthis (typical). — Tw r o central rows of hooks, with proximal 
and apical suckers on the club, as in the last. Pen narrow, widest an- 
teriorly, with a long, terminal, hollow cone. 

Gonatus. — Tentacular club with one or two central median hooks, and 
with numerous, multiserial, small suckers, distally and laterally. Ses- 
sile arms with four rows of suckers, those of the two central rows larger, 
all serrate. 

Sessile arms with loth suckers and hooks. 

Abralia. — Tentacular club with two rows of alternating hooks and 
suckers in the middle, and with a cluster of suckers on the wrist and 
two rows at the tip. Sessile arms with hooks on the basal portion, and 
two rows of small suckers toward the tips. Pen dilated in the middle, 
hooded at the tip. Buccal membrane with suckers. 



280 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [70] 

Lestotcuthis (gen. nov.). — Tentacular club with numerous suckers, and 
few large central books. Sessile arms dissimilar; lower ones witb four 
rows of suckers; upper, witb two central rows of hooks, alternating witb 
marginal suckers on eacb side. Pen narrow, witb a sbort, bollow, term- 
inal cone. (Type, L. Kamtschatica Middendorff, sp.) 

Sessile arms with hooks only. 

Verania. — Tentacular club witb hooks; sessile arms witb books in two 
rows. Fins large and broad. Pen lanceolate. 

Acanthoteuthis. — Tentacular and sessile arms witb books. (Fossil.) 

Ancistrochirus. — Tentacular and sessile arms witb hooks in two rows. 
Pen lanceolate. Fins extending forward to edge of mantle. 

Enoploteuthis (typical). — Tentacular club with two rows of hooks, and 
with a cluster of small connective suckers and tubercles on the wrist. 
Sessile arms all with hooks, in two rows, extending to the tips. Fins 
short. Pen lanceolate. 

The position of Moroteuthis among the genera enumerated above must 
remain uncertain, for the present, because the armature of the tentacular 
club is unknown. But as it has smooth-ringed suckers on the ventral 
arms, at least at the base, it is probable that the genus is more nearly 
allied to the genera in the first group. But it differs very decidedly 
from all those named, in the form of the pen, and in having a long, solid 
cartilaginous cone, shaped like a large Belemnites, appended to its pos- 
terior end. In respect to this feature of the pen, this genus differs from 
all existing genera, and seems to have affinities with some of the meso- 
zoic fossil genera. 

In Onychoteuthis and Teleoteuthis* the pen has a more or less lanceo- 
late form, with a small posterior hood or hollow cone, without a solid 
appendix. Gonatus and Lestoteuthis not only differ from Moroteuthis in 
the pen, but have four rows of serrated suckers on the ventral arms. 

The genus Ancistroteuthis (type A. Lichtensteinii) agrees somewhat 
better in the form of the pen, which is widest near the anterior end, from 
whence it tapers back to a long and oblique, compressed, posterior, 
hollow cone, but without a solid appendix at the end. It has numerous 
longitudinal nuchal crests, like Onychoteuthis. 

It is not improbable that it may become necessary to establish a dis- 
tinct family for Moroteuthis, when its armature becomes known. In that 
case the family should be called Moroteuthidce. 

LESTOTEUTHIS Vcrrill, 1880. 

The characters of Lestoteuthis Kamtscliatica, which I proposed to take as 
the type of this generic group, are not yet fully known. The peculiari- 

* This name is proposed as a substitute for Onychia Lesueur, 1821 (non Hubner, 1816). 
The type-species is T. carribcea (Les., sp.). T. platyptera D'Orb. and T. Erohnii Verany 
appear to be additional species. 



[71] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 281 

ties in the armature, both of the sessile and tentacular arms, as given 
above (p. 70), are quite sufficient, however, to warrant its separation 
from all the other genera. Its pen, as figured, also differs from all others 
hitherto described. It is narrowest anteriorly, gradually and slightly 
expanding backward to the one-sided, conical hood or cone, which is not 
inserted into a solid terminal cone, as in Moroteuthis robusta, and the 
blade is relatively larger. The caudal fin is large, rhomboidal, and 
acute posteriorly, as in the latter. The tentacular club bears two large, 
abruptly curved, claw-like hooks in the middle, with numerous small 
suckers around them and on the proximal part. The length of the head 
and body of the original example was about 28 cm (11 inches). 

This genus is, in the character of its armature, very much like Gonatus 
Sars; the structure of its pen appears to be similar. 

Mr. Dall has described a small species (probably young) from the coast 
>f California, which may possibly belong to the same group. He re- 
ferred it doubtfully to OnychoteutMs (0. lobipennis Dall). 

A large Cephalopod, referred doubtfully to Ommastrephcs, has been re- 
corded from Japan and described by Dr. F. Hilgendorf.* It was taken 
on the east coast of Japan, north latitude 35° to 36°. It had been split 
open, salted, and partly dried, and the viscera had been removed. The 
ends or clubs of the tentacles were also gone. In this condition it was 
on exhibition in Yeddo. The following are the measurements given : Tip 
of tail to front edge of mantle, 186 cm (6 feet, 1 inch) ; mantle to mouth, 
about 41 cm (1 foot, 5 inches) ; longer sessile arms, 197 cm (6.5 feet); from 
tip of tail to tip of sessile arms, 414 cm ; total expanse across outstretched 
tentacles, 600 cm ; circumference of mantle (breadth as cut open), 130 cm ; 
length of caudal fin, G0 cm ; breadth of caudal fin in middle, 45 cm ; breadth 
of forward end of caudal fin, 28 cm j diameter of posterior tip, l cm ; tongue 
of funnel, 10 cm broad, 6 cm long; eye-opening, which was oblong-oval, 
without an obvious sinus, 19 cm ; distance between eyes, 26 cm ; diameter of 
oval skin of lip, 12 cm by 8 cra ; breadth of sessile arms, ll cm ; of tentacles, 
2 c,n to 3 cm ; diameter of horny rings of suckers on base, 1.5 cm ; height. 
0.7 mm ; number of denticles, 37. 

The great size, and especially the length, of the caudal fin in propor- 
tion to that of the mantle (£) render it probable that this was not a spe- 
cies of Arcldteuthis. The form of the fin, its length exceeding its breadth, 
is unlike the usual proportions in Ommastrephes and Sthenoteuthis. It 
is more probable that this specimen belonged to Moroteuthis robusta, or 
to some related form not yet characterized. 

D. — Note on large species of Octopus. 

Although this article relates specially to the gigantic species of ten- 
armed Cephalopods, it may not be amiss to add a few lines in respect to 
species of Octopus that attain large dimensions. It is certain, however, 

*Mittheilungen dor deutschen Gesellschaft fur Natur und Viilkerkunde Ostasiens. 
Herausgegeben von dem Vorstande, 1st Heft, p. 21, May, 1873, Yokohama, Japau. 
See also American Journal of Science, vi, p. 237, September, 1873. 



282 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [72] 

that none of the latter that have hitherto been examined by naturalists 
reach dimensions to be compared with those of the species of Architeu- 
l/tis, Moroteuthis robitsta, and their allies. 

The common Octopus of the west coast of North America (0. punctatus 
Gabb) is one of the largest of its tribe hitherto studied. According to 
Mr. W. H. Dall,* it occurs abundantly at Sitka, and there " reaches a 
length of 1G feet, or a radial spread of nearly 28 feet, but the whole 
mass is much smaller than that of the decapodous Cephalopods of lesser 
length. In the Octopus above mentioned the body would not exceed G 
inches in diameter and a foot in length, and the arms attain an extreme 
tenuity toward their tips." Dr. W. O. Ayres tells me that he has often 
seen this species exposed for sale in the markets of San Francisco 
(where it is eaten chiefly by the French), and that specimens with the 
arms 6 or 7 feet long are common. A smaller specimen, presented to the 
museum of Yale College, was over 4 feet long and weighed 14£ pounds. 

Prof. W. H. Brewer states that he has seen specimens in the San 
Francisco markets which spread 14 feet across the outstretched arms. 

The common Octopus vulgaris ("poulpe" or " devil-fish") of the Medi- 
terranean, Bermuda, and West Indies sometimes grows to a somewhat 
formidable size. According to Verany, the largest one seen by him was 
9 feet long and weighed 25 kilograms (Tryon). This one was captured 
by a fisherman with his hands only. 

A large species, perhaps the same, occurs in the West Indies. Ac- 
cording to Prof. B. G. Wilder,t a correspondent, Mr. J. S. George, of 
Nassau, New Providence, mentions in a letter the occurrence there of 
an Octopus "10 feet long, each arm measuring 5 feet; the weight was 
estimated at between two hundred and three hundred pounds." It was 
found dead on the beach. This estimate of the weight is altogether cut 
of proportion to the measurements given, which would correspond to a 
weight of not more than thirty or forty pounds at the utmost. 

Specimens of similar size have been recorded from other parts of the 
world, while more or less fabulous accounts of more gigantic forms are 
numerous, especially among the early writers. Fragments of huge 
species of Octopus are said by many writers to have been vomited by 
wounded sperm-whales, but no scientific examination of any of these 
has been made. At present it seems most probable that all the large 
fragments recorded as being vomited by sperm-whales belong to species 
allied to Architeuthis. 

There is no satisfactory evidence that any of these species of Octopus ever 
intentionally attack man, or that any one has ever been seriously injured 
by them. They are rather sluggish and timid creatures, seeking shelter 
in holes and crevices among rocks. They feed mainly upon bivalve mol- 
lusks and Crustacea, but will also eat fish, and may, perhaps, like lobsters 
and crabs, devour the bodies of persons who have been drowned. There 

* American Naturalist, vol. vii, p. 485, 1873. 
t American Naturalist, vol. vi, p. 772, 1872 



[73] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 283 

is good reason to believe that most of the supposed cases of Octopus at- 
tacking and drowning persons (like that of an Indian girl of the Oregon 
coast, often cited), are merely instances of accidental drowning, or sui- 
cides, and that the presence of an Octopus is a post-mortem circum- 
tance. Their power and ferocity, as well as their size, have often been 
excessively exaggerated. 

Part II. — Monographic revision of the Cephalopods of the 
"Atlantic coast, from Cape Hatteras to Newfoundland. 

The number and variety of Cephalopods known to inhabit this coast 
have been very much increased within a few years, principally through 
the investigation of the marine fauna carried on by the United States 
Fish Commission during the past ten years. Many of the newly dis- 
covered species have been captured from time to time by the dredging 
parties of the Fish Commission. Several very interesting new forms 
have been presented to the Fish Commission by the enterprising and 
intelligent fishermen of Gloucester, Mass., many of whom have, during 
the past three years, saved and brought home at all .seasons large col- 
I lections of marine animals of all kinds, including a very large number 
of new and strange species, of the greatest interest.* Mr. A. Agassiz, 
while dredging in deep water off the coast, on the Coast-Survey steamer 
" Blake," last season, obtained three additional new forms, which are also 
included in this revision. Descriptions of most of these new species 
have already been published by the writer in various articles in the 
American Journal of Science, Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology (vol. viii), Transactions of the Connecticut Academy (vol. v) r 
and Proceedings of the National Museum (vol. iii), but many additional 
details and some new figures have here been added. 

In this revision thirty-two species are included ; of these, two are 
probably extralimital. Of the thirty species of Cephalopods that we 
now know to belong to this fauna, twenty-five have been added to it 
within the past ten years; of these, eighteen species have been de- 
scribed as new by the writer; among these were six new genera. 

Subclass DIBRANCIIIATA, or ACETABULIFERA. 

Cryptodibrancltiaia Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. xxxii, p. 172, 1824. 
Acetaiulifercs Fdrns. & D'Orb., 1835; Cdphal. Ace^tab., pp. v, xxxv, 1. 

D'Orbigny, Hist. Cuba, Moll., p. 5, 1853. 
Dibranchiata Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. ii, p. 103, 1838. 
Antepedia Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., Moll., vol. i, p. 3, 1849. 

Branchial cavity large, containing a single pair of large, highly spe- 
cialized gills, each having a muscular branchial heart at its base. Siphon 
used in locomotion, with or without an internal valve, completely tubu- 

* The number of separate lots thus brought in and presented to the Fish Commis- 
sion amounts to over 900. Besides the invertebrates, many new and remarkable 
fishes are included in these donations. 



284 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [74] 

lar. The interior lateral or basal lobes of the siphon are flexible, and 
capable of acting as valves to close the opening of the branchial sac by 
pressing against the inside of the mantle when it contracts. The jet ot 
water thus forced through the siphon by its reaction propels the ani- 
mal backward or forward, or in any direction opposite to that in which 
its flexible extremity may be turned. 

Body varying in form from subspherical to long-conical. Sides often 
with fins. Mantle destitute of an external shell. The internal shell, 
when present, is dorsal,* and may be either horny or calcareous. Sessile 
arms in four pairs, around the head, provided on the inner surface with 
suckers or with hooks (modified suckers). Eyes highly developed. 
Jaws in the form of a sharp, horny beak, the upper jaw shutting into 
the lower one ; jaws hollow and supported by strong internal cartilages. 
Odontophore usually with seven (rarely five) rows of sharp teeth. An 
ink-sac opening near the end of the intestine, at the base of the siphon. 

The exposed surfaces of the body, fins, head, and arms contain within 
the skin small sacs or vesicles filled with bright-colored fluids of differ- 
ent colors, but most commonly various shades of purple, brown, red, 
and yellow. These vesicles are known as chromatophores. They are 
under the control of muscular fibers, which are so attached to them 
that, by contracting, they cause the chromatophores to expand into 
larger, flat, and more or less round spots of color. By the flattening 
and enlargement of the chromatophores the colored fluids are spread 
out into thin layers, making them appear of lighter tints. Sometimes 
the chromatophores overlap each other in several strata when expanded. 
When their muscular fibers relax the vesicles contract into minute 
spherical specks, and then appear much darker in color, but are more 
widely separated, so that the general color is paler. By this means 
all these animals are able to effect rapid changes in their colors for 
purposes of concealment, or in accordance with varying conditions of 
nervous activity. The muscular fibers of the chromatophores are con- 
trolled by the nerves of the mantle, and contract by reflex action, and 
also, apparently, in accordance with the will of the creature. Their con- 
tractility often persists for some time after the death of the animal. 
When freshly-caught specimens are put into alcohol the chromato- 
phores expand. 

* In this article, the terms used in describing the form and relations of parts are 
those in most common use among systematic writers on this group of animals. No 
attempt is here made to decide the still unsettled questions in regard to the homolo- 
gies of the arms and siphon with the foot or other parts of Gastropods, nor to apply 
the later views of Huxley and others as to the general axial relations of the body. 
For my present purposes I have thought it best to call the oral region the anterior 
end and the opposite extremity the posterior end; when the animal is in its normal 
horizontal position, the side which is uppermost is called the dorsal side and the lower 
surface is called the ventral. The prehensile organs are called sessile arms and tenta- 
cular arms, and tho locomotive tube, is called the siphon, without reference to the 
homologies of these organs. 



[75] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 285 

This subclass includes two very natural divisions : 

Becacera. — Having inside the circle of eight sessile arms, two long ten- 
tacular arms, with suckers or hooks on the distal portion. Suckers ped- 
iceled, and with horny rims. Body elongated, always with lateral fins. 

Octopoda. — Having only the eight sessile arms. Suckers not pedi- 
celed, and destitute of horny rings. Body rounded, rarely finned. 

Order I— DECACERA, or DECAPODA. 

Decapoda Leach, Zool. Miscel., vol. iii (t. Gray) 1817 (non Latr., 1806). 

H. & A. Adams, Genera, vol. i, p. 25. 

D'Orbigny, Tabl. M6th. des Cephal., p. 57, 1826; Hist. Cuba, Moll., p. SO, 1853. 
Decacera Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. xxii, 1824; Man. Mai., p. 366, 1825. 
Sephinia Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., Moll., vol. i, p. 35, 1849. 

Body generally elongated, often acute posteriorly. Head furnished 
with ten prehensile arms, bearing pediceled suckers or hooks. Four 
pairs of arms are shorter, tapering from the base, and covered with 
rows of suckers along the whole length of the inner face ; the fifth pair 
of arms, known as tentacles or tentacular arms, differing from the rest, 
and arising from a pair of pits or pouches, are situated between and in- 
side the bases of the third and fourth pairs of sessile arms, and have a 
long and more or less slender and contractile peduncular portion and a 
terminal, usually enlarged, sucker-bearing portion. Beak at the end of 
a protractile pharynx, surrounded with a loose outer buccal membrane, 
which is usually seven-angled and united to the arms by bridles. Siphon 
usually with an internal valve. Eyes movable in the sockets, with or 
without lids. Ears behind the eyes. Head united to the mantle either 
by a dorsal and two lateral, free, connective cartilages or by three mus- 
cular commissures. Mantle cylindrical or conical, supported by an in- 
ternal dorsal, horny l pen,' or by a calcareous internal dorsal shell or 
1 bone;' always with muscular fins along each side, which are usually 
united posteriorly. Male with one or more of the arms hectocotylized. 

This group has been divided by D'Orbigny into the following two 
tribes, which are, perhaps, more convenient than natural : 

Oigopsidce. — Eyes naked in front, furnished with free lids, with or 
without an anterior sinus; pupils circular. 

Myopsidce. — Eyes covered by transparent skin, sometimes with a thick- 
ened fold, forming a lower lid; pupils crescent-shaped. 

0IG0PSID.E. 
Family TEUTHIDJ3 Owen (restricted). 

Tmthidw (pars) Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. ii, 1838. 

Teulkidce (par*) D'Orbigny, Cephal. Ac^tab., p. xxxvii (Introduction), p. 328, 1835-'48. 
Onychoteuthidcv (pars) Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., Moll., vol. i, p. 45, 1849. 
II. & A. Adams, Genera, vol. i, p. 30. 

Tentacular arms furnished with sharp horny claws or hooks, which 
correspond with peculiarly and highly modified sucker-rings ; true den- 



286 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [76] 

ticulated suckers may or may not accompany the hooks; tip of arm 
with a cluster of small, smooth-rimmed suckers ; proximal part of club 
with a mixed group of connective tubercles and smooth-ringed suckers, 
by which the arms can be fastened together and used in concert. Ses- 
sile arms with hooks, with suckers, or with both. Eyes with free lids 
and a siuus. Mantle united to neck by three simple, movable, con- 
nective cartilages. Siphon with a valve and with dorsal bridles. Nu- 
chal or alfactory crests well developed; sometimes several longitudinal 
crests exist on each side. Pen thin, lanceolate, usually with a posterior 
hooded portion, and sometimes terminated by a solid cartilaginous cone. 
Odontophore in Cheloteuthis and Gonatus with only five rows of teeth, 
in others with seven rows. 

Eor a synopsis of the hitherto-described existing genera of this 
family, see pp. 69, 70. 

Owen's family Teuthidw included nearly all the Decacera having horny 
internal shells. As adopted by D'Orbigny, it included OmmastrepMdcc 
and Teuthidce. 

CHELOTEUTHIS Verrill. 
Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v, p. 234, Jan., 1881; Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. viii, 
p. 109, 1881. 

Allied to Mnoploteuihis, Lestoteuthis, and Abralia, but with a more 
complicated armature than either of these genera. Ventral arms with 
denticulated suckers, arranged in four rows ; other arms have two me- 
dian rows of sharp incurved claws, (distal portions have lost their arma- 
ture). Tentacular arms long, with broad clubs, strongly keeled exter- 
nally, and with series of connective suckers and tubercles extending for 
some distance along the inner surface of the arms. Tentacular club pro- 
vided with a marginal row of connective suckers, alternating with tuber- 
cles, along one margin ; with a central row of unequal hooks, some of them 
very large ; with submedian groups of small, slender-pediceled suckers 
(or hooks) j with marginal series of small suckers; and with several 
rows of small suckers covering the prolonged distal portion of the face. 
Connective cartilages on the base of the siphon simple, long- ovate ; the 
corresponding processes of the mantle are simple longitudinal ridges. 
Odontophore with five rows of teeth. 

The caudal fin, pen, and many other parts are destroyed. 

Cheloteuthis rapax Verrill. 

Cheloteuthis rapax Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v, p. 234, pi. 49, figs. 1-1/, 
Jan., 1881 ; Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. viii, p. 110, Cephalopoda, pi. 
2, figs. 1-1/, 1881. 

Plate XV, figures 3-3/, 4. 

The body was rather short and thick, tapering rapidly backward. 
The caudal fin appears to have been short-rhomboidal, but this is un- 
certain. The siphon is large, with an internal valve. The connective 
cartilages (fig. 3 e) on the sides of the base of the siphon are long- 
ovate, with the posterior end widest and rounded. The corresponding 
cartilages on the inside of the mantle are simple longitudinal ridges. 



[77] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 287 

Head large, with very large eyes ; pupils round. The arms are long and 
taper to slender tips ; the dorsal ones are smaller and shorter than the 
others 5 the lateral and ventral pairs are nearly equal in length, and 
about as long as the mantle ; the ventral arms are somewhat more slender 
than the lateral ones. All the arms appear to have borne slender-pedi- 
celed claws or hooks, with strongly incurved horny points, but only the 
fleshy parts of these are left, in most cases, and the tips of the arms are 
bare. On the ventral arms these hooks were smaller, and in four rows ; 
the fleshy portion of these consists of a small rounded head with lateral 
lobes, running up, on one side, into an incurved beak, so that the shape 
is somewhat like a bird's head. On the other arms the claws were in 
two rows only, but they were much larger ; in a few cases, on the lateral 
arms, the horny claws are left. These are strongly compressed and 
deeply imbedded in the muscular sheath, only the sharp incurved point 
projecting (figs. 3 c, 3 d). 

The tentacular arms (fig. 3) are long and strong, their length being 
more than twice that of the sessile arms. The club is rather stout, long, 
decidedly expanded, and has an elevated, crest-like keel on the distal 
half of its dorsal surface ; this keel rises abruptly at its origin, and is 
colored on the outer side, but white on the face next to the inner surface 
of the club. The club is broadest near its base, the distal third is nar- 
row and the tip rounded. The armature is remarkable : in the middle 
line there is a row of six medium-sized hooks (fig. 3, a") 7 followed by two 
much larger ones (a, a'), situated near the middle ; these have lost their 
horny claws; series of minute, slender-pediceled suckers run along the 
club, either side of the median line, and beyond the large hooks these 
rows unite and entirely cover the face of the distal third of the club 
(fig. 3, d), there forming about eight rows ; at the tip there is a circular 
group of minute suckers (d') ; toward the base of the club the lower 
side is expanded and bears a row of five peculiar suckers (fig. 3, c), 
having a marginal series of slender, minute, incurved spinules ; these 
suckers have very thick basal processes, which are appressed and di- 
rected toward the central line of the club, bearing the suckers on their 
inner ends, attached by short pedicels ; round connective tubercles alter- 
nate with these suckers, in the same row j beyond these there is a trian- 
gular marginal group of slender-pediceled suckers (c), of about the same 
size; other rows of minute pediceled suckers (or hooks) occupied the 
submedian area between the marginal ones and the central line, which 
is indicated by a strong white cord. The opposite margin of the club 
appears to have borne several rows of small suckers, but this part is 
badly injured. A band of minute papillae (e'), apparently the remnants 
of suckers and alternating connective tubercles, extends downward for 
more than half the length of the tentacular arm ; at first this band is 
like a continuation of the connective suckers and tubercles on the margin 
of the club, and the papillae are apparently in a single row, while the 
surface near them is crossed by fine transverse grooves or furrows j but 



288 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [78] 

farther down the arms there may have been two or more rows of suck- 
ers which have been destroyed. 

The beak (fig. 3/) is somewhat compressed, with very acute mandi- 
bles. The upper mandible has the point long and regularly incurved, 
with the cutting edge regularly arched, without a basal notch, and form- 
ing, with the anterior edge, an obtuse angle. Lower mandible with a 
strongly incurved tip and regularly concave cutting edge, having no 
basal notch and only a slight tooth on the anterior border, which forms 
a very obtuse angle with the cutting edge. The radula has but live 
rows of teeth (PI. XV, fig. 4), the inner lateral rows being absent. 

Color mostly gone, but where still remaining, as on the back of the 
tentacular club, it consists of minute purple chromatophores ; inner sur- 
face of sessile arms purplish brown. 

Measurements (in millimeters). 

Length of body 78 

Length of dorsal arms 58 

Length of second pair of arms 80 

Length of third pair of arms 87 

Length of ventral arms 85 

Length of tentacular arms 225 

Length of club 29 

Breadth of club 7 

Breadth of tentacular arms 5 

Breadth of lateral arms at base G 

Breadth of dorsal arms 5 

Diameter of eyeball i9 

Length of connective cartilages on siphon 14 

Breadth of the same 4 

A specimen of this remarkable squid, in very bad condition, was taken 
from the stomach of a fish trawled at station 893, in 372 fathoms, about 
100 miles south of Newport, K. I. It was accompanied by a specimen 
of Ommastrephes illecebrosus, in a similar condition. It had lost its pen, 
its epidermis, and most of the horny hooks and sucker-rings ; the head 
was detached from the body and the caudal fin was nearly destroyed ; 
the eyelids were gone, but the eyeballs remained. The description must, 
therefore, remain imperfect till other specimens can be obtained. 

Several loose horny hooks of a Cephalopod belonging to this family 
were also dredged in the same region. They resemble the hooks of 
Onychoteuthis Banlcsii (Plate XV, fig. 4), but may have belonged to C. 
rapax. A larger one, from station 892, is bent nearly into a half circle. 

GONATUS Steenstrup (f non Gray). 

?Gonahi8 Gray, Catalogue Mollusca Brit. Mus., vol. i, Cepkal. Antep., p. 67, 1840 (char- 
acters inaccurate). 
\ H. & A. Adams, Genera, vol. i, p. 36. 

Body slender, tapering; caudal fins short, broad, united posteriorly. 
Pen narrow anteriorly, thin and lanceolate posteriorly, with a terminal, 
hood-like expansion. Ventral arms with four rows of small, pedicellated 
suckers; others with two larger median rows, with a horny ring, having 



[70] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 289 

a single large hooked claw on the outer edge; outer suckers with longer 
pedicels, the horny ring with several small denticles. All the suckers 
have a circle of minute scales or plates around the aperture. Tentacles 
long and slender, the terminal part dilated into a narrow club, with a 
membranous keel ; the club is covered with minute denticulated suckers, 
like the outer ones of the sessile arms; smaller suckers extend for some 
distance along the arm; center of the club with one or two larger 
claws, resembling the median ones of the lateral arms, their horny rings 
having a small aperture, and bearing, on the outside, a large claw-like 
hook. Odontophore with only five rows of teeth. 

By Dr. J. E. Gray the free eyelids of this species were overlooked, 
and on that account he referred it to the family Loligidce. H. and A. 
Adams have made the same mistake. Their statement that the siphon 
has no valve is equally erroneous. 

Gonatus Fabricii Steenstrup. 

Sepia loligo Fabricius, Fauna Grcenlandica, p. 358, 1780 (good description). 
Onychoteuthis Fabricii Lichtenstein, Isis, vol. xix, 1818. 

Moller, Kroyer'sTidss.,vol. iv, p. 76, 1842. 
Loligo Fabricii Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. xxvii, p. 138, 1823. 
Onychoteuthis? amcena Moller, Ind. Moll. Gronl., Kroyer's Tidss., vol. iv, p. 76, 

1842 (young?). 
Gonafusamrcna Gray, Catal. Moll. Brit. Mus., vol.i, Cephal. Antep.,p. 68, 1849? 

H. & A. Adams, Genera, vol. i, p. 36, pi. 4, fig. 2?). 
Gonatus amcenus G. O. Sars, Moll. Reg. Aret. NorvegisB, p. 336, pi. 31, figs. 1-15 
(excellent), pi. xvii, fig. 2 (dentition), 1878. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. i, p. 168, pi. 73, fig. 290 (descr. from Gray, fig. from 

H. & A. Adams, General). 
Verrill, Proc. Nat. Mus., vol. iii, p. 362, 1880 ; Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v, p. 
237, pi. 45, figs. 1-1 b, 2-2 d, Jan., 1881. 

Plate XV, figures 1-lc, 2-2d. 

Body small, elongated, rather slender, tapering backward; front 
dorsal edge of mantle extending forward in a blunt lobe or angle. 
Caudal fin very short, but broad, nearly twice as broad as long, the 
front edges extending forward beyond the insertion as rounded lobes ; 
lateral angles subacute; posterior angle obtuse. Arms stout and rather 
long, the dorsal and ventral pairs stouter than the lateral. Ventral 
arms bear four rows of small suckers; on the others the median rows 
(2 c, 2 d) are larger than the outer ones, with shorter pedicels, and the 
very oblique horny ring, having a small opening, is developed into a 
single, large, hooked tooth on the outer side; around the inner side of 
the aperture there is a partial circle of small flat scales, in several rows. 
The suckers of the outer rows (2 a, 2 b) are about two-thirds as large, 
with longer and more slender pedicels and with lateral apertures ; the 
horny ring has about five acute-triangular teeth on the outer margin, 
and there are several rows of small scales forming a broad circle entirely 
around the aperture. The tentacular arms are long and slender, with 
broader cluibs, which bear a large number of minute suckers, much like 
S. Miss. 59 19 



290 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES [80] 

the outer ones of the arms, arranged in many crowded rows, some of 
which extend beyond the club along the arm; in the middle (fig. 1 b) 
there are usually one or two larger suckers (absent in our specimen), in 
which the horny ring has a small aperture, and is developed into a large 
hook- shaped claw on one side, and a complete circle of small plates sur- 
rounds the horny ring. 

Pen thin and delicate, narrow anteriorly, with slender lateral ribs ; 
posteriorly, for more than half the whole length, expanded into a thin 
lanceolate form ; posterior tip laterally dilated, with the edges involute 

(fig- 1). 

A young specimen of this species, in nearly perfect preservation, was 
recently presented to the United States Fish Commission by Capt. Will- 
iam Demsey and crew of the schooner " Clara F. Friend." It was taken 
from the stomach of a cod, off Seal Island, Nova Scotia. 

Greenland (Fabricius, Moller). Porsangerfjord, northern coast of Nor- 
way (G. O. Sars). Coast of Finmark, in stomach of "coal-fish," abun- 
dant (Gr. O. Sars, Norwegian Exp. of 1878). 

D'Orbigny, Gray, and other writers have erroneously referred the 
Onychoteuthis Fabricii (based on the Sepia loligo of Fabricius) to 0. 
Banlcsii. The detailed Latin description given by Fabricius applies 
perfectly to the present species, and not at all to 0. Baniksii. He de- 
scribes the four rows of suckers on the short arms, the small suckers and 
two large central hooks on the tentacles, the short caudal fin, etc. 

Family OMMASTREPHID^. 

Teuthidce (pars) D'Orbig., Cephal. Ace"tab., pp. xxxvii, 328. 
Onychoteuthidw (pars) Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., Moll., vol. i, p. 45,1849. 
OmmastrepMdce Gill, Arrangement Fam. Mollusks, p. 1, 1871. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. i, p. 107, 1879. 

Body elongated, tapering to a point posteriorly, shorter and less acute 
in the female, often very large (Architeuthis). Sessile and tentacular 
arms without hooks, but provided with suckers, having denticulated 
horny rings; tentacular arms with an expanded club, having four rows 
of suckers on its middle portion, those in the two central rows larger; 
proximal portion with or without smooth-ringed connective suckers and 
tubercles ; tip with a cluster of smooth-ringed suckers. Siphon in a deep 
groove, attached by four bridles and strengthened by a median longi- 
tudinal dorsal band, free in the middle; an internal valve. Eyes with a 
round pupil ; lids free, with a distinct anterior sinus. Nuchal or audi- 
tory crests consist of three longitudinal membranes on each side, united 
by a transverse one in front. Connective cartilages of the mantle three; 
the lateral ones in the form of a longitudinal ridge, with a smaller trans- 
verse one across its posterior end; corresponding cartilages on the siphon 
long- triangular, with a longitudinal and a transverse groove. Two ovi- 
ducts. Hectocotylized arm of the male either the right ordeft ventral. 

Pen usually very narrow along the middle portion, and with three 



[81] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 291 

ribs; anterior and posterior portions expanded, the latter with the edges 
involute, and forming a terminal hood or hollow cone. 

OMMASTREPHES D'Orbigny (restricted). 

0>nmastrc})hc3 (pars) D'Orbigny, Voy. Am. Merid., 1835; Cephal. Ace*tab., p. 341. 
Ulcx and Todarodes Steenstrnp, Oversigt K. Dansko Vidensk. Selsk. Forliandl., 1880, 
p. 90. 

Body elongated, pointed posteriorly. Caudal fin broad, transversely 
rhomboidal. Pen narrowed behind the middle, with a strong median 
rib and large marginal ribs on each side; near the posterior end thin and 
concave, expanded into a lanceolate form ; at the tip involute and slightly 
hooded. Head large. Eyes with lids, having a distinct sinus in front. 

Arms stout, the third pair usually stoutest, with a dorsal keel ; all the 
arms have marginal membranes, strengthened by transverse muscular 
ridges, exterior to the suckers. Suckers of the arms deep and oblique, 
with horny rims, which are strongly denticulate on the outer margin, 
the median tooth usually largest. Tentacular arms rather long and con- 
tractile, stout, with a moderately wide terminal club, which has along its 
middle region two rows of large central suckers, and a row of smaller 
marginal ones alternating with them on each side; proximal part of 
club with small denticulated suckers only; distal part of club with four 
to eight rows of small denticulated suckers. 

Siphon-tube placed in a groove on the under side of the head, and 
attached to the head by a lateral bridle on each side behind the eyes, 
and by a pair of bridles on its dorsal surface, at the bottom of the 
depression in which it is lodged. Terminal orifice transversely elliptical, 
furnished with an internal valve. The depression back of the siphon 
is smooth in our species, in some other species longitudinally furrowed. 

Mantle-fastenings ("apparatus of resistance"), situated on the basal 
extension of the siphon, consist of two large triangular bosses, each 
with an elongated and somewhat ear-shaped longitudinal fosse, and a 
shallower transverse one.^ On each side of the inner surface of the 
mantle is a corresponding T-shaped cartilage, consisting of a short, 
raised, longitudinal ridge, swollen posteriorly, and a lower transverse 
ridge, which fit closely into the fosses on the siphon. The dorsal side 
of the head has a median longitudinal facet, that fits upon its coun- 
terpart on the mantle, over the anterior part of the pen, which gives it 
support. 

The nuchal crests are formed by a transverse tegumentary fold 
behind the eyes, from which run backward, on each side, three longi- 
tudinal lamella?, which are delicate, and have a sensory (perhaps olfac- 
tory) function. 

Buccal membrane seven-angled, thin, corrugated on the inner surface, 
destitute of suckers. 

Branchial auricles and gills large. Liver massive, stomach and ccecal 
appendage voluminous. 



292 REPORT'OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [82] 

The male lias one of the ventral arms (which may be either right or 
left in our species) hectocotylized near the tip, by an enlargement and 
flattening of the bases of the sucker- stalks, while their cups become small 
or abortive. 

The female has oviducts developed on both sides, but they are small 
and simple, opening below the bases of the gills. Two symmetrical nida- 
mental glands, which are comparatively small and simple in our species, 
are situated behind the heart. 

Professor Steenstrup, in the paper last quoted in the above synonymy, 
has given a revision of the Ommastrephes group. He divides the old 
genus Ommastrephes into three genera, viz : I. Illex, which includes 
0. illecebrosusj with 0. Coindetii, the closely allied Mediterranean form ; 
II. Todarodes, which includes only the well-known Ommastrephes to- 
darus of the Mediterranean, to which he restores the name sagittatus 
Lamarck, which has been otherwise employed by other authors during 
half a century past ; III. Ommatostrephes (restricted), which corre- 
sponds exactly with Sthenoteuthis, established by me in a paper pub- 
lished several months earlier. (Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 222, Febru- 
ary, 1880.) In another part of his article he refers to my paper, which 
had been promptly sent to him, but he makes no reference whatever to 
the genus Sthenoteuthis, nor to the species S. megaptera, which, as a spe- 
cies, had been described by me still earlier (1878) and in far greater de- 
tail than most of the other species which he mentions, and which should, 
under his system of classification, bear the name of Ommastrephes me- 
gaptera. Nor does he point out any new characters for distinguishing 
this generic group other than those first given by me, viz, the presence 
of connective suckers and tubercles on the tentacular arms, proximal to 
the club, and the great development of the membranes on the lateral 
arms. Under the ordinary rule of nomenclature, by which the first cor- 
rect subdivision made in an older genus shall be entitled to priority, 
while the original name shall be retained for the remaining group, the 
name Sthenoteuthis ought to be maintained for the division first estab- 
lished by me, while Ommastrephes (restricted) should be retained for a 
part or all of the remaining species. 

While I very much regret this confusion of names, 1 perceive no way 
to remedy it except by the application of the usual rules of priority. I 
can certainly see no necessity for the imposition of new names when 
others equally good were already provided. As for the distinction be- 
tween lllex and Todarodes, it seems to me very slight and scarcely of 
generic importance. Illex is characterized by having eight rows of 
small suckers on the distal part of the club and a smooth siphon al 
groove. Todarodes is characterized by having four rows of distal suck- 
ers and some small grooves or furrows at the anterior end of the siphonal 
groove. 

But I have a species (which I refer to 0. Sloanei Gray) from Tasma- 
nia which agrees with Illex in having a smooth siphonal groove, but 



[83] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 293 

with Todarodes in having only four rows of distal tentacular suckers, 
and in the sharp denticulation of its large suckers. According to Steen- 
strup's system this would have to be made still another genus, or else 
his generic characters would have to be entirely changed in order to 
admit it into either of his groups. The existence of eight rows of suck- 
ers in Illex seems to be due merely to the crowding together of the or- 
dinary four rows ; nor can we attach much importance to the superficial 
furrows in the siphon-groove. Therefore, my own opinion is that Illex 
and Todarodes should be reunited and should retain the name Omma- 
strcphes* in a restricted sense. The absence of connective suckers and 
tubercles on the tentacular arms will be the most important diagnostic 
character to distinguish it from Sthenoteuthis and Architeuthis. Dosidicus 
is, perhaps, only an abnormal Sthenoteuthis with partially reproduced 
arms. 

Ommastrephes illecebrosus Verrill. — (Short-finned Squid.) 

Loligo illecebrosa Lesueur, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. ii, p. 95, plate 
not numbered, 1821 (figures incorrect). 
Blainville, Diet, des Sci. Nat., vol. xxvii, p. 142, 1823. 
Gould, Invert. Mass., ed. 1, p. 318, 1841 (habits). 
Loligo piscaiorum La Pylaie, Ann. des Sci. Nat., vol. iv, p. 319, 1825, pi. 16 

(habits as observed at Saint Pierre). 
Ommastrephes sagittatus (pars) D'Orbig., Cephal. Ac6tab., p. 345, pi. 7, figs. 1-3 
(after Lesueur). 
Gray (pars), Catalogue Moll. British Mus., parti, Cephal. Antep.,p. 58, 1849. 
Binney, in Gould's Invert. Mass., ed. 2, p. 510, 1870 (excl. syn.), pi. 26, figs. 

341-344 L341 is imperfect]* (not pi. 24, fig. 339.) 
Tryon (pars), Man. Conch., vol. i, p. 177, pi. 78, fig. 342 (very poor, after Le- 
sueur), pi. 79, fig. 343, 1879 (not pi. 78, figs. 341, 345). 
Ommastrephes illecebrosa Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., vol. iii, p. 281,1872 (syn- 
onomy); Report on Invert. Viney. Sd., &c, 1873, pp. 441 (habits), 634 
(descr.); Amer. Journ. Sci., vol. xix, p. 289, April, 1880; (illecebrosus) 
Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v, p. 268, pis. 27, 29, figs. 5,5 a, pi. 37, fig. 8, pi. 
38, fig. 2, pi. 39, figs. 2, 3 a 3 b, 1880-'81. 
Ulex illecebrosus Steenstrup, Oversigt K. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Forhandl., 
1880, p. 90 (author's separate copy, received August, p. 20). 

Plates XVIII-XX. 

Body, in the younger specimens, long and slender ; in the adults, es- 
pecially when the stomach is distended with food, and in the breeding 
season, rather stout ; most so in the large females ; in preserved speci- 
mens the apparent stoutness of the body depends very much upon 

* I can see no necessity for the proposed reformation of the original spelling of tliis 
word by changing it to Ommalortrephn, for usage justifies the elision of a syllable in 
so long a name. Tho original spelling has been unchallenged f^v over forty years. 

"This species is not well figured in tho last edition of Gould's Invertebrates. Plato 
25, fig. 339, which Mr. Binney refers to it, really represents a Loligo. Plate 26, figs. 
311-344 (erroneously referred to Loligopsis pavo), was doubtless made from a specimen 
of this species, but, if so, the long arms were incorrectly drawn, and confused with tho 
short arms. 



294 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [84] 

whether the mantle was in a contracted or expanded state when the 
animal died. Caudal fin trausversely rhomboidal, or broad spear-shape, 
about one-third wider than long, its breadth usually less than half the 
length of the mantle j the posterior borders are nearly straight and form 
nearly a right angle at the posterior end ; the anterior margins are some- 
what convexly rounded, and the front margin extends, at the sides of 
the body, considerably forward beyond the insertion of the fin. Katio 
of fin-length to mantle-length 1:2.48 to 1:3 (the latter in the young 
ones). Average proportions, in eight adult specimens, of fin-length 
(from insertion) to length of dorsal side of mantle, about 1 : 2.55 j breadth 
of fin to length of mantle, average, 1 : 1.90 ; length of head (dorsal edge 
of mantle to base of arms) to mantle-length, average, 1 : 7.15. 

The head is large, well rounded ; the exposed portion is shorter than 
broad, its breadth about equals that of the body, inordinary contraction ; 
its sides, in the region of the eyes, are somewhat swollen ; the under 
surface is flattened, and has a deep, nearly smooth excavation, semicir- 
cular, or rather semielliptical, in outline, to receive the dorsal half of the 
siphon- tube, which fits into it closely. 

The sides of the head, back of the eyes, have a rather prominent, 
transverse ridge, back of which the head suddenly narrows to the neck. 
The transverse ridges curve backward slightly and meet oh the dorsal 
side of the head, where they are less prominent. Three thin, lamelli- 
form, erect folds of the skin extend backward from the transverse ridge, 
on each side of the head ; of these the middle or lateral one is about iu 
line with the lower eyelid ; the upper one is, at its origin, about midway 
between the latter and the median dorsal line, but its posterior edge 
bends downward and joins that of the one below ; the lowest of the 
three is shorter and curves upward, and finally joins the middle one at 
its posterior edge. These folds form, therefore, in connection with the 
transverse ridge, two well-defined lateral areas or facets, of delicate and 
evidently very sensitive integument, placed just in front of the mantle- 
opening, on each side, where they must be bathed by the inflowing cur- 
rents of water. A pair of large special nerves extends directly from the 
cephalic ganglion to these organs. It seems probable to me, therefore, 
that they are the seat of a special sense, analogous to, if not identical 
with, that of smell. They are, also, closely connected with the organs 
of hearing, and the crests may be of some service in concentrating 
sound vibrations. A small auditory pore is situated within the lower 
facet. 

The pupils are round and the eyes are large, though the opening be- 
tween the lids is usually' rather small, especially in alcoholic specimens. 
In these the aperture is usually contracted to a small, obliquely-trans- 
verse, irregular-triangular form, or even to a narrow oblique slit ; when 
more open, the aperture is still usually somewhat angular j the anterior 
sinus is narrow and extends downward and forward. 
The eyelids form, when nearly expanded, an irregular oval, the longest 



[85] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 295 

diameter placed transversely and somewhat obliquely, while the narrow 
and deep sinus extends forward and somewhat downward. When partly 
closed (Plate XIX, fig. 4) the opening between the lids generally be- 
comes more oblong, and sometimes approaches a triangular form. 

The mantle is thick and very muscular j its anterior margin has a con- 
cave outline beneath, forming a slightly prominent angle on each side ; 
from these angles it advances somewhat to the slight median dorsal 
angle, which projects forward but little, and does not form a distinct 
lobe, and sometimes it is hardly noticeable, even as an angle, the trans- 
verse outline of the edge on the dorsal side being, in that case, nearly 
straight, or advancing a very little in the middle. 

The sessile arms are rather stout, tapering to acute tips. The dorsal 
arms are a little smaller and shorter than the others ; the second and 
third pairs are nearly equal in size and length, the second often a trifle 
the longer ; those of the fourth pair are usually intermediate in length 
between the first and second pairs. 

All the sessile arms are stout and armed with similar suckers. Along 
their inner angles, outside the suckers, they are all similarly provided 
with marginal membranes, which rise to about the same height as the 
suckers, on each side. Just proximal to each sucker, on the inner face 
of the arm, arises a thickened, transverse, muscular fold, that extends to 
the edge of the lateral membrane, which often recedes between their 
extremities, so as to have a scalloped outline. 

The dorsal arms are a little shorter and decidedly smaller than the 
others. The two lateral pairs of arms are stoutest and longest, and 
nearly equal, sometimes one pair and sometimes the other being longest. 
The ventral arms are a little longer than the dorsal and shorter than 
the lateral ones. The dorsal and upper lateral arms are trapezoidal in 
section, with the* inner face rather broad. The dorsal arms have a 
slightly elevated, median dorsal crest, commencing near the base and 
running to the tip. Those of the second pair have a broader, mem- 
branous fold on the lower outer angle, along the whole length. Those 
of the third pair are stouter than the others, and much compressed lat- 
erally, with the outer surface rounded, close to the base, but becoming 
compressed and keeled farther out, and having a high median ridge 
or crest along its middle region, becoming narrow toward the tip. The 
ventral arms are trapezoidal in section, with a narrow fold along the 
outer angle, which is acute, while the inner ventral angle is rounded. 

The tentacular arms (Plate XVIII, figs. 1 a, 2) are long; when extended, 
in fresh specimens, they reach back beyond the base of the caudal fin. 
They are rather stout, rounded-trapezoidal along the peduncular portion ; 
along the upper-outer angle a thin fold runs from the base to the tip, 
becoming on the back side of the club a wide carina, which often folds 
down obliquely toward the upper margin of the club; two less marked 
folds run along the inner angles, defining a narrow inner face along the 
whole length, but on this face there are no suckers, except close to where 



296 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. [86] 

it begins to expand into the broader face of the club; along the sides of 
the club the marginal membranes become much wider, rising to a level 
with the suckers, and have transverse muscular ridges opposite the 
marginal suckers, producing scalloped edges. 

In the male of our species one of the ventral arms (Plate XVIII, figs. 
3, 3 a) is strongly hectocotylized, somewhat as in Loligo. But in this 
species it is the right arm about as often as the left that is modified. 
Toward the tip of the arm, for some distance, the pedicels of the suckers, 
especially of the outer row, become shorter, and the bases of the sucker- 
stalks become larger, broader, and transversely compressed, while the 
cups of the suckers themselves decrease rapidly, till they become very 
minute, and on a number of the most flattened and largest stalks they 
are entirely abortive, in the case of the medium-sized males, but very 
close to the tip they may again become normal. The inner row of suck- 
ers is more or less modified in a similar manner; but fewer of the sucker- 
stalks are affected, and these are usually not so extensively altered, 
though in the larger males many of them are commonly destitute of cups 
and have the same flattened form as those of the outer row, with which 
they are usually united along the median line of the arm, forming a 
zigzag ridge. In a very large male (J), with the right ventral arm modi- 
fied, the alteration of the sucker-stalks becomes obvious at about the 
45th sucker, and there are, beyond .this, about 80 modified suckers, 
extending to the very tip ; of these, about 30, in the outer row, are repre- 
sented only by the flat, lamelliform bases of the sucker-stalks, without 
cups; on the inner row the small cups extend for about ten suckers 
farther than on the outer. The lamelliform processes are united medi- 
ally in a zigzag line along the entire tip. The modified partis about an 
inch in length. This arm is as long as its mate (though in other speci- 
mens it is often shorter); but it is broader, stouter, and more blunt at 
tip, both the inner face and lateral membrane being increased in width. 
The younger males, 4 to 6 inches long, have the corresponding suckers 
less extensively modified, and the cups, though very much reduced in 
size, are usually present on all or nearly all the stalks. 

The portion of the tentacles which bears suckers is always less than 
half the whole length. The relative size of the suckers varies greatly 
in both sexes, perhaps in connection with a renewal of their horny 
rings. But in some extreme cases the loss of the sucker, or of the en- 
tire club, and the regeneration of a new one will best explain this varia- 
tion. 

The club is long and moderately broad, gradually widening from the 
peduncular part of the arm, and tapering at the end to a rather blunt, 
flattened, and curved tip, which is strongly carinated on the outer side 
by a thin lamina. The suckers commence a short distance in advance 
of the expansion of the club. They are at first small, deep cup-shaped, 
and somewhat scattered, in two alternate rows, but all of these small 
ones have oblique rims, strongly' denticulated on the outer margin with 



[87] CEPHALOPODS OF NORTHEASTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 297 

four or five long incurved teeth, while the inner edge is smooth. Of the 
small ones, before the commencement of the two median rows of large 
suckers, there are from ten to fifteen. 

The middle region of the club is occupied by two rows of large suckers 
(fig. 2) and by a row of small marginal ones, on each side, alternating 
with the large ones. The uppermost of the two rows of large suckers 
contains one or two more suckers than the lower, and they are also 
larger. The number in the upper row is seven to nine, in the lower five 
to seven, the largest specimens having the greater number. Of these, 
the three to five middle ones in each row are decidedly the largest, and 
have the edge of the marginal ring nearly smooth and even ; at each 
end of each row the suckers diminish in size and the edge becomes 
denticulated, at first by the formation of narrow incisions, which leave 
broad, stout, blunt denticles ; but as the suckers dimmish in size these 
become longer, narrower, and more acute ; their inner margins remain 
smooth. The large suckers are broad and moderately deep, somewhat 
swollen below, and a little oblique. The marginal suckers are much 
smaller, shallower, more oblique, and have the entire rim finely and 
sharply denticulated, the denticles being longer and strongly incurved 
on the outer margin. Beyond the rows of large suckers there is, at first, 
a small group of sharply denticulated suckers, in four rows, resembling 
the marginal ones in form and size; but these rapidly decrease in size 
and become more crowded, till they api>ear to form eight crowded rows 
of very small suckers, with minute apertures, which occupy the entire 
face of the terminal section of the club to the tip ; at the extreme tip 
there is a cluster of small smooth-rimmed suckers, as usual. 

The suckers of the sessi